Civic Education Notes For SS 3 Second Term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK CIVIC EDUCATION SS 3 SECOND TERM
1 Revision/Constitutional Democracy
2 Rule of Law
3 Civil Service
4 Civil Service Commission
5 Citizenship / Withdrawal of citizenship
8 Civil Society
9 Human Rights
- Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 3 by Sola Akinyemi.
- Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools by R.W. Okunloye.
- 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
TOPIC: CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
Constitutional democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people which is based on the supremacy of the constitution. It can also be explained as a democratic system in which the will of the people prevail, there fundamental human rights recognized and protected and the principle of rule of law strictly adhered to.
TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
- DIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is also known as classical democracy. It is a form of democracy in which all adult citizens take active part in the management and political running of the state. This type of democracy was practiced in Athens, the ancient city of Greece.
- INDIRECT DEMOCRACY
This is also called representative democracy. This form of democracy is built on the principle of majority rule because it allows a few elected representatives to make decisions and formulate policies on behalf of the people. In other words, a representative democracy is a type of democracy in which registered and qualified electorates vote during election to determine who will represent their interest in government.
Representative government becomes important and replace direct democracy as a result of the complexity in the structure and system of the modern state or society which has made the direct form of democracy in-appropriate and ineffective. Virtually all state in the world practicing democracy today operates a representative democracy.
Explain the types of constitutional democracy.
FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
- POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
In a constitutional democracy, the people posses the final political authority in making decisions that relate to public issues. They also have the power to remove any of their representatives that fails to represent their interest in government by not voting for such candidates in subsequent elections. Thus, the citizens opinion should be respected in a true democracy.
- MAJORITY RULE
Democracy is a game of number, the candidate who enjoys popular acceptance by getting the highest vote usually wins election. The principle of majority rule further explains that government decisions must reflect popular interests and opinion of the people.
- MINORITY RIGHT
In a true democracy, majority have their way and minority have their say. The interest and opinion of the people who are in the minority group is usually unpopular and as a result they tend to be intimidated. However, constitutional democracy ensures that the minority interest is protected and their opinion listened to. It also ensures that everybody in the state enjoys their fundamental human rights as provided by the constitution.
- RULE OF LAW
Constitutional democracy operates with the principle of rule of law which states that everybody is equal before the law and that the law of a state is supreme.
- PERIODIC ELECTION
Constitutional democracy is characterized by a regular and periodic election. This election must be free and fair, and the electoral body must be allowed to operate independently without interference.
- EQUAL ACCESS TO POLITICAL OPPORTUNITIES
In constitutional democracy, everybody has equal rights to vote and contest during election. The voting during election must be one man, one vote. Also, sex and socio-economic status should not be used as a means of political discrimination.
- INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY
The judiciary in a constitutional democracy operates as an independent body which is free from the influence of the executive and legislative arms of government.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- Define constitutional democracy.
- State and explain the features of constitutional democracy.
- What is independence of the judiciary?
- Explain rule of law.
- Mention the principles of rule of law.
Read on Constitutional Democracy and its Features in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- An organization that can present candidates for election is called (a) pressure group (b) political party (c) electoral commission
- The act of choosing a leader by voting is called (a) franchise (b) appointment (c) election
- _________ is a document that contains the name and details of people who are qualified to vote during election? (a) ballot paper (b) ballot box (c) voters register
- which of these forms of government best promote the principle of rule of law (a) democracy (b) monarchy (c) oligarchy
- Democracy means _________? (a) rule by the rich people (b) rule by a few people (c) rule by the people
- State three benefits of constitutional democracy.
- Mention two disadvantages of constitutional democracy.
TOPIC: RULE OF LAW
Rule of Law is the Principle that law (as administered by the ordinary courts) is supreme and that all citizens (including members of the government) are equally subject to it and equally entitled to its protection. It can also be defined as the predominance of law over everybody.
