Lessons on Civic Education SS 2 First Semester – Edudelight.com
FIRST TERM SCHEME OF WORK CIVIC EDUCATION FOR SS2
|1||REVISION OF SS1 WORK|
|2||CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION |
– Definition of citizenship education
–Importance of citizenship education
–Duties and obligations of citizens to their communities
–Consequences of not performing our duties
|3||TRADITIONS AND BELIEFS|
– Definitions of traditions and beliefs
–Types of traditions and beliefs
–Skills necessary for preservation of our traditions and beliefs
|4||NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS, INTEGRITY AND UNITY –Definitions of (a) National consciousness (b) National integrity (c) National unity|
–How to promote (a) National consciousness (b) National integrity (c) National unity
|5||CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT –Definition of capitalist democracy |
–Characteristics of capitalist democracy
–Democracy and its contribution to National development
|6||POLITICAL PARTIES |
–Definition of political parties
–How they compete for power through elections (a) Campaign (b) Manifesto (c) Seminars
|7||EMPLOYMENT AND ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY |
–Definition of (a) Employment (b) Alleviation of poverty
–How does employment alleviates poverty/ importance of employment in alleviating poverty
–Factors promoting guaranteed employment
–Causes of poverty
–Consequences of poverty
|8||PROJECT WORK: VISITING NAPEP, NDE ETC|
– What promotes guaranteed employment (a) free education (b) medical career (c) responsible governance (d) popular participation
|9||POLITICAL APATHY |
– Types – refusal to register, refusal to vote, refusal to protest, refusal to identify with political parties
–Reasons for political apathy bad governance (b) unfulfilled political promises (c) rigging (d) thuggery (e) poverty (f) ignorance
|10||WHY LEADERS FAIL TO PROTECT THE INTEREST OF FOLLOWERS |
– (a) selfishness (b) party interest (c) tribalism
– Effects of failures to protects followers
|12 – 13||EXAMINATION|
TOPIC: CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Citizenship education is a field of study that expose students to the right values, positive attitudes, behaviours and democratic awareness that will enable them contribute meaningfully to the economic and social political development of the Nigeria federation and the world at large.
IMPORTANCE OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
- It encourages Nationalism, patriotism in students and hence national unity
- It teaches duties and rights and what to do it one’s right are abused
- It broaden students knowledge on government activities (actions and in-actions)
- It identifies the numerous problems of the society and how to practically solve them
- It teaches scholars to the good and law abiding followers and to posses responsible leadership qualities.
DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF CITIZEN TO THEIR COMMUNITY
Duties are constitutional responsibilities that active citizen carry out in exchange for the rights, freedoms and privileges they enjoy.
The duties of the citizens include:
- Obedient to traffic laws and regulations
- Declaration of one’s income to the lawful agencies and prompt payment of taxes
- Protecting the good name of Nigeria and rendering national services
Obligations are moral considerations on the part of the citizens to perform civic activities for the effective functioning of the country and the benefits of all
Unlike duties obligation are not imposed by laws rather they perform according to the dictates of their conscience.
Some obligation of active citizens include:
- Helping in exposing crimes and criminal tendencies
- Participation in communal activities and other activities like helping accident victims etc
- Caring for public utilities: to ensure maximum and effective usage of such facilities
- Donating to the course of less privileged and challenged in the society.
Consequences of non – performance of duties and obligations
- Slow progress
- Loss of lives
- Chaos and fighting
- Inability to achieve societal goals.
1.what should be the roles of a citizen towards national development
2.State five patriotic roles of a good Nigerian
TOPIC: TRADITIONS AND BELIEFS
Traditions imply customs, thoughts, practices, beliefs and activities that has been passed down through generations over a relatively long period informally.
Despite the long victory to traditions several new traditions have been evolved on purposes that are political, social or cultural.
Examples include official acknowledgement of holidays, socially meaningful clothes, like the lawyers wigs and traditional shrine regalia. They are also manifested through several norms like greeting, make – up, dressing, food and architecture
Beliefs are feelings of certainty that something exist, is true or is good. It can also be expressed as a view on political or moral cultural issues.
Skills / ways of promoting traditions and beliefs
1. Through the family: Traditions and beliefs can be showcased through the family. Parents and guardians majorly transmit cultures and beliefs to the next generation (children/wards). They should continuously teach their local language to their children as well as their norms and values.
2. Through the mass media: The impact of the media particularly the electronic media is in promoting our culture cannot be overemphasized. Radio and television go a long way in protecting the rich cultural heritage of Nigeria. They do these through music presentation, plays and dramas and other major programmes.
3. Observance of cultural and national days in schools: The government should stipulate that schools at all levels should observe organised national days at least once in a year. During such event, every member of the school community should wear traditional cloth and prepare local dishes.
4. Political leaders: They should reflect our culture in their dressing at home and abroad while camping out their official duties
It is quiet commendable that some states house of assembly in Nigeria have hear-marked a particular day of the week in which the house deliberations are done in vernacular – understood by everyone in the house.
5. Workshop and Exhibition: Frequent exhibitions of tradition cosmetic materials of adornment, local dishes etc. should come up for the benefits of youth in various schools.
