THIRD TERM J.S.S. TWO HOME ECONOMICS E-NOTES – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK HOME ECONOMICS
|1||Resources and decision making: meaning and types of family resources, steps in decision making, simple personal and family decision.|
|2||Food nutrients: meaning of food nutrients, types, food sources, functions and deficiency symptoms of food nutrients.|
|3||Food hygiene and preparation: meaning and importance of food hygiene, guidelines for food hygiene, preparation of simple snacks and drinks e.g. fruit drink, chinchin, chips e.t.c.|
|4||Kitchen and kitchen equipment: types of kitchen layout, kitchen equipments and utensils, care of kitchen equipments.|
|5&6||Purchasing, processing, preservation and safety: meaning of food purchasing, processing and preservation. Perishable and non-perishable foods, risk factors in purchasing. Factors to consider when buying foods, wise buying practices, importance of buying good quality foodstuff.|
|7||Purchasing, processing, preservation and safety: preservation methods e.g freezing, sun-drying, salting e.t.c. food processing methods e.g. milling, fermentation, e.t.c. how to keep food safe (food storage method).|
|8||Edge finishes meaning and types of Edge finishes, methods of finishing edges.|
|9||Opening and fastenings: meaning of Opening and fastenings, types of Opening and fastenings, making of simple Opening and fastenings.|
|10 & 11||Revision and Examination|
TOPIC: REVISION OF LAST TERM’S WORK
TOPIC: RESOURCES AND DECISION MAKING
SUB-TOPIC: STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
DEFINITION OF FAMILY RESOURCES
Family resources are those things which the families can use to meet their needs and reach their goals.
CLASSIFICATION OF RESOURCES
- Human Resources: These are resources which exist within an individual. They are personal to each other. They include;
- Knowledge: this includes everything a person has observed, learned and remembers. Example is knowledge of how to launder the family clothes.
- Skill: these are special set of abilities that allow a person to perform certain tasks well. Examples are drawing, sewing, cooking, writing, cleaning and baking.
- Imagination: this is the ability of the mind to be creative and resourceful. The mind forms images that are not present to the senses. By working through a problem in your imagination, you can think through a situation before you act.
- Energy: this is the power that helps you get things done. Energy comes from the food you eat. Energy is used to do work.
- Time: time is used with other resources to reach goals. Everyone has the same amount of time, that is, 24 hours each day.
- Non-Human Or material Resources: These are resources that exist outside people but can be controlled, owned or used by the family. The two main types of material resources are family possessions such as furniture, car, houses, appliances, food, clothes, paper, pen e.t.c. and money which can be used to buy most things including other resources.
Other resources the family can use include:
Community resources such as schools, libraries, government agencies, hospitals, parks etc.
Natural resources such as air, water, land, plants, animals and minerals
DECISION MAKING IN THE FAMILY
MEANING OF DECISION MAKING
Decision making is the act of making a choice from alternatives courses of actions or things. Decision making can only take place when there are two things to choose from. When you are faced with only one course of action, there will be no decision making.
STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
The steps in decision making are:
- Identify the decision to be made: this involves defining a decision. For example, your problem could be to buy a new pair of shoes, you have to decide on what you will use the shoe for, the type of shoes, the colour, where to buy the shoes e.t.c. then you have to consider your other needs and the money available.
- List the alternatives: alternatives are different ways of doing a thing. Using the example in step 1, the alternatives could be to buy from second hand shops, from the market, shopping malls or from a boutique. You also have to list alternative colour of shoes, types of shoe e.t.c.
- Choose the best alternatives. To do this, you have to think about your values, goals, wants, money available and needs.
- Act on your decision: carry out your decision to the best of your ability. This means going to buy the shoes.
- Evaluate your decision: this involves judging the quality of the decision made or how well it works for you. For instance does the pair of shoes you selected go well with many of the dresses in your wardrobe? Sometimes, if the outcome of a decision is not what you expected or hope for, you may have to make a new decision.
