Civic Education Lesson Note SS 1 Second Semester

Lessons on Civic Education SS 1 Second Semester –


  1. Revision of Last Term’s Work
  2. Voter Education

Meaning of voting

Voters Registration and related rules

  • Voter education

Process of voting

Importance of voting

  • Election


Importance of election

  • Electoral Bodies in Nigeria


Composition and roles

  • Free & Fair Elections



  • Electoral malpractice

Meaning & Forms


Ways of preventing electoral malpractice

  • Planning for results

Need for planning


Consequences of not planning

  • The current Nigerian constitution


Sources of Nigerian constitution

  1. The current Nigerian




12 & 13                                    Test & Examination


TOPIC: Reviewed of last Term’s work

Teacher Review last Term work with the students and corrected them where necessary.

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Voter’s education is a process of teaching, training and learning about a political activity that will guide the electorates before, during and after the election in a country.


Voting in its widest meaning is an act of choosing candidates of choice by the electorates or voters.

The electorate will go to the polling station on a voting day, to exercise their civic right.

At the poll, each of the electorate or voter is given a ballot paper and after thumbprint secretly drops it in a ballot box of the candidate or party of his choice.  There are electoral officials to hand over the ballot papers to the voters and to monitor the conduct of the process.


Voter’s registration is the act of preparing an official record of those that are qualified to vote during the election period. i.e any body that attains the ages of 18years and above and of sane mind are qualified to vote.

Voters list must be publicly displayed for objections and complains that may arise.


See your work book for the exercise.

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Process of Voting

Before the date of Election each qualified voter is expected to have registered.  At the registration centre he will be given a voter’s card which qualifies him for voting on the day of election.

On election day, the electorate goes to the centre where he was registered.  He presents his voter’s card and he will be accredited for voting.

After accreditation, he is given the ballot paper where all the political parties and their logos are written.


  1. Voting create avenue for people to participate in the decision – making of their country.
  2. It is an instrument for a peaceful change of bad leaders or dictatorial government.
  3. Voting is the yard stick for measuring public opinion either to vote against during election period.
  4. It is an instrument for promoting national unity in a plural society like Nigeria.
  5. People are given equal status or equal political opportunity to elect their representatives.


  1. List the importance of voting or see your work book for exercise.

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An election can be defined as an act, or process of voting for a candidate to represent the people of a country in the various arms of government.

The concept of election implies that the voters have wider choices and can choose among them that will transform the country.


  1. Choice of leaders: Elections give the people in a country the opportunity for choosing their leaders into different political offices like the President, Governor, Legislators etc.
  2. It promotes Democracy: Election is one of the pillars of democracy.  Regular free and fair elections help in sustaining democracy in any country.
  3. Easy and peaceful change of Government: Elections provide an opportunity for the masses to peacefully remove bad government from office and ensures peaceful change of government from one regime to another.  Thanks to peaceful removal of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan from office and president Mohammadu Buhari comes in.
  4. It checks the excesses of Leaders: Leaders with oppressive and tyrannical tendencies tend to change knowing fully well that the electorates may not vote them in again if they do not rule well.  No thanks to the regime of late Military junta General Sanni Abacha in Nigeria.
  5. It provide opportunity for political education: Election provides a forum for political parties to give political education to the masses.  This is done through campaigns and rallies where parties unfold their manifestoes to the masses.


See your work book for exercise.




The independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is the main agent of democracy in Nigeria.  INEC is a permanent body created by the constitution to organize Federal, state and Local Government council elections in Nigeria.

Functions of Electoral Commission

  1. They educate Nigerian citizens about democracy and election process in Nigeria
  2. Registration of voters and party candidates: They organize how voters are registered before elections.  It also provides registers for candidates contesting for various political positions under various political parties e.g APC, PDP etc.
  3. Delimitation of constituency: They demarcate constituency boundaries for elections into Houses of Assembly, Representatives and that of the Senate.
  4. They control political parties Electoral commissions monitor the activities of political parties in Nigerian.
  5. They promote Democracy: They promote an enduring democratic culture in Nigeria through transparency.

