Lesson Note on English Studies SS3 Second Term – Edudelight.com
ENGLISH LANGUAGE SECOND TERM SCHEME OF WORK FOR SS3
|1||Revision of last term’s work and examination. Summary: Summarizing|
|2||Structure: More on clauses Essay Writing: Speech Writing for special purposes Comprehension/vocabulary building Reading for inference|
|3||Comprehension / vocabulary Development: Giving the meaning of idiomatic expression and identifying figures of speech from the passage Structure: Direct and Indirect speeches|
|4||Comprehension / vocabulary Skill: Reading to infer the thoughts of the writer Essay Writing: More on Formal and Informal letters. Structure: Nominalization of Infinitives|
|5||Comprehension / Summary: learning tips on how to approach summary writing in examination Structure: Restrictive and Non – Restrictive clauses. Essay Writing: Hints on writing essays in the examination|
|6||Speech Work: Learning the requirement of the examination orals Structure: Hints on lexis and structure. Comprehension: Hints on Answering comprehension questions|
|7||Speech Work: Revising the vowels and consonants Structure: Review of tense. Comprehension: Further hints on how to answer comprehension questions.|
|10||MARKING OF SCRIPTS|
|11||MARKING AND RECORDING|
Revision of last term work and examination (Summary) or Summarization
Reference: Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) past question and answers 2006 ‘Summary’ – Page 124. Number 8
Answer Section C
a. Malnutrition is caused by reflections and deficiency in the intake of nutrients.
b. (i) Malnutrition damage the body
(ii) Malnutrition gives rise to chronic diseases in adulthood
c. (i) Pregnant women of childbearing age and children should feed well
(ii) The baby or child should be breast – feed for as long as is required
(iii) The baby or child should be given enough balanced diet after he has been weaned.
LESSON ONE: STRUCTURE: MORE ON CLAUSE
A clause has a subject and a predicate. The subject is a group of words about which something is said, the predicate is that part of the sentence which says something about the subject. E.g.
- Akande ate the food. Akande is the subject while ‘ate the food’ is the predicate.
- The woman with the basket ran across the road. Similarly, the woman with the basket is the subject and ‘ran across the road’ is the predicate.
Some clauses can stand on their own (independent clauses); other cannot, they are dependent clause.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE: This is a clause that can stand on its own as a sentence and shows a perfect thought. E.g.
- Mr. Austin is a principal
- A thousand teachers are ready for work.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: This does not stand on its own as a sentence but depend entirely on the main clause for its meaning. Example: My friend could not come……….. (Main clause)……. because she lost ten thousand naira (independent clause)
TYPES OF CLAUSES
There are different types of clauses: adjectival clauses, noun clauses and adverbial clauses. They perform the functions of adjectives, nouns and adverbs respectively.
1. ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES: Adjectival clauses do exactly what adjective do in sentences. They qualify nouns. Examples:
(i) That is the beautiful mansion. It tells us more about the mansion. So, the word ‘beautiful’ is an adjective that qualifies the noun ‘mansion’.
(ii) That is the house which Adam built. The clause ‘which Adam built’ is telling more about the house. This clause does exactly what the word ‘beautiful’ was doing. It is an adjectival clause; it qualifies the noun ‘house’.
An adjectival clause is also called a relative clauses. More examples:
- That is the boy that stole the goat
- The woman who beat the dog to death has been arrested
- The lady whose wrist watch was taken has bought another
- The millionaire, on whom we relied for help, disappointed us.
- I want to visit the of file where agreement ending the war was signed
Always remember that an adjectival or relative clause always qualify (or tell more about) noun.
2. NOUN CLAUSE: A noun clause performs the work of a noun: It can be replaced with a pronoun. Examples (i) Adebola surprised me. Here Adebola is a noun. It forms the subject of the sentence and can be replaced with the pronoun. This clause does the work of a noun and can be replaced with the pronoun ‘it’. It is the subject of the sentence. It is therefore a noun clause.
Noun clauses normally, perform the functions of ordinary noun in a sentence. Thus, a noun clause can serve as the subject of a sentence, as the object of a verb, as a compliment of the object, as the compliment of a preposition.
- Noun clause as the subject of a sentence. Example: (i) Where the woman was buried is not known till today. (ii) What they were planning is very good
- Noun clause as the object of the verb. Examples: (i) We received the pen (ii) He received what I sent him.
In number one, the object received is ‘the pen’. This is a noun. What I sent him in sentence two function as the object of the same verb ‘received’.
- Noun clause as complement of subject. Examples: (i) Music is my hobby (ii) Music is what we require
‘My hobby and what we require’, serves as compliment to the same subject , ‘music’.