The concept of the rule of law was popularized by professor A.V. DICEY in his book titled ‘introduction to the law of the constitution’ published in 1885. It emphasizes that government should rule according to the provisions of the constitution and that the government should be subject to the law. Also that no citizen should be punished except as prescribed by the law. The rule of law is also fundamental to the principle of separation of power which condemns the concentration of power in a single arm of government to avoid abuse of power.
- Explain the concept of rule of law.
- Who popularized the concept of rule of law?
FEATURES OR PRINCIPLES OF THE RULE OF LAW
- Equality before the law: this states that all men are equal before the law and that no one is above the law. The law should not be manipulated to favor anyone irrespective of wealth, post, class or status. All citizens of a country should enjoy equal access to the law of the land, equal right to fair hearing etc.
- Impartiality: this means that the due process of law should be followed in dealing with offenders. No one should be made to suffer any abuse of right, loss of personal liberty or punished in any way unless found guilty by the law court.
- Guarantee of fundamental human rights: all citizens of a country should enjoy their fundamental human right without any form of abuse. Such rights include right to life, right to freedom of movement, right to freedom of expression, right to fair hearing etc.
- There should be separation of power between the three arms of government. That is, separation of power between the executive, judiciary and the legislature.
- The law should be supreme on both the government and the citizens. Government should rule in accordance to law of the country.
- Explain the concept of rule of law.
- Explain five features of the rule of law.
FACTORS LIMITING THE APPLICATION OF THE RULE OF LAW
The following are the factors that can limit the rule of law:
- State of emergency: the rule of law may be limited when a state of emergency is declared in a place. This can lead to abuse of human rights such as restriction of movement.
- The type of government in operation: the type of government such as military government can lead to autocracy and dictatorship which will limit the application of the rule of law.
- Partial judiciary: when there is a partial judiciary or lack of independence of the judiciary, the rights of individuals may not be guaranteed and this can also lead to the limitation of the rule of law.
- Special or administrative tribunals: such tribunals adopt special system of trial different from that of the ordinary courts and they do not allow appeal against their judgment.
- Diplomatic immunity: ambassadors cannot be sued and prosecuted in the countries where they are serving rather they can be repatriated. Also, some people in government such as the president or governors enjoy immunity.
- Parliamentary immunity: members of the parliament cannot be sued or prosecuted based on the statements they make on the floor of the house.
- Security of state: the rule of law can be limited when security personnel such as the police carries out their duty to maintain security, and law and order. In such cases, some peoples’ right may be violated.
- Insanity: the rule of law does not apply to people suffering from mental disorder and they are therefore not treated equally under the law.
FACTORS THAT CAN AID THE SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF THE RULE OF LAW
- Offenders should be tried publicly without any form of secrecy.
- Existence of a free press.
- Existence of a democratic system of government.
- Independent and impartial judiciary.
- Granting of citizens the right to appeal.
- Separation of powers between the arms of government.
- The constitution should be supreme.
- Justice should not be delayed.
- Explain at least five factors that can limit the application of the rule of law
- How can a successful application of the rule of law be achieved?
IMPORTANCE OF THE RULE OF LAW
- It guarantees equality before the law.
- It protects individuals’ right.
- It made the law supreme.
- Both the ruler and those they are ruling are equal before the law.
- It guarantees freedom of the judiciary.
- An accused person is not condemned until he or she is proven guilty by the court of law.
- It encourages separation of power.
- It also guarantees checks and balances.
- Give five factors affecting the successful application of the rule of law.
- State the importance of rule of law.
- What are those factors that can aid the successful application of the rule of law.
- What is a constitution?
- Mention the arms of government.
Read on the limitations of Rule of Law in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schoolby Sola Akinyemi.
- Which of the following limits the rule of law (a) supremacy of law (b) citizens fundamental human right (c) immunity granted to diplomats
- To promote justice in a state, judges must (a) belong to the ruling party (b) punish people who oppose them (c) enjoy security of tenure of office
- The right of citizens to vote and be voted for is termed (a) indirect election (b) general election (c) franchise
- Military government are likely to be (a) accountable (b) democratic (c) dictatorial
- The fundamental laws of a country are contained in her (a) constitution (b) manifesto (c) political agenda
- Write five advantages of the rule of law.
