Food and Nutrition Lesson Note SS3 Second Term

Food and Nutrition for Secondary School –





WEEKS                     TOPICS

1.                     Revision/ beverages – definitions of beverages.

                        (b) Identify types of beverages; alcoholic and non- alcoholic.

                        (c) Nutritive value of beverages.

2.                     (A) nourishing drinks.

                        (b) Stimulating drinks.

3.                     Practical on beverages.

4.                     Special diet.

                        – Definition of the term.     

– Types of vegetarians.

                        – Invalids and convalescent diets.

                        – Overweight and underweight.

                        – Diets for fever and infections.

5.                     Experimental cookery –

                        (a) Collection of information on recipes.

                        (b) Creation of new recipes.

6.                     Test interpretation and cooking assignment.

7 – 12. Revision and Examination




TOPIC: Beverages


Beverage s are fluids apart from water consumed both as stimulants and also because they are palatable. They are drinks which have strong flavor and act as taste quenchers. Beverages are classified according to the nutritive values or the presence or absence of alcohol in them.

Alcoholic beverages:  they have the following characteristics:

– They contain fermented sugar.

– They act as sedatives when consumed excessively.

– They have strong flavors.

– weaken the body if the intake is not controlled.

– have very low nutritive value.

– Ready to serve e.g. beer, wines, stout, sprite etc.

Nonalcoholic drinks do not contain alcohol and they possess the following characteristics.

– Natural sugar content.

– Nutritive values are high in vitamins, proteins and fats.

– supply energy to the body.

– need some kind of local preparation before serving.

– Acts as stimulants (tea and coffee).

Examples are tea, coffee, cocoa, fruit juice, milk drink, lemon grass drink etc.

Nonalcoholic beverages are classified by their nutritive values and the grouping include:

1.   Nourishing beverages.

2.   Refreshing beverages

3.   Stimulating beverages.

Points to be considered when selecting the type of beverage to be prepared and served are:

1.   The nutritional needs of the individual.

2.   The health condition of the individual.

3.   The time of the day.

4.   The type of work done by the individual.

5.   The age of the individual.

6.   The weather condition of the place (cold or hot beverage).

Evaluation: state five characteristics of non alcoholic beverages



Nourishing beverages are drinks which have high food value i.e. rich in CH2O, fats and proteins e.g. cocoa drink, egg drinks, milk drink and cereal drinks. Milk and egg beverages are very nourishing and ideal for invalids, children and nursing mothers as they are rich in body building materials. Examples are milk shake, ice cream, orange milk shake, coffee milk shake, coffee and cream milk shake, egg nog, milk and honey.

            Cocoa drinks contains stimulating alkaloids but in less amount than tea or coffee. It also contains a considerable amount of fats, carbohydrate, protein and small amount of minerals. E.g. lemon grass, tea, beef tea and coffee. Coffee and tea contain caffeine and alkaloids which stimulates the central nervous system, lessen fatigue and the desire to sleep. They contain some volatile oils which give the infusion the characteristic flavor and also contain tannin which when liberated in hot H2O, give the characteristics bitter taste. Tannin also affects the digestion of protein by toughening the protein food nutrient causing digestive offset and the desire to sleep.

            Excessive intake of coffee especially may be harmful. Tea is mild and harmless stimulant, when sugar is added, it provides a supply of energy to the body, and it contains a small amount of riboflavin. Tea and coffee do not provide any nutritional value but when milk and sugar are added, they provide energy and some nutrients.


The following methods can be used in the preparation of coffee.

1.   Infusion.

2.   Percolation.

3.   Filtration.

4.   Dissolving.

REFRESHING BEVERAGES: refreshing beverages include commercial carbonated drinks and fruit juices and drinks. The fruit juices are prepared from fresh fruits such as oranges, pineapples, lemon etc. they can be made into concentration of juices or diluted to taste. They form a good source of vitamin C and sugar. Fruit drinks which are made from chemical powders and liquids sold commercially have no nutritive value. The juice of ripe citrus fruits like sweet oranges, grape fruits, tangerines etc. contain sugar , some mineral salts, small quantities if protein and vitamins. It is also a very good source of vitamin C. lemon juice is extracted and made into lemonade drinks which contain vitamin C, vitamin B2 and carotene.

      Beverages can be served as refreshing drinks or thirst quenchers; they can be used as protective drinks for sick people as well as those in good health. Intake of fruit drinks form a good addict to diet where there is deficiency of vitamin C. particularly on artificial feeding of babies and infants.

Assignment: write the preparation method of coffee infusion, percolation, and coffee filtration.

Food and Nutrition for Secondary School –





Nutritional needs of human beings vary according to their physiological stage, age and health condition. Therefore special consideration must be observed when preparing meals for different groups of people based on age and health condition.


Infants: infancy is the stage at which the rate of growth is rapid, it is also the stage at which infants are more susceptible to infections. They need a balanced diet prepared in an easily digestible form, serve attractively and in small proportion.

Basic nutritional requirements for infants

1.   High quality protein in an adequate quantity e.g. egg, milk.

2.   Adequate amount of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus for good bone development.

3.   Adequate amount of protective nutrients i.e. vitamins especially vitamin C for prevention of infections and vitamin A for good eye sight.