TOPIC: NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS, INTEGRITY AND UNITY
National consciousness or nationalism is the strong feelings of pride belongingness, attachment and national awareness that an individual has towards his nation. It involves being devoted to one’s nation and advocating for its unity as well as struggle against depression and for equality. Nationalism also includes political participation and self rule (political independence).
National integrity involves being honest and possessing strong moral principles and etiquettes. It helps in breeding a people and nation that will not compromise standards thereby providing works of highest quality and encouraging growth and developments.
Whereas, national unity is the state of different (ethnics) groups joined together to form a single country or when the various ethnics groups in the country are in agreement act together for specific purposes.
Factors that promote National consciousness, integrity and unity.
1. Hospitality: It is caning for others regardless of their tribe or social background.
2. Inter – tribal marriage: this is the marriage conducted between persons of different tribes
3.Tolerance: this is needed because it makes us live together in unity, despite, diversity, religion, beliefs, characteristics etc.
4. Non – discrimination: this is being resolute not to be selective in laying others and it promotes love, unity and progress
TOPIC: CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Democracy is that system of government in which the political powers of a state lies in the people i.e. A is based in the popular will and the right of the minority is protected.
Capitalism is a type of government on the ideals that means of a production and the distribution of goods and services should be owned and controlled by private individuals to achieve optimal productivity. It is essentially to promote freedom of thought and voluntary actions creatively applied to production. It is based on private property right, profit maximization, cooperation, division of labour and economic justice. Those that believe in this principle are capitalist.
Capitalist democracy is a system in which the private sector produce goods and services for a free market and the government is elected to maintain and protect orderliness in the society.
Michael Novak defines it as an amalgam for three systems namely: (i) an economy based predominantly on free market and economic incentives.
A democratic polity and a classical – liberal moral cultural system which encourage pluralism.
Political liberty or democratic polity allows for reconstitutional system of governors in which both individuals and groups are represented. The moral cultural includes values like work ethnics, individual initiatives, honesty and respect for private property is encouraged by mediating institution like the family, church and other voluntary groups.
Characteristics of capitalist democracy
1. Economic Freedom: Individuals have the freedom to possess as much wealth as they desire, the government still makes laws guiding cooperate bodies and individual in the economic activities.
2. Separation of powers: There are a number of structures in place to check the abuse of power like the legislature e.g. the executive and judiciary.
3. Equal Right: citizens have equal right to participate directly and indirectly common political decision.
4. The existence of independent and active civil society: this groups activities influences vital decision of power brokers. In January, 2012 such pressure groups forced the government of the federation to reduce the retail price of petrol (PMS) per litre from N65to N140 and then to N97.
5. The existence of fundamental human rights
6. Periodic free and fair election
7. Party system
8. Freedom of press
9. The rule of law
10. Tolerance of opposition
Discuss comprehensively, democracy and its contributions to National development
State five features of capitalist democracy
TOPIC: POLITICAL PARTIES
Political parties are organised group of people with common beliefs, ideology and interest with the aim of contesting and winning elections. They assume the political power of a state through the following means:
How political parties compete with power
1. The parties must have clear programs of what they would do if elected into office. This is called the party manifesto.
2. Mobilization of members to work for the parties. This influences colleagues, neighbours and friends to vote for and support the party.
3. Voters educations: the parties educate electorate before the election on how to vote, their party logo, motto and slogan.
4. Selection of edible candidates: through primary elections, the party select a worthy candidate to vie for the political post during election
5. Campaign: this is carried out in all the areas that elections will hold. It involves present the candidates and the party manifesto the electorate.
Explain five functions of political party
TOPIC: EMPLOYMENT AND ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY
a. Employment: it is an arrangement of responsibilities between two parties. The employer (usually the boss and the owner of the business) and the employee (the person aired for specific duties which are condensed into a job)
b. Alleviation of poverty: this involves the various attempt to reduce the poverty level or actually get rid of poverty in the society.
Poverty is a civic problem and a state of lacking basic necessities of life. The basic necessities include clothing, shelter and food. It goes on to the inability to access clinic, school and credits. It is a state of insecurity, susceptibility to violence and exclusion of persons, household community from basic needs.
c. Levels of poverty: poverty can be absolute or relative. It is absolute (destitution) when a person has no access to clean and fresh water, food, education, basic health care and clothing. World Bank describes it as living on less than 1.25US dollars per day. In 2006, the United Nation and World Bank affirms that about 1.75billion people lives in absolute poverty worldwide while relatively poverty is accepting level of resource as compared with other in a society or country.
IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT ON ALLEVIATING POVERTY
- It provides income for the family
- It provides means of saving
- It provides capital for investment
- It provides money for consumption
- It provides fund for government to fight poverty
- It increases the level of demand leading to industrial growth
- It reduces problems in the family which often trigger poverty.
FACTORS THAT GUARANTEE EMPLOYMENT
- Practical oriented education
- Responsible governors
- Popular participation
- Free education
- Provision of credit facilities for small scale business
CAUSES OF POVERTY
The causes of poverty include:
- Conquest (this is when two communities are in quarrel and one conquers the other)
- Persistence of national disaster while factors perpetuating poverty include ignorance, disaster, disease, corruption, political apathy and dependency.