- Give four reasons why people reject military rule in Africa.
TOPIC: CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service is a department in the executive arm of government which is responsible for the execution of policies and programmes of the government. The civil service workers are known as Civil Servants. Each ministry in the civil service is headed by Ministers or Commissioners.
Characteristics of Civil Service
- Neutrality: Civil service workers are not expected to participate in partisan politics unless they resign their appointment.
- Permanence: The civil service is a permanent government institution that does not change with the government. The workers also enjoy security of job.
- Anonymity: A civil servant is not expected to reveal or speak to the press disclosing official secrets unless authorized by the minister.
- Impartiality: Civil servants are also expected to serve any government or political party in power without fear or favour.
- Merit: Employment into the civil service is based on merit and not to be based on favouritism.
- Expertise: Civil servants are expected to be experts in the functions they perform. This is because they put in long years of service.
- Define civil service
- State five characteristics of civil service.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
- Formulation of policies.
- They ensure the implementation and execution of government policies.
- They give useful advice to the government through the ministers or commissioners.
- They act as intermediary between the government and the general public in dissemination of information.
- Through delegated legislation, the civil service performs legislative function by making bye-laws and such laws are obeyed.
- The civil servants provide information and help in the preparation and execution of annual budget and yearly statement of expected income and expenditure.
- The civil service provides social services to the people which help to improve lives.
- It also provides employment opportunities to members of the public.
- The civil service also keeps official documents of government.
- They also perform functions such as preparing bulletins, collection of taxes, representing ministries and government in certain public functions and meetings.
- List four functions of the civil service.
- Explain two of the functions you have listed.
CONTROL OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
The civil service can be controlled through the following ways:
- Legislative Control: The legislature through the civil service appropriations can exercise control over civil servants and the ministers or commissioners can also be invited for questioning and to explain the activities of their ministries on the floor of the House.
- Public /Civil Service Commission Control: This commission is vested with the powers of appointing, promoting, transferring, discipline and dismissal of civil servants.
- Ministry of Finance Control: Ministries of finance and establishment exercise control over other ministries under the civil service. These two ministries deal with matters relating to other ministries annual expenditure, salaries and pensions.
- Hierarchical Control: The civil service is structured in a way that each higher hierarchy controls others below it.
- Judicial Control: The court can also control civil service through trying and punishing defaulters of criminal cases involving anybody including civil servants.
- Public Complaint commission (OMBUDSMAN). This is an independent body but have the power to listen to and investigate complains of citizens which may however relate to the civil service or a particular civil servant.
- Press Control: The press through their investigative journalism may criticize defaulters of public office holders and this serves as effective check on the civil service.
Problems that hinder the effective functioning of the civil service are
- Political instability
- Bribery and corruption
- Negative attitude towards work
- Low incentive
- Political interference
- Tribalism, nepotism and favouritism
- Bureaucracy i.e too much emphasis is laid on protocol especially on issues that demand urgent attention.
- Whose duty is it to fund the civil service?
- Explain the various ways of controlling civil service.
- What are the ways through which civil service is controlled?
- Explain the problems hindering the effectiveness of the civil service.
- Explain the various method of political competition.
- Give the full meaning of E.F.C.C.
- What is the meaning of N.G.O?
Read on Control of the Civil Service in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- The judicial control of the civil service is vested in (a) the ministry of finance (b) the press (c) the law court
- All are ways of controlling the civil service except by (a) civil service commission
(b) ombudsman (c) local government chairman
- Lack of adequate control of the civil service leads to all except (a) effectiveness (b) poor management (c) inefficiency
- When too much emphasis is laid on protocol and official rules, it is termed _______
(a) Autocracy (b) Bureaucracy (c) Efficiency
- All are problems facing the civil service except (a) Low incentive (b) Nepotism (c) Lack of unskilled manpower
- List the structure of the civil service.