- Noun clause as complement to a preposition: This is a noun clause which follows a preposition and thereby completes the thoughts in the sentences. Examples: (i) This book is written for adult (ii) This book is written for whoever wants to pass
In the first example, adult completes the idea started at the beginning of the sentence, and it follows the preposition, ‘for’. In the second example, the noun clause ‘whoever wants to pass’ take the place of the noun, student. So, it is a complement of the preposition ‘for’.
3. ADVERBIAL CLAUSE: An adverbial clause tell us about the action of the verb in the main clause. It tells us, when, how, where, to, what, extent, under what condition the action in the main verb takes place. Example: (i) I cooked the food yesterday (ii) I cooked the food when I arrived from the market.
In the first sentence, ‘yesterday’ is an adverb. It tells us when the action of cooked was performed. So yesterday is an adverb of time.
In the second sentence, it is an adverbial clause of time because it tells us when the action of cooked was performed.
Adverbial clause are usually introduced by words or word group such as: when, where, because, since, whereas, while, as if, unless, until, although, whether, though, till, as……as, so…..that, if, except, after as soon as, before, as long as, whenever, provided, even though, even if, though wherever etc.
The following are examples of adverbial clauses.
- Adverbial clause of manner
- Adverbial clause of condition
- Adverbial clause of time
- Adverbial clause of reason
- Adverbial clause of place
- Adverbial clause of concession
- Adverbial clause of purpose etc.
As rightly studied in this lesson, use the five sentences under the adverbial clause and correctly state the functions of each underline expression.
ESSAY WRITING: SPEECH WRITING FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE
Introduction: Speech in its primary form, is supposed to be delivered orally to an audience. Writing it down takes it a step further towards the formal essay, so its degree of colloquialism is reduced.
However, when a speech has to be written before it is delivered, the language becomes nearer to that of a formal essay. Only with some conscious effort can the usual characteristics of an impromptu speech be referred. So if your attempt is much like that of an ordinary essay, what you must watch is the format of the speech.so you may need to master the following:
- The opening greetings
- Stating the purpose of the speech
- The body of the speech
- The closing remark
Reference: Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) Past Questions and Answers (for SSCE, GCE, and NECO)
Your school has been invited to participate in a debate on the topic “Co – education in the secondary school should be abolished”. Write your speech for or against the motion. (450 words).
COMPREHENSION / VOCABULARY BUILDING
Reading for Interference.
Reference: New Oxford for Senior Secondary School. Book 3. Unit 3. Page 33 – 35.
Vocabulary Development (Page 35). Read and answer the following questions (Motor Car and Traveling)
LESSON ONE: COMPREHENSION / VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
TITLE: Giving the meaning of idiomatic expressions and identifying figures of speech from the passage.
Reference: New Oxford Secondary English course for senior secondary school (3).
- Read the following passage carefully and answer the question on it.
- Giving meaning to the idiomatic expression
- Identify the figures of speech in the passage
Summary: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it. i.e. (a) and (b).
STRUCTURE: Direct and Indirect Speeches
Direct speech refers to the actual words of the speaker and these words are enclosed in inverted commas.
Indirect speech is also called reported speech. Indirect speech is always introduced by a verb of saying. Examples: demanded, remarked, asked, argued, answered, agreed, replied inquired, observed etc. the words mentioned above should be followed by either that or whether. We should pay particular attention to the following rule. If we want to change a sentence from direct speech to indirect speech, the rules are as follows:
TENSES ARE CHANGED
(i) Present simple tense is changed to past simple tense. An example:
“I study physics every Saturday” (This is called direct speech).
She said that she studied physics every Saturday. (This is called indirect speech or reported speech)
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
(ii) Present continuous tense is changed to past continuous tense. An example:
“I am writing a letter at the moment, “Jacob said (Direct speech)
Jacob said that he was writing at that moment (Indirect speech)
Direct speech Indirect Speech
She is coming she was coming
They are singing they were singing
(iii) Present perfect tense is changed to past perfect tense. An example:
“I have studied English for five years.” Noah said (Direct speech)
Noah said that he had studied English for five years (Indirect speech)
“I have seen my father”. Caleb said (Direct speech)
Caleb said that he had seen his father (Indirect speech)
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
They have gone they had gone
(iv) Present perfect continuous tense is changed to past perfect continuous tense. An example:
“I have been studying Geography for seven years”, she said (Direct speech)
She said that she had been studying Geography for seven years (Indirect speech)
(v) Past simple tense remains past simple. Example:
“I studied Religion Knowledge last year”. She said (Direct speech)
She said that, she studied Religious Knowledge last year (Indirect speech)
“I studied Economics in 1980”, he said (Direct speech)
He said that he studied Economics in 1980 (Indirect speech)
Note: Date in direct speech are not changed in indirect speech e.g.