Some other causes that have identified includes raising a large family, corrupt leadership, spending habit or reckless spending, restricted education/training, extended family system, laziness/unused talent and so on.
CONSEQUENCES OF POVERTY
1. Underdevelopment: it reduces the capacity of individual and society to develop and acquire higher skills. Individuals will not be able to contribute meaningfully to the social economic development.
2. Low quality of life/prior standard of living: poor people live in slumps, dirty and stinking environment. They depend on a few clothing usually dirty and old. They also lack the basic need of life for, clothing and shelter.
3, Generate social problems: children from poor homes are most prone to commit crimes like stealing, prostitution, drug abuse, cultism, kidnapping, fraudsters, piff-piffs such children also engage in thuggery and gangsterism.
4. It may lead to broken home and divorce: the inability of a man to provide the basic needs for the family may lead to divorce.
5. It leads to teenage pregnancy: girls from poor homes most likely engage in pre-marital sex which often leads to unwanted pregnancy
Explain five ways of reducing poverty in Nigeria
What are the roles of government in Nigeria to reduce poverty?
TOPIC: POLITICAL APATHY
It is the lack of interest on the part of the citizen in political activities of their state.it is the reverse/opposite of political participation. And a state of passinivity of the citizens of a state to political activities such citizens are said to be a political or apathetic.
Wikipedia puts it as the indifference in the part of the citizen of any country as regards there attitude towards political activities
Political activities include election, public opinion, civic responsibilities etc. for example, INEC records shoes that 35% of 70 million voters voted during the 2011 general election.
FORMS OF POLITICAL APATHY
1. Refusal to register for election: some citizens regard registration of voters as a waste of time even if they are qualified to do so.
2. Refusal to check on their voter register: some actually registered but do not check their names when the opportunities comes as a result that may not be able to check or update their data that has been prevoivsy recorded wrongly in the register.
3. Refusal to vote during election: In the 2011 general election about 60% VOTERS IN Nigeria did not vote. Some that were denied their right would not even complain or resist.
4. Unwillingness to fight electoral malpractices: some are indifferent to electoral malpractices like ballot stuffing, snatching, multiple voting etc. as a result in experienced politicians came into power that is unhealthy for the nation.
5. Lack of trust, confidence and respect for political leaders and public officer: these could be as a result of long, bad governors, misconception of politics like “politics is a dirty game for people”.
6. Refusal to take up political appointment from the party in power
7. Lack of interest in the day to day political happenings in the state: some do not know the name of their president let alone the names of ministers and commissioners
8. Impassive community services: this includes the refusal to take part in community development works like environmental sanitation, not attending community meeting, not contesting for elective post in their community as well as lack of interest in community leaders and the or activities
9. The non – consciousness of existing political parties, their manifestos and pedigree of the candidates contesting through each party.
How can we reduce political apathy in Nigeria?
What are the consequences of political apathy in Nigeria?
REASONS FOR POLITICAL APATHY
A. Lack Of Security: some voters away from the polls as they are not sure of adequate security.
B. Political Violence: party thugs ward off people in order to perpetuate all sort of rigging. Lately political campaigns are characterized with violence and killing of innocent people. For example the assassination of Engineer Funso Williams the PDP gubernatorial candidate of PDP in Lagos and the assassination of Oyerinde the special adviser to the Edo State governor. All these have made people to be indifferent to politics
C. Lack Of Commitment To Political Policies: people are discourage from participating in subsequent political activities as politicians make a lot of good promises during campaigns and do not fulfil them they even embezzle fund meant for making life better for the electorates.
D. Bad Governance: governance is characterized with bad policies, corruption, injustice and infringement of people’s right, mismanagement of funds etc. these will ever discourage people to participate in politics
E. Lack Of Transparency: Electoral malpractices in past elections which has made the expected candidate to lose out make a lot of people to presume their vote will not count, therefore they decided to be apathetic.
REASONS WHY LEADERS FAIL TO PROTECT THEIR FOLLOWERS’ INTEREST.
1. Godfather’s: pleasing godfathers at expenses of the masses in a failure of political leaders(office older) usually such office holders must have written undertaken to reward their godfathers before being tipped for the post and they use public funds for their remuneration (compensation) as they like to be like those back in the coming election.
2. Party interest: the leaders fail when they succumb to pressures of the party “BIG WIGS” who may frustrate them out of office. They fail because the remnant of public funds will not be enough to execute projects that will benefits the masses.
3. Lack of visions: this is another factor responsible for the inability to deliver while in office.
4. Greediness: politicians with “grab – it – all” attitude tends to influence contracts, divert public funds to their polices and do other inimical activities which makes them incredibly affluent.
5. Insensitivity to peoples plight: politicians tends to spend money on frivolities like foreign trips, throwing extravagant parties, buying houses for themselves overseas rather than pressing issues like repairing bad – roads, lack of pipe borne waters, lack of good hospitals and deplorable school buildings.
6. Tribalism, nepotism.
Explain seven effects of failures of leaders to protect followers’ interests.
State ten qualities of a good leader