- Explain each structure you have listed above.
TOPIC: THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
The civil service commission is an independent body set up by the government to recruit people into the civil service. The commission is charged with the responsibility of promotion, discipline and dismissal of civil servants.
The civil service commission is made up of members holding offices based on good behavior and criteria set up by the government and it has a chairman.
Functions of the Civil Service Commission
- Recruitment: It is empowered to recruit people into the civil service through open competition and interview.
- Promotion: It is empowered to promote civil servants from one salary scale to another.
- Discipline: The commission also disciplines civil servants who disobey the rules and regulations of the civil service.
- Transfer: It transfers civil servants from one ministry to another
- Dismissal: It has the power to dismiss any civil servant who is found wanting in the discharge of his duties.
- Retirement: It is also charged with the responsibility of recommending civil servants who have reached the stipulated retirement age for retirement.
- Advice: It advices the government on areas of appointment of senior officers.
- Condition of service: The commission states down terms and conditions of service, allowances and remunerations of civil servants.
- The civil service commission is set up by?
- Explain three responsibilities of the civil service commission.
- What is Civil Service Commission?
- Explain the functions of civil service commission.
- The civil service commission is usually headed by?
- Explain capitalist democracy.
- Mention five features of democracy.
Read on Civil Service Commission in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- The Civil Service Commission is headed by a (a) chairman (b) councilor (c) principal
- The body responsible for regulating the civil service is _______ (a) Civil Defence Commission (b) Civil Society Association (c) Civil Service Commission
- All are functions of civil service commission except (a) Dismissal (b) transfer (c) embezzling
- The civil service commission is meant to recruit people into the civil service based on ____ (a) merit (b) sentiment (c) tribalism
- Nepotism is a problem facing the civil service commission. True/False
- State four problems facing the Civil Service Commission.
- Explain four ways of solving the problems.
Citizenship is the state of being a citizen. It also means the state of having rights and duties of a citizen.
A citizen is a legal member of a state or country.
The citizenship of Nigeria can be acquired through the following ways:
- Citizenship by birth
- Citizenship by registration or marriage
- Citizenship by naturalization
- What is citizenship?
- State ways of acquiring citizensip.
CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH
The following people are citizens of Nigeria by birth
- Every person born in Nigeria either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents are citizens of Nigeria.
- Every person born outside Nigeria either of whose parents is a citizen of Nigeria.
CITIZENSHIP BY REGISTRATION OR MARRIAGE
A person can become a citizen of Nigeria through registration if he satisfies the following conditions:
- he is a person of good character
- he has shown a clear intension of his desire to live in Nigeria
- he has taken the Oath of Allegiance prescribed in the Constitution.
Citizenship by registration or marriage is applicable to the following people;
- Any woman who is married to a citizen of Nigeria.
- Every person of full age(18 years above) and capacity born outside Nigeria any of whose grandparents is a citizen of Nigeria.
- Mention the ways of acquiring citizenship of Nigeria.
- What is citizenship by registration?
CITIZENSHIP BY NATURALIZATION
An alien or a foreigner can become a citizen of Nigeria through naturalization if he satisfies the following conditions:
- he is a person of good character
- he has shown a clear intension of his desire to live in Nigeria
- he has taken the Oath of Allegiance prescribed in the Constitution
- he is a person of full age and capacity
- he is approved by the Governor of the state where he wishes to be resident and also accepted by the local community
- he is a person who has made or is capable of making useful contribution to the growth and development of Nigeria
- if he has resided in Nigeria for a period of fifteen years (15 years).
WITHDRAWAL OF CITIZENSHIP
This simply means a situation whereby citizenship conferred on an individual particularly a foreigner is denied.
Withdrawal of citizenship can occur if:
- there is dual citizenship
- if the person is jailed for more than three years within seven years of given him the citizenship
- if the person’s behavior, action or speech is considered disloyal to the country
- if the person act as a spy or assist the enemy of the country especially during the period of war or leaks the country secret to enemies of the country
- if it is discovered that the person presented false or fake documents to acquire the citizenship.