Direct speech Indirect Speech
(vi) Future is changed to conditional. An example:
“I shall meet the principal in his office” he said (Direct speech)
He said that he would meet principal in his office (Indirect speech).
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
“I shall have studied political science for five years next month”, she said (Direct speech)
She said that she would have studied political science for five year next month (Indirect speech)
Change the following sentences to Indirect Speech
- “I study Mathematics every Friday”, she said.
- “Yes, I will visit you tomorrow, she said
- “I left my handbag in your office”, Amina told Ali.
- “I will visit Mr. Nwangbara tomorrow”, he said.
- “Have you been to America before?” Musa asked him.
Reference: Oxford English SS3, page 28.
LESSON ONE: COMPREHENSION / VOCABULARY SKILL
TITLE: Reading to Infer the thoughts of the writer.
References: New Oxford Secondary English course (for senior secondary school book 3) Unit nine (9), page 112.
Instruction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions on it.
Vocabulary Development on Agriculture and Fishing
Study the vocabulary on these on the back pages.
Exercise: Complete each of the following sentences with the correct answer chosen from letter A – D listed after each sentence. Number 1 – 10
ESSAY WRITING: MORE ON FORMAL AND INFORMAL LETTER
References to make in Week five (5) first term.
Write a letter to the Commissioner of Agriculture in your state, deploring the low level of food production in the state and suggesting measures which the government should take to ensure that there is sufficient food for all. (450 words) (June 1997).
STRUCTURE: Nominalization of Infinitives.
Nominalization is to form a noun from a verb or adjective. Example; truth from true.
Adjectives as Nominals
Adjectives can function in the same way that nouns do but they must be preceeded by the article ‘the’ and must take plural verbs. For instance:
- The poor are always with us
- The rich sometimes help the poor
- The strong often defend the weak
- The blind are usually provided with accommodation
- They treated the wounded at the clinic.
VERBS AS NOMINALS
There are two verb forms that can occupy the nominal position. The infinitive form such as ‘to err’, ‘to smoke’ and the gerund such as ‘smoking’, ‘dancing’ and ‘reading’.
- To err is human; to forgive is divine.
- It is prohibited to smoke in the class
- Smoking is prohibited in the plane.
- Dancing is an activity I always enjoy
- Children must learn that reading gives joy
- Her hobby is singing
Identify infinitive and gerunds used as nominal (in place of nouns) noun phrase, noun clause.
- To do this isn’t wise
- The new headmaster has assumed duty
- The cat in the garden belongs to my sister
- What pleases the teacher is that the students passed
- The boy standing under the tree is blind.
LESSON ONE: COMPREHENSION / SUMMARY
TITLE: Learning Tips on how to approach Summary Writing in Examination.
Introduction: A summary in other words, is a short account of any piece of writing or any event. For instance, the newspaper reports you read are summaries because it is impossible to mention everything that happened in minute (small) details.
Requirements of a good Summary
There are some essential features of a good summary, they are: brevity, relevance, satisfactory, coverage, clarity and smooth blending.
BREVITY: If we say an account is a summary of an event, that is, a shortered version, then it must be brief. In summary, there is no room for details, nor is there any room for elaboration of points.
RELEVANCE: This means that the summary must reflect the original as accurately as possible. It must not include any fact or point not found in the original passage. Anything you include which is not in the passage is refers to as extraneous. So always make sure that whatever you put down can be traced to the original passage.
SATISFACTORY COVERAGE: By this, we mean that your summary must not exclude the essential points. When you are directed to summarise a particular point of view, make sure that you gather all the points which make up that view point. You must also make sure that all the points mentioned by the author are used in your summary.
CLARITY: A summary must be clear. It must present exactly what the author means to say, in very clear language. Whatever you present, must be in straight forward, precise language. There is no room for vagueness at all.
Reference: New Oxford Secondary English course for senior secondary school. Book 3. Unit 10. Page 124. Answer / summarize the passage according to the question asked below.
STRUCTURE: Restrictive and Non – restrictive clause
This explains a particular person and thing you are talking about rather than giving extra information about them. The books which are on the table are mire:
“Which are on the table” is a restrictive relative clause.
Adjective clauses are classified as restrictive or defined (i.e. necessary for meaning) and non-restrictive or non-defining (i.e. unnecessary for meaning). If the adjective is restrictive, it is marked off by a pair of comma e.g.