SIMPLE PERSONAL DECISION MAKING
Some areas of simple personal decisions are:
- Food related decisions
- Clothing related decisions
- Housing related decisions
- Choosing friends
- Educational decisions
- What is decision makimg
- state and explain the steps in decision making
Assignment: list and explain five factors that can influence family decision.
TOPIC: FOOD NUTRIENTS
SUB-TOPIC: Types, food sources, functions and deficiency symptoms of food nutrients.
Food nutrients are the chemical substances in the food we eat. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, minerals, vitamins and water.
|Carbohydrates||Provides the body with heat and energy for work, surplus is stored as body fat||Yam, cassava, rice, maize, bread e.t.c.||Lack of energy, tiredness.|
|Fats and oils||Provides the body with heat and energy for work, surplus is stored as body fat||Margarine, butter, palm oil, groundnut oil e.t.c||Skin may become rough|
|Proteins||For growth, e.g. in children, adolescents and babies, for building new tissues, for repair of worn out or damaged tissues||Meat, fish, eggs, milk, soya bean, peas, beans e.t.c.||Poor growth and development, general weakness, kwashiorkor.|
|Minerals||For growth e.g. the bones and teeth, for proper working or functioning of the body||Milk, eggs, green vegetables, meat, beans, sea food e.t.c.||Poor functioning of the body e.g weak bones and teeth, tiredness, headache e.t.c.|
|Vitamins||Protects the body from diseases, helps the body use food for energy, growth and repair, important for vitality||Fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, milk, meat, butter, fish, kidney, beans e.t.c.||Body will be easily affected by diseases, weakness and loss of appetite will result,|
|Water||Helps digestion, important for body tissues and fluid such as saliva, blood, urine, sweat.||Fruits, the water we drink, vegetables, beverages e.t.c.||Normal digestion and other body functions will be affected.|
- What is balanced diet?
- List the food sources, functions and deficiency effects of food nutrients.
Assignment: prepare a balanced meal timetable for your family.
TOPIC: FOOD HYGIENE AND PREPARATION
SUB-TOPIC: Preparation of simple snacks and drinks
MEANING OF FOOD HYGIENE AND ITS IMPORTANCE
Food hygiene means preventing harmful bacteria from growing in food, by keeping the kitchen, appliance, tools and yourself clean as well as washing, coking, preserving and storing food properly. This is also called food sanitation.
Food hygiene is very important to health. This is because harmful bacteria can grow in food until the food becomes unsafe to eat. These bacteria are tiny living things that multiply rapidly. They can be seen only with a microscope. They spread food-borne diseases namely salmonella poisoning and botulism.
GUIDELINES AND RULES FOR FOOD HYGIENE
- Wash cooking utensils, cutting boards and other surfaces thoroughly every time you prepare food.
- Wash fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
- Wash the tops of cans such as canned milk, tomatoes, salad cream, corned beef etc before opening them.
- Keep pets such as pussy cats and dogs out of the kitchen
- Use clean plate for cooked food, never use the same plate that held the raw food.
- Wash your hands thoroughly before working with foods and after using the toilet
- Use a tissue paper when you must sneeze or cough and turn away from the food, then wash your hands.
- Cover and store leftover food in the refrigerator
- Cover your hair when in the kitchen so as to keep the hair out of the food.
- If insecticide is used to kill pests, do not allow it to come in contact with food or surfaces, utensils or contain that will touch food.
PREPARATION OF SIMPLE DRINK AND SNACK
¼ of medium sized pineapple
1 tsp lime juice (if desired)
Syrup to taste
280ml clean cold water
- Wash the whole pineapple.
- Cut off required size
- Peel and grate the pineapple
- Add water to the grated pineapple, pass through a clean strainer
- Add lime juice, syrup and water. Mix properly
- Chill and serve.
