Lesson note on English Studies SS2 first term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH SS 2 FIRST
WEEK 1. PARTS OF SPEECH, NOUN TYPES AND FUNCTION.
WEEK 2. SPEECH WORK-MONOPTHONGS OR PURE VOWELS
WEEK 3. COMPREHENSION, THE DEATH OF IKEMEFUNA-WORD MEANING IN CONTEXT
WEEK 4. STRUCTURE-ADJECTIVES/ORDER OF ADJECTIVE
WEEK 5. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT, WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURE
WEEK 6. WRITING AND COMPOSITION – NARRATIVE ESSAY.
WEEK 7. ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB USAGE
WEEK 8. COMPREHENSION [READING] – TOPIC SENTENCE, PARAGRAPH AND SUPPORTING DETAILS
WEEK 9-10. NOUN MEANING AND TYPES
PARTS OF SPEECH; NOUNS, TYPES AND FUNCTIONS
“Countable noun” “Uncountable noun”(“plural suffix “-s”)
Noun: Meaning and Types
A noun is a naming word
The Noun: Form and Function
Noun has taken the following forms in English
Proper nouns: these are names of
- Persons – Femi,Shola, John etc
- Places – Ondo, Ibadan, Yaba, Akuree.t.c
- Days – Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday e.t.c
- Months – January, February, September et.c
- Titles – Bobagunwa, Dr, Professor, chief e.t.c
Note: that anywhere the proper noun occurs in a sentence it must start with a capital letter.
b. Common Nouns: These are objects e.g boy, girl, men, women, bro, lion, dog, tiger e.t.c.
c. Gerundive Nouns: These can also be called verbal nouns because they are nouns that are formed from verbs e.g smoking, fighting, dancing, eating e.t.c
e.g (a) The boy is smoking cigarette
(b) Smoking is dangerous to health.
In sentence (a) smoking is used as a verb. But in sentence (b) it is used as a (Gerundive) noun.
d. Abstract Nouns: These are nouns whose manifestations exists in the mind e.g. Knowledge, beauty, experience, death e.tc
e. Collective Nouns: These are nouns used to refer to a group of persons or objects together as one e.g. Crew, Congregation, Mob, battalion, audience e.t.c
f. Countable Nouns: These are nouns that can be counted (count Nouns) e.g Car, tyre, table, chair
g. Uncountable Nouns: are nouns that cannot be counted (Non count nouns) e.g. Water, Salt, rice, beans, ink, cement e.t.c. They are counted in measures e.g A bucket of water, A bag of salt, a cup of tea.
The Functions of a Noun
- A noun serves as the subject of the verb e.g.
- Tunde is going to the market
Tunde is the subject of the verb “is going”
- Lagos has been described as the Center of excellence.
Lagos is the subject of the verb “has been described”
- A noun serves as the object or complement of the verb eg.
- The boy plays football on the field.
Football is the object of the verb plays
ii I hate cheating in the examination
Cheating is the complement of the verb hate in the sentence.
From the Intensive English by Benson O. Thikpe et.al. (Page 125)
Make the following uncountable nouns
|UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS||MADE COUNTABLE|
|Water||Many basing of water|
|Flour||A bag of flour|
Use your dictionary to find the difference in meaning between the following Nouns :
|UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS||MADE COUNTABLE|
MORAL OBJECTIVES: The first assignment and responsibility that the creator (God) gave unto man is the naming of everything that had been created hence, students must value this in their lives.
SPEECH WORK, MONOPTHONGS OR PURE VOWELS
Monothongs, Diphthongs, Triphthongs, glide, Long vowel, short vowel
A cardboard that shows the labeled parts of the human head.
Students are familiar with same speech sounds because they use them unconsciously in the fairly discourse.
A monopthong is a vowel sound that is made up of one speech sound. It is a single vowel.
Monophthong are also referred to as Pure vowels British English has 12 vowel monophthongs and they are: / I /, / e /, / /, /Ↄ/, /ə/, /i:/, /a:/, /Ↄ:/, /Ȝ:/, /u:/, /u/, /ᴂ/.
They are divided into long vowels and short vowels.
The long vowels have length mark [:] which is used to show that there is a difference in length as well as vowel quality.
This is a vowel sound that is made up of two speech sound but there is a glide (or movement) from one vowel quality to another and it is pronounced as one. We have a total of 8 diphthongs and they are: /ei/, /i/, /Ↄi/, /əu/, /u/ /iə/, /eə/, /uə/
Bay /bei/ cow /ku/
Buy /bi/ pier /piə/
Boy /bↃi/ pear /peə/
Go /gəu/ poor /puə/
This is a vowel glide with three distinguishable vowel qualities.