- The boy that came here yesterday is my cousin. A restrictive adjective is introduced by the word and modifying the noun boy. It is restrictive because it is needed to identify what the exact boy meant. It asks the question which boy?
- My sister Favour, who lives in Surulere is getting married (Non- restrictive adjective clause) modifying the noun sister.
Here, my sister is already known to the listener. So the adjective clause is not necessary to identify her but nearly give an additional information about her.
- This is the boy whom you wanted to see. This is a restrictive adjective clause modifying qualifying the noun ‘boy’. The relative pronoun ‘whom’ can be dropped.
The soldier who knew the era best led the search.
- What is the grammatical name given to the underlined expression?
- What is the grammatical function?
ESSAY WRITING: HINT ON WRITING ESSAYS IN THE EXAMINATION
Requirement in Essay Writing
- The examiner is interested in the content, that is, the material you have built up in your work. For instance, if you are to make a speech welcoming student back from a long holiday, the contents would cover all the points used in that speech.
- The examiner is equally interested in how well you organise your points. Some learner can think of many points but cannot arrange them all. This test also covers your paragraphing. Ideally, you should write full paragraphs which are neither too short or too long. Also the test show how well you can blend one idea into another and one paragraph into another, even when they contain contradictory points.
- The examiner is interested in your ability to express yourself coherently and effectively. Writing simple sentences is not enough. More importantly is the ability to write varieties of sentences – simple, compound, complete, active, passive etc. The ability to blend long and short sentences, questions, exclamation and other devices, helps to enrich your work. Finally, your ability to use figurative expression such as simile, metaphor, personification etc would enhance your work greatly.
- The examiner is interested in how accurate you are in spelling in writing capital or small letters is appropriate is your use of tense, your grammar, and in the appropriateness of the words used.
Past Questions and Answers Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) – 1998 – 2015 (2002), question 2.
The rising incidence of road traffic accidents nowadays is alarming. In an article suitable for publication in an international magazine, discuss at least 3 factors responsible for this and suggest ways of dealing with the problem.
SPEECH WORK: Learning the requirement of the examination on Orals.
Introduction: At this section, there are seven sections in this paper and each of them treats a particular aspect of Oral English. The following aspect are tested;
- Section One: Vowel sounds (Monophthongs and diphthongs)
- Section two: Consonant sounds
- Section three: Features of rhymes
- Section four: Word stress (involving polysyllabic words)
- Section five: Different stress pattern (of words)
- Section six: Emphatic (or contrastive stress)
- Section seven: Vowel and consonant sounds
In all, there are sixty questions. In particular, you will be taught how to master the sounds of English. This involves your ability to know the letter (or letter of the English alphabet) that represent a particular sound.
The sounds of English: There are forty-four (44) sounds in English of these, twenty (20) are vowels, while twenty-four (24) are consonants. The vowels are classified into (2) two groups, monophthongs (or single vowels) which are also known as pure vowels, and diphthongs (double vowels), which are also known as glides (or gliding vowels). There are twelve (12) pure vowels in English and eight (8) diphthongs. Monophthongs are called pure vowels because when they are pronounced, the speech organs involved remain stationary from beginning to end. Conversely, diphthongs are double vowels because their products involves a movement from one vowel to another.
NOTE: Study your note on vowels and consonants sound in the previous term (First term)
Five words representing this sound and underline each sound.
/ᴂ/ as in man, glad
/ǝ/ as in father, aunt.
Now do these
/ᴐ/ as in —————————–
/ʊ/ as in —————————
/i:/ as in —————————
/еi/ as in ————————–
/ʊǝ/ as in ————————–
/ᴐi/ as in ————————-
/ǝi/ as in ————————–
/ǝʊ/ as in ————————–
/ʌ/ as in ————————–
/iǝ/ as in ————————–
STRUCTURE: Hints on Lexis and Structure
Lexis and Structure entails proper reading and comprehension of any passage given. It takes student to study the word sometimes in bold or written in Italics as connected to the passage in order to make right choice when it comes to answer the question asked in the passage.
Lexis and Structure could be word associated with collocation or register in any field.
So, at the senior secondary school level, students need to be conversant with registering word (in any field) in order to give appropriate answer as suppose. Example: Word Associated with Government and Administration.
Reference: New Oxford Secondary English course for senior secondary school (3). Page 48, number 1 – 10.
COMPREHENSION: Hints on answering Comprehension questions.
Introduction: To do well in any exercise involving comprehension passage, you need to be able to read fast. This is necessary if you love to read the passage at least twice and still have enough time to analyse the text and answer the question. Also, we should focus our attention on the need to develop an effective reading techniques for a comprehension (and a summary) task.