A person shall forfeit his Nigerian citizenship if he is not a citizen of Nigeria by birth and acquires or retains the citizenship of another country of which he is not a citizen by birth.
Explain the reasons that can warrant withdrawing citizenship granted to a foreigner.
- Explain citizenship by naturalization.
- List the conditions of acquiring citizenship by naturalization.
- Define value.
- State the types of value.
- Explain positive value.
Read on Citizenship and Dual citizenship from the 1999 constitution of Nigeria.
- A legal member of a country is (a) an alien (b) a citizen (c) a foreigner
- Citizenship laws are contained in the country’s ______ (a) manifesto (b) agenda
- A person must be of full age before he or she can be granted citizenship under naturalization. The full age means (a) 16 years above (b) 20 years above (c) 18 years above
- The issue of granting citizenship is usually addressed to the (a) president (b) senators
- If you were born in Nigeria, you are a citizen of Nigeria by (a) registration (b) birth
- What is honorary citizenship?
- Nigerian citizenship can be acquired through how many ways?
A Constitution of a country is the whole body of fundamental laws or rules that guides a country. It can also be defined as a written or unwritten document containing the rules and regulations of a country.
Types of constitution include: written constitution, unwritten constitution, flexible constitution, rigid constitution, unitary constitution etc.
SOURCES OF A CONSTITUTION
The sources of a constitution can be gotten from different ways which are:
- The acts of parliament; these are laws that are passed by members of the legislature (National Assembly) and State House of Assembly.
- Historian Documents; these are histories of man and the country which could be used as part of the constitution. Examples are The Bill of right or fundamental human rights of 1689, the politician rights of 1628 etc.
- Common Laws of the land; these are customs, conventions, norms, values, principles or traditions of the country.
- Written and commentaries of constitutional lawyers or scholars of note; example is the rule of law by A.V. Dicey, separation of power by Baran Montesquieu etc.
- International agreements and treaties; these are agreements and treaties that are signed between and among nations of the world e.g the UDHR agreement on human rights.
- What is a constitution?
- Mention the sources of a constitution.
ROLES OR IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION
- It brings law and orderliness into a country
- It safeguards the rights of a citizen
- It prevents dictatorship
- It spells out the duties and obligations of the citizens
- It also explains the limitations to power of the different arms of government
- It gives room for effective governance
- It is used as reference in the court of law
- State the sources of a constitution.
- Explain the importance of a constitution.
- What is human trafficking?
- State the causes of human trafficking.
- How can the problems of human trafficking be solved?
Read on types of constitution in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- A document containing the rules and regulations of a country is known as (a) document (b) manifesto (c) constitution
- All are sources of a constitution except (a) international treaties (b) customs and tradition (c) party manifesto
- A constitution enhances (a) effective governance (b) corruption (c) election rigging
- Nigerian constitution is (a) written constitution (b) unwritten constitution (c) unitary constitution
- A constitution is a legal document. True / false
- State four sources of a constitution.
- Explain unitary constitution.
This is a system of government in which political powers in a country are shared between the central government and the component units.
The central government is the federal government and the component units are the state and local governments.
Nigerian federalism can be traced back to 1914 when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated because during this period, the powers of government were shared between the central governmentheaded by the Governor-General and the governments of Southern protectorates and Northern protectorates.
REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA
- FEAR OF DOMINATION: in a multi-ethnic nation such as Nigeria, the fear of one ethnic group dominating other smaller groups led to the adoption of federalism in Nigeria.
- TRIBAL DIFFERENCIES: the differences in culture, religion, language, custom and tradition also contributed to the adoption of federalism.
- PROTECTION OF MINORITY GROUPS: it was also adopted to protect the minority groups from being oppressed by the majority group.
- SIZE OF THE COUNTRY AND LARGE POPULATION: the large geographical size of the country and the high population also contributed to federalism.