In British English we have 5 triphthongs, formed by adding /ə/ to the diphtohongs /ei/, /ai/, /Ↄi/, / u/, /əu/ e.g
Layer /leiər/ loyal /lↃiəl/
Liar /l iər/ power /p uər/
EVALUATION: Transcribe the following words
- Slay /slei/
- Reign /rei /
- Safe /seif/
- Aisle / isl/
- Wise /w is/
- Power /p uər/
- Sour /s uə/
- Blower /bləuər/
- Player /pleiə/
- Layer /leiə/
1. Write short explanatory notes in the following types of vowels
2. Give their examples in words
It is expected that at the end of the class, students will be bold enough and courageous enough to have polished their speaking skills for the furtherance of the gospel of Christ.
Comprehension (Page 3-5)
The Death of Ikemefuna
Word Meaning in context
One way students can infer a word meaning is from context clues within the text. Students have to learn how to work out the meaning from these clues. One way to unravel these clues is to consider the following questions:
- What do you think the word means considering (a certain Action or event) has happened?
- How do you know what the word means (insert the definition)?
- What part of the text helps you make this inference?
- Where can you find other clues to help you understand?
- If you substitute what you think is a similar word, would the sentence still make sense?
- Crumbling (verb)- falling
- Copiously (Adverb) – abundantly, extravagantly
- Clan (noun) – tribe , group
- Earshot (noun) – hearing, ear reach
- Sheathed (Adjective) – Covered, cased
- Effeminate (Adjective) _ emasculate, unmanly
- Outskirt (noun)- fringe
Now, reread the comprehension passage and answer question 1-5 correctly
- Okonkwo was eating and drinking palmwine with Okenefuna and Nwoye
- The two other people that were with Okonkwo at this time were Okenefuna and Nworo
- Ezeudu brought the information that Umuofina has decided to kill Ikemefuna
- Ezeudu advices Okonkwo not to bear hand in the death of Ikemefuna because he calls him father
- A group of elders from all the nine villages of Unmofia came to Okonkwo’s house the following day
- Nwoye went to his mother’s hut and told her that Okenefuma was going home
The students can now give the synonyms of some words while reading a given comprehension passage
Give answers or study these words from the passage (word study_content clues)
- Crunching c. copiously e. fearless
- Effeminate d. outskirts f. growled
- g. warrior h. trembled
Now complete each of these sentences with the right word from the list above
MORAL OBJECTIVES: The fate that befell Ikenefuna is not permissible in this present age because Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law. He paid the ultimate sacrifice by setting us free.
Adjectives are words that describes or give information about nouns or pronouns
The grey dog barked (Adjective_ grey) describes the noun dog
The form of an Adjective does not change. It does not matter if the noun being modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject or object. Some Adjectives give us factual information about the noun – age, size, colour e.t.c. (fact adjective- can’t be argued with). Some Adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or somebody – nice, horrid, beautiful e.t.c (opinion Adjectives – not everyone may agree)
Types of Adjective
- Numeric Adjectives: six, one hundred and one
- Quantitative Adjectives: more, all, some, half, more than enough
- Qualitative Adjectives: colour, size, smell
- Possessive Adjectives: my, his, their, your
- Interrogative Adjectives: which, whose, what
- Demonstrative Adjectives: this, that, those, these
Note the following about comparison of Adjectives
- The Comparative form of the Adjective denotes a higher degree of the Adjective e.g tall- taller when two people or things are compared
- The Superlative form (tall-tallest) of Adjectives denotes the highest degree of the Adjective “tall” when more than people or things are compared
Rules of Adjectives
- For most Adjectives “er” is added for the comparative form and “est” for the superlative form. Tall – taller – tallest
- For Adjectives ending with “e”, “r”, “y” is added for the comparative form and “st” for the superlative form e.g wise – wiser –wisest
Large – larger – largest
Nice – nicer – nicest
iii. For Adjectives ending with “y” is removed and “ier” is added for comparative form and “iest” for the superlative form e.g lazy – lazier –laziest
Crazy – crazier – craziest
Wealthy – wealthier – wealthiest
iv. Usually for longer Adjectives, “more”+ Adjective is used for comparative form and “most” + Adjective is used for Superlative form e .g
Handsome – more handsome – most handsome
Difficult – more difficult – most difficult
v. Irregular Adjectives: There are some irregular Adjectives for which the comparative and superlative form , follow no particular rule
Good – better – best
Bad – worse – worst
Many – more – most
Little – less – least
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Where a number of Adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the Adjective. The usual order is:
Value/opinion Age/temperature Shape Colour Origin Material
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
|Value/opinion||Delicious, lovely, charming|
|Size||Small, huge, tiny|
|Age/temperature||Old, hot, young|
|Shape||Round, square, rectangular|
|Colour||Red, blond, black, pink|
|Origin||Nigerian, Swedish, Victoria, Chinese|
|Material||Plastic, wooden, golden, silver|
- A lovely old red post – box
- Some small round plastic tables
- Some charming small silver ornaments
Adverbs of certainty express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event
Usage – common Adverbs of certainty
Certainly, definitely, probably, undoubted, surely
- Adverb of certainty go before the main verb verb but after the verb “to be”
- He definitely left the house this morning
- He is probably in the park
- With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verbs:
- He has certainly forgotten the meeting
- He will probably remember tomorrow
- Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence:
- Undoubtedly, Obafemi Awolowo was a great politician
Be careful with surely: when it is placed ate the beginning of the sentence, it means the speaker thinks something is time, but is looking for combination
- Surely you’ve got a bicycle?