Preparation of sugar syrup
80g of granulated sugar
1 cup of water
- Place the sugar in clean sauce pan
- Add water
- Bring the mixture to boil
- Reduce the heat and simmer until the syrup is slightly thick
- Leave to cool.
Preparation of simple snack (chips)
Chips can be prepared from green plantain, yam, potatoes e.t.c.
2 fingers green plantain
50ml. Vegetable oil
Salt to taste.
- Wash and peel plantain
- Slice thinly
- Season slightly with salt
- Fry in deep oil until it is crisp and light brown
- Drain in a clean basket or kitchen paper. Serve hot.
- Explain the meaning of food hygiene
- Outline five guidelines for food hygiene
Assignment: find out any three snacks that are commonly eaten in your community, write out the recipe for each snack and the procedure for preparing them.
TOPIC: KITCHEN AND KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
SUB-TOPIC: Types of kitchen layout
The kitchen can be described as the laboratory in the home where food preparation takes place. The kitchen should be planned and arranged in such a way that food preparation and utilization of the tools and equipments will be made easy. A cheerfully decorated kitchen, planned for economy of space and movement will make the tasks of the housewife more enjoyable, pleasant and labour saving. There are three basic kitchen plans or layout.
- Corridor type: in this case, equipment and appliances are fixed against opposite walls
- L-Shaped type: in this type, the equipments and appliances are arranged along two adjoining walls.
- U-Shaped type: in this type, the equipments and appliances are fixed along two opposite walls and along the connecting wall.
KITCHEN UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT
Kitchen equipment and utensils are very important for food storage, preparation and cooking. Small kitchen tools such as knives and forks are called utensils while the large ones such as cookers and deep freezer are known as equipment.
TYPES OF KITCHEN UTENSILS
- Measuring utensils: these are used to measure ingredients for food preparation. They include:
- Dry measuring cups
- Liquid measuring cups
- Measuring spoons.
- Mixing equipment and utensils: used to blend and mix ingredient e.g mixing bowls, mixing spoons, whisks, hard grinder
- Cutting and chopping utensils: used for cutting and chopping food into smaller pieces, they include knives, cutting/chopping boards, peelers, kitchen shears, and graters.
- Other kitchen utensils include colanders, strainers, spatula, turner, tongs, cooking forks, cooking spoons, cooking pots, frying pans, sauce pans e.t.c.
TYPES OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT/APPLIANCES
The kitchen appliances are those pieces of equipment powered by either gas or electricity. There are small and large kitchen appliances.
- Small kitchen appliances: these can be moved easily from one place to another e.g. toaster, hand-held mixer, blender, food processor, electric frying pan e.t.c.
- Large kitchen appliances: these are major kitchen equipment. they are mostly fixed and once installed, they are not usually move from one place to another. They include microwave ovens, deep freezer, gas cooker, refrigerator e.tc. those that do not make use of electricity or gas include; the sink unit, kitchen cabinets e.t.c.
GENERAL CARE OF KITCHEN EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS
- Each piece of kitchen equipment and utensils has to be used correctly to obtain the best results
- Follow the manufacturer’s manual for the use and care of each equipment
- Preserve the manual as long as the equipment is in use
- Repair appliances and utensils promptly.
- Wash kitchen utensils immediately after use and store properly.
- Identify the three different types of kitchen layout
- State the differences between kitchen utensils and equipments and give examples.
Assignment: draw the diagram of the three different types of kitchen layout.
WEEK: SIX & SEVEN
TOPIC: FOOD PURCHASING, PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND SAFETY
SUB-TOPIC: Perishable and non- perishable foods
Meaning of food purchasing
Food purchasing is the process of buying foodstuff for the consumption of family members inorder for it to be readily available at all times or as at when needed.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN BUYING FOODS
- Size of the family
- Nutritional needs of family members, likes and dislikes
- Food preservation and storage facilities available to the family
- Quality of food
- Food in season
- Money available
- Buy non-perishable foods in bulk and store properly
- Purchase vegetables and fruits as and when needed if possible
- Buy where foodstuff is best and cheapest
- Avoid waste by purchasing just the foods the family will eat.