4.   Vitamin B12, folic acid and iron for blood synthesis.

5.   Vitamin B complex for i.e. B1, B2, B5 and B6 for energy metabolism and development of food appetite.

6.   Adequate amount of water to enhance digestion and excretion.

Adolescent: an adolescent is a person between 11 and 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid growth and the individual is usually engaged in energy demanding activities e.g. sports. Therefore they need food rich in carbohydrates and proteins as a result of the increased energy needs. During this period, sexual maturation is also experienced e.g. girls commence their menstrual cycle. Therefore adolescents need;

1.   High quality and quantity of proteins to meet their growth sport.

2.   Increased intake of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid to enhance blood synthesis.

3.   Foods served in large portions.

4.   Generous consumption of water.

5.   Adequate consumption of vitamin A, D, E and C.

6.   Adequate consumption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.

Adults and the aged: these people nutritional needs are not as high as both the infants and adolescents. They need nutrients for maintenance of the body processes and the everyday activities. An adult’s diet should be balanced and suitable for his work, health and age; a poor diet in adults could lead to different types of problems: the consumption of vegetables, fruits, skinned milk, lean fish and cereal products should be increased.

Pregnant and lactating women: the pregnant woman requires an abundant amount of protein to meet her own needs as well as to promote the growth of the foetus because the health of the foetus depends on the diet of the mother. The pregnant woman should take adequate blood producing and bone formation nutrients such as fruits rich in calcium, iodine and iron. Vitamin K is also essential so as to prevent excessive loss of blood during child birth. Lactating mothers should take balanced diet, a lot of fluids such as water, milk and fluids.

Invalids: an invalid is someone that is ill and confined to bed. In preparing food for the invalid, the following factors should be considered:

1.   Obey the doctor’s directives.

2.   Choose easily digestible foods and avoid oily and fatty foods.

3.   Use appropriate cooking methods that will enhance easy digestion.

4.   Allow variety in the diet.

5.   Serve the food hot and in attractive manner.

6.   Highly spiced foods should be avoided.

7.   Scrupulous cleanliness.

Convalescents: a convalescent is someone who is recovering gradually from an illness. The same factors considered for the invalids apply to the convalescents.

Obese patient: an obese patient is one who is overweight. The overweight is usually due to accumulation of excess fats or adipose tissue. These people should reduce their consumption of carbohydrates and fatty foods but take generous amount of vegetables, fruits and legumes. Regular exercise is also important to improve blood circulation and tighten the supply muscles.

Vegetarians: a vegetarian is someone who does not eat the flesh of animals or all the products derived from them. There are 3 types of vegetarians;

a.   Lacto ovo vegetarians: these are people who do not eat the flesh of animals, fish or poultry but take milk, milk products and eggs in addition to vegetables which they consume in generous amounts.

b.   Lacto vegetarians: these are people who do not eat the flesh of animals, fish, poultry or egg. However they take milk and milk products together with vegetables.

c.   Strict vegetarians: these people are known as vegans. They do not eat the flesh of animals, poultry and fishes as well as all the animals or dairy products. They consume only plants foods.


Fever is a condition in which the body temperature rises above normal. This may be a symptom of other diseases due to infections. Fever is characterized with the following:

–     Abnormal body temperature.

–     General weakness of the body.

–     Loss of appetite.

–     Sometimes vomiting.

–     Body dehydration.

At the onset of fever, infections may be associated. A clear fluid diet should be provided such as tea, coffee, ginger, fruit juice, fat free broth and water gruel could be given. A fever patient could be infected with diarrhea i.e. the frequent passing of watery stool with very offensive odor. The first attempt at the treatment of diarrhea therefore is rehydration. The best solution for rehydration is oral rehydration salt (ORS). It can be prepared locally at home with the following: 4 grams or 1 levelled tea spoonful of salt

                        40 grams or 8 levelled teaspoonful of sugar.

                        1 litre of water or a beer bottle.

When this is given to a diarrhea patient, it is known as oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Diarrhea leads to serious loss of body fluid and its major consequence is dehydration. This can be corrected by adequate intake of fluid, mineral and vitamin supplements, high calorie and high protein. As the situation improves, the normal diet can be introduced.

Evaluation state the guidelines for preparing an invalid meal

Assignment: prepare a balanced menu for strict, lacto and lacto ovo vegetarian.

Food and Nutrition for Secondary School –


TOPIC: Experimental cookery


Experimental cookery implies researching into local dishes and drinks. Research is a scientific process of finding solution to problems and discovering of new facts and addition of new information to the existing knowledge. Local dishes and drinks are taken by people of a particular place, locality, state or country.


A recipe is a set of instruction for preparing food, including a list of ingredients required and procedures.


1.   Information on recipes for local dishes and drinks could be obtained from people of different walks of life.

2.   From hotels, restaurants and canteens.

3.   From electronic and print media.

4.   People from different ethnic groups.


Information can be collected through;

a.   Interview.

b.   Questionnaire.

c.   Observation.

d.   Participation.

Importance of collecting information

1.   New facts for better nutritive values, likes and dislikes of the people.

2.   Faster methods of cooking to conserve their nutrients.

3.   Better methods of preparation to conserve their nutrients.

4.   Seasonal occurrence of some of the ingredients in the recipe.


1.   To prevent wastage of ingredients.

2.   To make room for adaptations of new recipes.

3.   To give correct qualities and method.

4.   Its use results in the correct quality of the products.

5.   To state the correct procedure for good results.

6.   It enables one to get the correct yield.

Creation of new recipes

A new way of preparing local dishes and drinks may be due to the following reasons.

1.   Scarcity of some ingredients currently in use.

2.   Surplus of local ingredients that could be used as a substitute.

3.   Cost (to cut down on cost).

4.   To bring varieties.

5.   It is economical.

6.   To revive the old customs.

7.   For special occassions.

8.   Acquisition of new knowledge of food value.

In conclusion, new recipes are a set of instructions and list of ingredients different from the existing ones, to modify the existing materials and methods for the preparation of our local dishes and drinks in order to utilize the available local foodstuffs.

Evaluation list four flours which can be subtituted for wheat flour

(b) state a recipe for any named snack dish using any of the flour listed above

WEEK 6: test interpretation and cooking assignment.

(purely practical)

Food and Nutrition for Secondary School –

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