- TO BRING GOVERNMENT CLOSER TO THE PEOPLE: federalism makes the government nearer to the people e.g local government in various states and communities.
- FOR LARGER MARKET: federalism will bring about expansion in the local markets.
- What is federalism?
- State the reasons for adopting federalism in a state.
FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF FEDERALISM
- Division of governmental powers between the central government and the component units.
- The different levels of government derive their powers from the constitution.
- Adoption of a written constitution.
- The constitution is rigid.
- The constitution is supreme.
- Supremacy of the central government.
- Existence of bicameral legislature.
ADVANTAGES OF FEDERALISM
- It brings about unity.
- It brings about faster economic development.
- It brings government closer to the people.
- It prevents dictatorship.
- It prevents fear of domination.
- It protects the interest of minority groups.
- It increases the participation of people in government.
- It encourages checks and balances.
- Human rights are protected.
- It encourages healthy competition among the different states.
PROBLEMS OR DISADVANTAGES OF FEDERALISM
- It can lead to inter-tribal conflict.
- It is expensive to operate.
- It causes delay in decision making.
- It can result into unhealthy rivalry among the different regions or state.
- It can lead to secession.
- It leads to election rigging and violence.
- Brings about problem of revenue allocation.
- The constitution is difficult to amend.
SHARING OF POWER UNDER FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
In a federal system of government, powers and duties of government are shared between the central government and the component units. This is to ensure that no level of government dominates or oppresses another level of government and to also ensure independent of the different levels of government.
The powers are shared as follows:
- EXCLUSIVE LIST OR POWER; The exclusive power reside mainly with the federal government (central government). Some of the powers or subject matters in the exclusive list include – police affairs, currency, foreign affairs, defence, telecommunication, immigration and emigration, census, passport etc.
- CONCURRENT LIST OR POWER; Theseare powers shared between the central government and the state government as stipulated by the constitution. However, if there is disagreement between the central government and the state government on issues contained in this list, the central or federal law will prevail over the state law.Matters on concurrent list include – agriculture, health, education, road, banks, insurance etc.
- RESIDUAL LIST OR POWER; In Nigeria, residual powers are put under the control of the local government in order to maintain law and order at the grass root level. Powers under this list include – chieftaincy matters, motor parks, markets etc.
- What is federalism?
- Explain advantages of federalism.
- Mention the disadvantages of federalism.
- What is drug abuse?
- Highlight the causes of drug abuse.
Read on federal system of government in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- A type of government in which power is shared between the central and component unit is (a) monarchy (b) federalism (c) confederation
- ______ encourages federalism except (a) large population (b) small geographical area (c) differences in language and culture
- Nigeria operates ______ system of government (a) unitary (b) federal (c) military
- All are problems of federalism except (a) allocation problem (b) election rigging (c) lack of natural resources
- Under a federal system of government, the constitution is usually _____ to amend (a) simple (b) difficult (c) flexible
- State five advantages of federalism.
- Highlight five disadvantages of federalism.
TOPIC: CIVIL SOCIETY
Civil society is the arena outside of the family, the state and the market where people associate to advance common interests.
It is also referred to as the ‘third sector’ of society distinct from government and business organizations or the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens.
Civil societies include professional associations, religious groups, labour union, citizen advocacy oragnisations that give voice to various sectors of society and enrich public participation in democracies.
- What is civil society?
- Give some examples of civil society.
Roles of Civil Society
Civil societies are critical actors in the advancement of universal values such as human rights, the environment, labour standards and the fight against corruption.
Examples of Civil Societies or NGO’s in Nigeria are;
- Africa Youths International Development Foundation
- African Children Talent Discovery Foundations
- African Grassroots Development International
- African in Diaspora organization (Speed-Africa)
- Centre for Neighbourhood Improvement Initiative.
Factors that can promote Civil Societies
- An advanced society where citizens share a social right of access to the commonwealths of resources produced.
- A society where citizens can exercise their civic duty of self-governance by participating in political structures and decentralized power and authority.