WISE BUYING PRACTICES
- Make a good shopping list
- Keep to the shopping list when buying
- Ensure that there are adequate storage facilities for the foodstuff to be purchased.
- Buy foods that are in season
- Judge the quality of food before buying
- Judge values of food before buying
- Check the measurement e.g. cups and scales when buying foods such as grains, pulses and gari
- Read labels on food containers such as canned foods, bottles fats and oil e.t.c. check for expiry dates, Nafdac No, weight, volume, food content e.t.c.
- Make bulk purchases whenever possible
- Compare values and prices in different stores
IMPORTANCE OF BUYING GOOD QUALITY FOODSTUFFS
- Good quality foodstuffs are fresh and wholesome
- Their nutrient content is still intact
- They keep well in storage
- They are not yet attacked by food spoilage organisms
- They are appetizing and taste good
- They are economical because there is little or no wastage. This is because they are still fresh
- They have good appearance e.g fresh fruits.
PERISHABLE AND NON-PERISHABLE FOODS
Perishable foods are those foods that can spoil easily. Examples of perishable foods are fresh meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, milk and butter.
HINTS ON STORAGE OF PERISHABLE FOODS
- Fresh meat and fish can be stored in the freezer.
- Fruits and vegetables can be stored at the lowest part of the refrigerator
- Prolonged storage of fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator can cause some of them to lose their taste, colours and nutritive values.
Non-perishable foods are those foods that do not spoil easily. These can be kept for a long time if stored properly. Non-perishable foods include rice, maize, different types of beans, flour, sugar, yam, dried maize. These foods can be bought in bulk and stored outside the refrigerator.
HINTS ON STORAGE OF NON-PERISHABLE FOODS
- Store only foods that are free from weevils and other insects.
- Store food in dry and well covered containers.
- Foods such as beans, maize, soya bean e.t.c. can be stored for very long periods in air-tight plastic containers.
- state 3 points to consider when storing non- perishable foods
- State the factors to consider when buying foods
- Outline five wise buying practices and five importance of buying good quality foods.
TOPIC: FOOD PURCHASING, PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND SAFETY
SUB-TOPIC: HOW TO KEEP FOOD SAFE
FOOD PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
Food preservation is the caring for or treating food in such a way that it will be kept in good condition for a long period of time. A preserved food can be stored for a longer period than a raw food.
METHODS OF PRESERVING FOOD
- Solar or sun drying: This is drying by mere spreading the food stuff in the sun on a mat or concrete floors e. g. cassava, maize, melon etc.
- Smoking: Such food as fish, meat and some root crops are preserved by smoking. In some cases, the smoked food items are later subjected to solar or sun drying.
- Freezing: The water content of the food stuff is frozen and then sublimed under vacuum. Heat is supplied by conduction or radiation. Example of food dried by these methods is, fish, meat and vegetables.
- Canning: this is preservation of food by sealing it in air tight containers and applying heat. It is commonly used for fruits and vegetables.
Food storage involves keeping preserved or purchased food in safe condition and suitable facility for use.
FOOD STORAGE FACILITIES
- Plastic food container: they are suitable for storing liquid such as palm oil, flour e.g. cassava, yam, wheat, dried grains and pulses e.g. maize, beans, rice, ground food ingredients e.g. egunsi, ogbono, others such as sugar, salt e.t.c.
- Food store: it is also a place for storing food. It is often part of the kitchen
- Food storage cupboards, cabinets and shelves
- Refrigerators and freezers: food spoilage can be prevented by storing foodstuffs under cold conditions. This is because the bacteria or micro-organisms which cause food spoilage are generally inactive under very cold conditions.
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD
- It prevents food from spoilage
- It prevents loss of nutrients
- It helps the homemaker to save money
- It saves time and energy of going to the market always.