State Independent Electoral Commission (SIEC)

Following the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the state Independent Electoral commission has power to

  1. Organize, undertake and supervise all elections to local Government within a state.
  2. Advise INEC on the compilation and Register of voters for Local Government election.

The SIEC has its own chairman and seven other persons that are normally appointed by INEC


See your work book for exercise.

Edudelight lessons



Over the years, electoral malpractices have been a major problems confronting the country.  Nigeria. Hence, the need for free and fair elections in Nigeria.

  1. The free and fair election is inevitable because it enhances peaceful co-existence of people in a country.
  2. It allows for visionary and dedicated leaders to emerge at all level in the country that will contribute positively to the growth and development of the country.
  3. The need to project the country’s name in the international community across the globe.
  4. Free and fair election helps to strengthen the democratic institution such as Legislature, Independent National Electoral commission, Judiciary, press etc.
  5. It foster democracy.


See your work book for exercise.

Edudelight lessons


TOPIC: Electoral Malpractice

Sub Topic: Forms of Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria.

  1. Compilation of fictitious names
  2. Illegal compilation of separate voter’s list.
  3. Falsification of election figures.
  4. Abuse of voter’s list exercise
  5. Allowing under age to vote
  6. Harassment, intimidation and victimization of candidates, agents and voters.
  7. Manipulation of the process by the ruling party
  8. Corruption and bias at various election tribunals

Causes of Electoral Malpractices

One of the causes of Electoral Malpractice in Nigeria is to perpetuate one ethnic group or party in office at the detriment of other ethnic groups.  This is done primarily for selfish and parochial interest i.e.

Ethnic/Cultural Hegemony in office forever.  This has been the bane of Nigeria political scene since independence.

No thanks to PDP that wanted to impose itself on the populace since May 29th 1999.  Thanks to coming to power of Buhari.  APC led government in 2015 April election in the presidential election.

Long years of Military rule in Nigeria coupled with external influence are traceable factors to electoral malpractice in Nigeria.


  1. There should be proper delimitation of constituency on equal population basis to give room for equal representation.
  2. The electoral body must be a true independent body and non-partisan
  3. The electoral commission must take make proper compilation of names of eligible voter’s list.
  4. The voter’s registers must be displayed to remove dead one’s name and as well include qualified ones
  5. Proper and adequate security must be put in place to create conducive atmosphere for electorates to exercise their voting rights.


see your work book for exercise.


TOPIC: Planning for Results


  1. To ensure and increase the rate of economic development.  Planning assist in increasing the rate of capital formation by raising the levels of income, saving and investment.
  2. To remove widespread unemployment
  3. To remove high level of poverty and bring about even distribution of resources to the people
  4. To promote risk management in executing public project and enhance organizational and individual learning.
  5. Planning would enhance proper growth and development so that we would be able to measure our performance with other Advanced Democracies of the west as well as “Asian Tigers – China, Malaysia, Singa pore and South Korea as well.


  1. Planning enable us to know what should be done, when, without proper planning, projects or programmes may be implemented at the wrong time or in the wrong manner and result in poor outcomes.
  2. Planning helps us to manage crises and ensure smoother implementation.
  3. Planning improves focus on priorities and lead to more efficient use of time, money and other resources.
  4. Planning helps to determine what success will look like.

A proper plan helps individuals and units to know whether the results achieved are those that were intended and to assess any discrepancies.