Finally, we focus our attention on the types of questions usually asked and how you should attempt them. This should prepare you adequately and reduce your anxiety.
Hints on Answering comprehension Question
- Improve your reading speed
- Linguistic factor in reading i.e. you must improve your mastery of the grammar of the language
- Consider your technique in reading.
Here learner should develop a workable technique of approaching the passage. Generally, it pays best to read through the passage first at rapid rate, without looking at the question or worry too seriously about the difficult word. The advantage of the first reading is to give the reader a general view of the passage. After this, try to ask yourself, what is the author’s message? Go over the question only to guide you toward the main point in the passage.
This second, fairly slower reader should be more thorough. This time with the question at the back of your mind, you will be able to decide what to look for, where to look for it, which ideas to bring together etc.
Finally, go back to the passage and study it a little more before you begin to answer the questions. This implies that you would be better off with three reading of the passage. Infact after the questions have been completed you might read over the passage once more and revise your answers so that you can be sure you have been accurate.
Structure: Review of tenses preference: Week six (6)
Lesson 2- first term
Change the following sentences from present tense to past tense
i.The textbooks are in my bag.
ii. This girl is my friend
iii.The sailors are afraid of thieves
iv. The women also sells sugar and bread
v. He smokes cigarette and Indian hemp.
Change the following sentences from present continuous tense to past continuous tense
vi. Abraham is dancing
vii. Mr Simeon is writing a letter
viii. He is going to Ibadan.
ix. Mathematics teacher is writing on the blackboard.
x. She is reading her physics textbook
Lesson three (3)
Title: Further Hints on How to answer comprehension question.
1. Ensure that you write your in a good, simple English.
2. The tense form in the question should be followed in expressing your answer. E.g in answering the question ‘what was the remote cause of the accident? Your answer should be ‘The remote cause of accident was ……………..
3. Where a question requires you to give one answer, make sure you give just that one answer.
Where you give two answers to a question and one of them is wrong and the other right, you will be second zero. You will only be given the full marks if both are correct.
4. Where your expressions are expected to be given to replace words /expression in the passage, they must be fit perfectly.
5. You should avoid the tendency to lift whole sentences without modifications in answer to questions requiring specific answers. This is to test your ability and enable you to present your answer in your own word.
ERRORS to be avoided
1. poor expression of answer
3. ignorance /guess work
4. mindless lifting
5. Giving more than a require answer. Etc
Unique : Senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE )
Past question and answered
Section 1 (Comprehension)
LESSON ONE: SPEECH WORK
Revising the vowel and consonant sounds
Consonants are sounds in the production of which there is same interference or obstruction to the flow of air, either through a blockage or through a narrowing of the spice between the organs of speech. in the production of vowels, however the air flows freely without any obstruction. All vowels are voices but consonant are either voices or voiceless.
When we say a sound is voiced, we mean that in its production, there is a frictional sound and we can fell vibration (the rapid giving in pitch) in the neck area (local cords).
Consonants symbols Words in which they occur
/p/ pick, put, happy, leap
/b/ beat, bite, lobe, rubber
/t/ teach, take, pit, mat
/d/ dog, dig, bad, toddler
/k/ key, cake, cool, kit, sock
/g/ get, good, giggle, gong, dog
/tӡ/ choice, chance, church, chase, rich
/ʤ/ John, judge, danger, fridge
/f/ fight, physics, suffer, enough
/v/ voice, above, leave, vanity, thieves
Find out the remaining fourteen and give relevant words in which they occur. E.g. /ϴ/, /ǝ/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ӡ/, /h/, /m/, /n/, /⌡/, /L/, /r/, /j/ and /w/
Vowels symbols Words in which they occur
/i:/ meet, peace, key, quay
/i/ kick, women, minute, picnic
/e/ bet, berry, bury, leopard
/ᴂ/ mat, bag, map, jacket
/a:/ car, farm, hard, heart, psalm
/ᴐ/ pot, cock, mock, wonder, pop
/ᴐ:/ port, court, call, caught, board
/u/ cook, put, mould, wood, should
/ʊ:/ fool, sue, ruler, soup, fruit
/ʌ/ but, cup, mud, ton, brother
Find out the remaining ten (10) vowel sounds as learnt previously during the first term and give four words at least at which they occur. E.g. /ӡ:/, /ǝ/, /ei/, /ǝl/, /ᴐl/, /ǝʊ/, /aʊ/, /iǝ/, /eǝ/, /ʊa/.
Write the symbol for each of the sound represented by the underlined letters in the following words: thanks, short, ooze, Luke, Norman, mother, yet, hour, hair, pure, thought, caught, should, saw, wrote, sings, sang, match, vanity, cow.