- State four methods of preserving food
- Outline four storage facilities
- state the importances of proper storage of food.
Assignment: make a research on how post harvest storage of beans and maize is carried out
TOPIC: EDGE FINISHES
SUB-TOPIC: POINTS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING AN EDGE FINISHING
Edge finishing is the process of neatening the raw edge of articles or garments. Necklines, hems or low edges, open seams, waist lines of garments and skirts require different types of finishes.
The edge finishing processes include pinking, over-casting, edge-stitching, zig-zag finishing and bound finishing.
EDGE FINISHING PROCESSES
- Pinking: this is the process of neatening or finishing with pinking shears. It is suitable for bulky fabrics that do not fray.
- Over casting: this can be done with either hand or machine. It is suitable for all fabrics.
- Edge stitching: this is machine finishing. It is very neat and strong. It is good for fabrics that fray.
- Zig-zag: this is made with zig-zag attachment of the sewing machine.
- Bound seam finishing: crossway or bias strips are used for this, it is suitable for heavy fabrics that fray easily.
USES OF EDGE FINISHING
- To neaten the edge of the garment.
- To secure the edge and prevent fraying or ravelling of fabric.
- To decorate an edge e.g. using bias binding for finishing necklines and armholes.
POINTS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING AN EDGE FINISHING
- The type of material or fabric to be finished
- The shape of the edge to be finished
- The purpose of the finishing.
- What is edge finishing?
- Mention the five processes of edge finishing
- Outline three uses of edge finishing and points to consider in choosing edge finishing
Assignment: Explain opening and fastening and mention five types of fastening.
TOPIC: OPENING AND FASTENING
SUB-TOPIC: Points to consider when making openings and choosing fastenings
Openings are features in garments. They help us to put on and take off our clothes. There are different kinds of openings. They can also be used to decorate the garment.
POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN MAKING OPENINGS
- The opening should be suitable for the position on the garment
- It should be suitable for the texture of the fabric
- It should be long enough to serve its purpose
- It should be as neat and invisible as possible
- It should be placed in a place where it will be easy to fasten. The two sides of the opening should be of equal lengths
- The opening should lie flat when fastened.
TYPES OF OPENINGS
- Continuous wrap openings (also called continuous strip opening): This is a short opening; it can be fastened with hook and eye, buttons and button holes and press studs. Continuous wrap openings is suitable for;
- Very fine and light materials or fabrics
- Side openings on pyjamas, shorts, a shirt and wrist openings on long sleeves.
- Children’s clothes and night dresses.
- Faced slit opening: The faced slit opening can be used for;
- Front or back neck openings
- wrist cuff openings on long sleeves set into a band
- it can also be used as decoration.
Most garments need openings. Fastenings are devices on things attached to the openings.
USES OF FASTENINGS
- Like openings, fastenings allow the garment to be put on and to be taken off.
- They keep the opening in position while the garment is being worn
- They protect the opening from strain or stretching.
- They can also be used for decoration
TYPES OF FASTENINGS
- Zips: These are useful on blouses, dresses jackets, trousers e.t.c.
- Press studs: These are used where there is less strain
- Hooks and eye / bars: These are used where there is strain, to prevent gapings. It can also be used to fasten the end of a neck opening.
- Buttons and loops: These are used on openings without a wrap
- Buttons and button hole: These are used on openings with a wrap
- Eyelets and cords: These are used to fasten faced slit openings on blouses and children’s dresses.
POINTS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING FASTENER
- The type of opening to be fastened
- The type of fabric
- The use of the fastening
- The part of the garment to be fastened
- The style of the garment
- The fastening should match the garment in colour.
- what are edge finishes?
- state uses of edge finishes
- Explain the process of making zip fastening
- Explain the process of attaching hook and eye and press studs
WEEK: ELEVEN & TWELVE
TOPIC: REVISION AND EXAMINATION