Forms of Adverbs
Many adverbs end in “-ly”. We form such adverbs by adding “-ly” to the adjectives. Here are some examples: quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly. But not all words that end in –ly are adverbs. “friendly”, for example is an adjective. Some adverbs have no particular form, for example: well, fast, very, never, always, often, still
TENSES AND RULES
Functions of Adverbs
- An adverbs adds more information to a verb
- John speaks loudly. (how does John speak?)
- Mary lives locally. (where does Mary live? )
- An adverb adds more information to an adjective
- He is really handsome
- An adverb adds more information to another adverbs
- She drives incredibly slowly
- An adverbs modifies a whole sentence
- Obviously, I can’t know everything
- An adverbs modifies a prepositional phrase
- It’s immediately inside the door
- An adverb modifies other verbs
- The thief acts stupidly (answer the question: how?)
- The thief never shoots, because he has no gun, (answer the question: why?)
- The thief robs locally (answer the question: why?)
- An adverbs modifies other adjectives
- The thief is extremely stupid
- This very dumb thief is now jail
- An adverb modifies other adverbs
- The thief walks incredibly clumsily
- The thief acts really stupidly
- Adverbs also have other functions. You may see them modifying a prepositional phrase
- The thief was arrested just outside the apartment
- You may find an adverbs modifying an entire sentence
- Certainly, the thief chose the wrong profession
COMPREHENSION – WORD MEANING IN CONTEXT
In any given comprehension passage, words are being used to pass across the intended message. A word is made up of two or more morphemes. A phrase is made up of two or more words and it’s this same phrase in the extended form (with a verb) that will give us clause. From clause to sentence.
Word Meaning in context: The context of usage of any given word in a sentence will determine the meaning of that word.
Sentence: (i) The boy is very sharp (intelligent, clever, smart)
(ii) Ade cuts the orange with a sharp object (smooth edge)
(iii) I can’t locate the bank of the river (edge)
(iv) I will be in the bank in the next five minutes (financial institution)
ASSESSMENT: From the new Oxford Secondary English course for Senior Secondary School (SS1) by Ayo Banjo et. al. flip to page 2-3 (Answer question (a), (b), (c) and (g)
(f) What is word meaning in context? Give 5 examples in sentence
ASSIGNMENT: In your own words, explain the following
MORAL INSTRUCTION: All students must understand the fact that Jesus is the perfect and fulfilled word of God. He fulfilled the word of God when He comes to dwell among us.
WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURE (pg 19 –Nosec)
|S/N||Words||Transcription And stress placement||Word meaning and Sentence usage|
|1||Irrigation Irrigate||/Iri’geiʃn/ – noun Irrigate /irigeit/ – verb||To supply land or crops with water exp. By means of secially constructed channels or pipes Sentences: Irrigation has greatly increased the area of cultivable land.|
|2||Implements||/’impliməntz/ – noun||A tool; a piece of equipment e.g farm implements Sentence: Man’s earliest Implements were carved from stone and bone.|
|3||Cereals||/’siəriəl/ – noun||Any of various types of grass producing edible grains e.g wheat, rye, barley, Sentence: Cereals are sold here|
ASSESMENT: (NOSEC PAGE 20) (i) Study these words which are also associated with farming: seeds, seedlings, yam seeds, yam-sets, stashing, pruning, transplanting, axe, bulldozer, crop rotation, bush-burning, subsistence farming – find out more of them.
ASSIGNMENT: Give the following information about the following words (i) Transcription (ii) Stress placement (iii) Meaning (iv) Sentential usage
MORAL INSTRUCTION: This is the oldest occupation and the first one that God gave to Adam (the first man) – it is very important that all students appreciates its inherent wealth and prosperity it can give to them in life.