- A community where members have the opportunity to hold positions or offices of public decision- making.
- Voluntary participation of citizens in social groups, networks and social transformation.
- A society where citizens hold decision-making power and work to strengthen and improve the local community.
- A society where citizens demand for social justice and the rule of law.
- Explain the roles of civil society in developing the country
- What are the sources of fund to civil societies?
- What is civil society?
- Give some examples of civil society.
- Explain the factors that can promote civil societies.
- State factors that can limit the application of the rule of law.
- Give four advantages of the rule of law.
Read on Civil Societies in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- A non-governmental organization that manifests interest and will of citizens is known as _____ (a) civil defence (b) civil society (c) civic education
- All are parts of civil societies except (a) professional association (b) private organization (c) government institutions
- Another name for civil society is ______ (a) NGO’s (b) AIT’s (c) NFA’s
- All are parts of activities of civil societies except (a) advocacy for citizens (b) empowering the less priviledge(c)constructing express roads.
- One of these is a factor that promotes civil society (a) voluntary participation of citizens in social groups (b) government restriction of associations (c) an environment that disobeys rule of law.
- How can civil societies help to influence the result of a general election?
- Highlight two benefits of civil societies in a country such as Nigeria.
TOPIC: HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights are basic or fundamental rights that citizens of a country must enjoy. These rights are usually written in the country’s constitution.
Examples of human rights are: right to life, right to freedom of speech, right to freedom of
movement, right to fair hearing, right to vote and be voted for, right to freedom of religion etc.
All these rights can further be grouped into the following types;
- SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS
- Right to life and security
- Right to privacy
- Right to education
- Right to peaceful assembly and association
- Right to freedom from oppression
- Right to work and earn a living
- Right to favorable conditions of work (e.g workers should not be sacked unjustly)
- POLITICAL RIGHTS
- Right to vote and be voted for
- Right to join any political party of one’s choice
- LEGAL RIGHTS
- Right to fair hearing
- Right to family life
- Equality before the law
- Right to personal liberty
- CIVIL RIGHTS
- Freedom of movement
- Freedom of religion
- Right to own property
- What is human right?
- Highlight the characteristics of human rights.
Nationalism is the desire to work for the freedom of one’s community and country from political, socio-cultural and economic oppression by another people or country. It is also the struggle against oppression, economic domination, foreign rule and colonization.
Nationalist are leaders who strive for the unity and independence of Nigeria.
ROLES OF NATIONALIST LEADERS IN NATION BUILDING
- They helped to ensure that Nigeria got its independence from British rule.
- They helped in the training of future leaders.
- Their activities led to the educational development of Nigeria. For example, the establishment of University of Ibadan and Yaba College of Technology.
- They enhanced political freedom and self- government in Nigeria.
- They encouraged the participation of people in politics.
- They helped in the formation of political parties e.g NNDP, NCNC, AG, NPC etc.
- They contributed to the growth and development of Nigeria.
Examples of nationalist leaders in Nigeria are Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello, Tafawa Balewa, Shehu Shagari etc. the pictures of most of these leaders are found on Nigerian currencies.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- Define nationalism.
- Explain the roles of nationalist leaders in nation building.
- Mention three nationalist leaders in Nigeria.
- What are the contributions of nationalist leaders in the country?
- Mention three institutes of public corporation.
Read on Nationalism and Roles of Nationalist Leaders in Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary School by Sola Akinyemi.
- The desire to work for the freedom of one’s country is termed____ (a)democracy
(b) monarchy (c) nationalism
- Nationalist leaders work for the ____ of their country (a) freedom (b) collapse (c) slavery
- All are nationalist leaders except (a) Ahmadu Bello (b) Obafemi Awolowo (c) former president Sanni Abacha
- All are benefits of nationalism except (a) it lead to educational development (b) it promote popular participation (c) none of the above
- Nigeria was colonized by (a) U.S.A (b) Mexico (c) British
- Define nationalism.
- State four benefits of nationalism.