  1. Lack of planning or inadequate planning may lead to wastage of materials and human resources.
  2. It may lead to vicious circles of poverty.  If people are backward and illiterate, lack in technical skill, knowledge and entrepreneurial activity.  The natural resources will tend to remain unutilized, underutilized or even misutilized.
  3. There will be low rate of capital formation in the country low productivity leads to low real income, low saving, low investment and to low rate of capital formation.
  4. Lack of planning hindered economic growth and development in the society.
  5. Unplanned economy may lead to state of anarchy, chaos, kidnapping, acrimony, killing, harassment and intimidation of innocent citizens in the society.  No thanks to problems of kidnapping and militancy in Niger Delta, Boko Haram in the Northern Nigeria etc.


Planning can be defined as the process of setting goals, developing strategies, outlining the implementation arrangements and allocating resources to achieve those goals.


see your work book for exercise.


TOPIC: The Current Nigerian constitution.


The Constitution is the Fundamental law of the land. The constitution also states the rights, duties and obligations of the citizens e.g The 1999 constitution in Nigeria.


  1. History of the People

The history of the people had to be consulted in enacting a constitution past political developments do form a part of their history

  1. Acts of Parliaments

The laws made by the parliament form the constitutional frame work.

  1. Customs and Traditions.

In a plural society like ours, customs and Traditions, beliefs, norms and values are important when preparing a constitution.

  1. Past constitutions of the United States of America served as a model of the 1979 constitution.
  2. Books written by Chief Obafemi; Awolowo, Path to Nigeria Freedom also served as a guide in the constitution.  Others include Books written by Nnamdi Azikiwe, Myodyssey and Chiefy Anthony Enahoro among others.

Evaluation: See Akwa Past Questions papers for more practice

Edudelight lessons



SUB TOPIC: Functions of the 1999 constitution

  1. The Preamble:

A constitution contains a preamble which declare its aspiration

  • The political structure

It states the structure of government; whether unitary or Federal and at the same time defines the division of powers among the component units in the state.

  • The political institutions

The constitution also defines the powers and functions of there institutions such as the executive, Legislative and Judicial, Arms of government.

  • The Party System

The constitution also reveals the type of party system to adopt – one party, two-party or multi party systems.

  • Fundamental Human Rights

It defines the rights of citizens, their duties and obligations to the state.

  • Tenure of Office of government

The 1979 constitution states that a government should stay in office for four years.


  1. It allows for proper documentation and entrenchment of Fundamental human rights.
  2. It allays the fear of domination by the majority over the minority groups.
  3. Procedure for amendment is clearly stated i.e 2/3 majority of both houses.
  4. It served as easy reference for judges at the law courts while deciding cases.
  5. It ensures political stability.

The 1999 constitution maintained the Executive presidential system of government in which the president is the Head of State, the Head of Government in Chief of the Armed Forces.  It provides for clear separation of powers among organs of government.

Under the 1999 constitution, the executive powers of a state shall be vested in the Governor of that state and may be exercised by him either directly or through the Deputy Governor and commissioners of the Government of that state or officers in the public service of the state, while the Judicial powers of the Federation and the state are vested in the courts established for the federation and the states and the supreme court of Nigeria remains the highest court of Appeal for Nigeria.

The National Assembly shall remain Bicameral in nature with 109 members in the House of Senate (3 senators per state, and 1 for Abuja) while the house of Representatives has 360 members, each representing the 360 Federal constituencies.

The long list of local Government functions are state there

  1. It defines the educational qualification, therefore it reduces illiteracy and inexperience in government
  2. There is greater political awareness through local government administration
  3. It paves ways for civilian administration in Nigeria
  4. It states the rights and duties of citizens
  5. It upholds the principle of checks and balances which checks the excesses of those in authority.


  1. The constitution was imposed by the Military head of state
  2. It is difficult to amend due to the rigidity nature of the constitution
  3. The constitution was drafted to favour Abacha’s and Abdulsalam’s the then Military helmsmen.
  4. The constitution vested too much power on the president and the Federal government.
  5. There is too much centralization of the Judiciary which negates the principle of Federalism


Treat Akwa Past Question Papers

Nos 1 -100

Best wishes.

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