WRITING NARRATIVE ESSAY
A Narrative essay is a writing in which a story is told. Every body tells a story – The Introductory Paragraph.
From the narration – The next middle paragraph seeing as the body of the narration, narrate the events of the day that support the claim in the introductory paragraph, of a bad day.
Content of a Narration
Your essay at this stage should be up to 400 words. A narration can contain Factual or Fictitious (imagined) stories, or a combination of the two – Qualities of a Good narration
- It must contain clear, and interesting introduction
- Well developed middle section
- Plots are narrated sequentially, and well-laid out paragraph
ASSESSMENT: (Writing Practice) – Write what you will say on any of the two questions bellow – follow the guideline in earlier examples:
- You were present when two students fought in the School – Tell your school counselor how it happened
- Write on any ceremony you have celebrated with your family.
MORAL INSTRUCTION: As a child of the most high, all students must be able to narrate or give their testimony of their conversation. Just like apostle Paul in the book of Acts to be able to min back the lost.
STRUCTURE – ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB USAGE
CONTENT: Introduction – An Adjective is a word that qualifies or modify a noun or pronoun. E.g Peacock is a bird – Peacock is a Beautiful bird and it is similar to possessive pronoun e.g. My, yours, his, hers, our, theirs, its. But thy word modifies the noun to function as an Adj. What, and which
Sentence – Which places are to be visited during our tour? (iii) Demonstrative Adj. are used to point out e.g that, this, these, those, what (iv) Numeral Adj. reveals the number of the nouns (Definite Number – Cardinal – Ordinal) (Indefinite – some, few,.
Descriptive Adj – are used to reveal quality or sort of a noun e.g. big, good, beautiful.
Adverb is a word or set of words that modifies verbs, adjectives or other adverbs e.g. slowly, very, especially, quickly, badly.
ASSESSMENT: Explain the following types Adjectives or your own words:
- Adjective of Definite number
- Adjective of indefinite number
ASSIGNMENT: Use the following types of Adverbs in sentences
- Adverb of frequency e.g daily, often
- Adverb of reason
- Adverb of concession
- Adverb of manner
- Adverb of place.
MORAL INSTRUCTION: All students must get the details of God’s word. Precept by precept and they must learn to obey what God’s word says.
The following should be done in reading to make a note:
- Read with a goal in mind – This could be what you want to learn about, what essay you’re writing, an exam you’re revising for, and so on.
- Learn to skip over irrelevant passages
- Point at your place in the page
- Avoid reading “aloud” in your head
- Underline key phrases, pupils read to identify the keywords – The keyword is a word that is used as a pattern to decode an encrypted message.
TOPIC SENTENCE: This is a sentence that states the topic of its paragraph. Paragraph – Paragraph is one of several distinct submissions of a text intended to separate ideas; the beginning is usually marked by a new indented line – The supporting details are a small part that can be considered separately from the whole.
ASSESSMENT: Identify the topic/theme of this passage – Sprains are injuries to the ligaments which hold the joints together. Sprains occur when the ligaments are over stretched. The joints most frequently sprained are the wrists and ankles.
ASSIGNMENT: NOSEC (page 5-6) Read the following passage carefully and identify the topic/theme – Anything that can cause a body at rest with some mass to more over a distance is force. We apply force if we want to open a door, more a chair or push a car.
MORAL INSTRUCTION: All students can appreciate the message of the scripture which is centered on Jesus Christ and the salvation, restoration and redemption of our souls.
WEEK 9 – 10
NOUN – MEANING AND TYPES
A noun is a naming word and it takes the following forms:
- Proper Noun – Names of Persons, places, days, months, titles, events
- Common Nouns denotes in common to every person of the same kind
- Gerundive nouns – are also called verbal nouns e.g. smoking, fighting,
- Abstract nouns – are nouns that are unseen but represented by ideas, feelings, concepts e.t.c.
- Collective nouns denote a number of persons or things taken together but spoken of as one e.g. herd, army, crowd, audience.
- Countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
Functions of a Noun: The noun an function as the subject of a verb, it can function as the object or complement of a verb.
ASSESSMENT: From the intensive English by Benson. U. Oluikpe et. al (Page 125) Make the following uncountable Nouns countable
|Uncountable Nouns||Made Countable|
|Water||Many begins of water|
|Flour||A bag of flour|
ASSIGNMENT: Use your dictionary to find out the difference in meaning between the following nouns: work – works, wood – woods, Give five examples (each) – for the following nouns and use them in sentences: (a) Gerundive noun (b) Proper noun.
MORAL INSTRUCTION: The master of heaven and earth give man the distinct assignment of naming all the things that had been created. Hence, man’s necessity and needs are even now being given names for identification and uniqueness.