English Studies Lesson Note SS 2 Second Term

SS2 English Studies Notes

Lesson Note on English Studies SS2 Second Term – Edudelight.com

SCHEME OF WORKS FOR THE TERM SECOND FOR S S 2

WEEK ONE:    REVISION

WEEK TWO :COMPREHENSION, REGISTER- WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESS,

         STRUCTURE- PUNCTUATION MARKS.

WEEK THREE: ESSAY; FORMAL LETTER, STRUCTURE, SENTENCES: TYPES

    (DECLARATIVE) , SPEECH WORK: INTONATION

WEEK FOUR:  ESSAY- INFORMAL LETTER, SPEECH WORK: FALLING TONE, WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT

WEEK FIVE:    SUMMAMY WRITING, ANSWERING SUMMY QUESTIONS,

      STRUCTURE- KIND OF PRONOUN, SPEECH WORK: RHYME SCHEME.

WEEK SIX:      COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH NATION     BUILDING, STRUCTURE: TENSE   SPEECH  WORK : RISING TONE

     

WEEK SEVEN: MID TERM EXAMINATION

WEEK EIGHT:  COMPREHENSION, VOCABULARY: TECHNOLOGY, STRUCTURE:PHRASAL VERBS WITH MORE THAN ONE PARTICLE, SPEECH WORK, COMPARISM OF /ts /AND /s/

                  

                  

WEEK NINE:   ARTCLES, STRUCTURE: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENTENCES, REGISTER:WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH CULTURAL ENTERTANIMENT

                  

WEEK TEN:  REVISION

WEEK ELEVEN: EXAMINATION

 

WEEK TWO

COMPREHENSION PASSAGE: READING OF A PASSAGE IN UNITS OF NEW OXFORD SECONDARY ENGLISH COURSE FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (2). PAGE 34 – 35

TOPIC: VOCABULARY DEVELOPNMENT

WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESS

CONTENTS:

The Register of the press: The personnel newsman, journalist, reporter, writer, editor, correspondent, publisher, printer, type-setter, contributor, artist, cartoonist, reviewer, critic, cameraman, news agent.

Part of the paper: front page, back page, editorial, sorts paper, advertisement, classified advertisement, headline, Centre spread, newsletter, article, cartoon, caption, title, sub-title, news commentaries, crossword puzzle.

EVALUATION: Pick a newspaper and write out ten things you could see in the paper.

ASSIGNMENT: Write out ten words with meaning words associated with press.

STRUCTURE:

TOPIC: PUNCTUATION MARKS

Punctuation is the gateway to a clear and good writing.it is the act or practice of inserting standardized marks or signs in written matter. The English writing system uses punctuation marks to separate group of words for meaning and emphasis: to convey an idea of the variations of pitch, volume, pauses and intonations of speech, and to help avoid contextual ambiguity.

Some of the English punctuation are:

  1. QUESTION MARK: The question mark is used at the end of every direct question.

Example:

 Was Abu-Bakr here on Thursday?

Where is the examination officer’s office?

  1. To terminate an interrogative element that is part of a sentence; however, indirect questions should not be followed by a question mark.

Examples:

How did she do it? Was the question on each person;s mind

He wondered, will it work?

He wondered whether it would work.

  • Punctuates each element of an interrogative series that is neither numbered nor lettered interrogative series.

Example:

(I).          Can you give us a reasonable forecast?

(II).         Back up your predictions? Compare them with last quarter’s earning?

(III).       Can you (1) give us a reasonable forecast

(2) Back up your predictions,

(3) compare them with last quarter’s earnings.

  • Indicates the writer’s ignorance or uncertainty  

Example:

Wole Soyinka, Nigerian poet (1930 – 2003)

PERIOD (.) FULL STOP    

  1. To termite sentences or sentence fragments that are neither interrogatory nor exclamatory.

Example:

Give it your best

I gave it my best

He asked if she had given of her best.

  • Follows some abbreviations and contractions.

Example:

Dr.  A.D, ibid, i.e

Dr. etc

  • Is used with an individual’s initials

Examples:

B. Omolola Adeniji

A. O. Adebanji

4.     Is used after Roman and Arabic numerals and after letters when they are used in outlines

         and  Enumerations.

Examples:

  1. Objectives
  2. Economy
  3. Low initial cost
  4.  Low maintenance

COMMA(,)

  1. To separates main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction ( and, but, or, nor, or, for) and very short clauses not so joined.

Example:

She knew very little about him and he volunteered nothing

I came I saw, I conquered.

  • Sets off an adverbial clause ( or long phrase) that precedes or interrupts the main clause  

Example

When she discovered the answer she reported it to us

The report, after being read aloud, was put for consideration.

  • Sets off from the rest of the sentence transitional words and expressions ( as on the contrary, on the other hand), conjunctive adverbs (as consequently, furthermore, however) and expressions that introduce an illustration or example (as namely, for example)

Examples :

  1. Your second question, on the other hand, remains unanswered.
  2. He will travel through two countries, namely France and England.
  3. He responded as completely as he could that is, he answered each of the individual question specifically
  • Sets off contrasting and opposing expressions with sentences

Example

He was young, eager and restless

It requires one to travel constantly, to have no private life and to need no income other than living expenses (Sara Davidson)

Note

Commas separate coordinate adjectives modifying a noun.

  • Sets off from the rest of the sentence parenthetical elements (as nonrestrictive modifiers and nonrestrictive appositives) .

Example

Our guide, who wore a blue beret was an experienced traveler.

We visited Olumo, the site of a famous battle

The author, Joyner Griffith, was an accomplished athlete.

  • Introduces a direct quotation, terminates a direct quotation that is neither a question nor an exclamation, and encloses split quotations.

Examples:

  1. Mary said, “ I am leaving”
  2. “I am leaving” Mary said
  3. “I am leaving” Mary said with determination “even if you want me to stay”.

Note:

If the quotation is used as a subject or predicate nominative or if it is not being presented as actual diague a comma is not used.

  • Sets off words in direct address, absolute phases, and mild interjections

Examples:

  1. You may go, John, if you wish
  2. I fear their encounter, his temper being what it is.
  3. Ah, that’s my idea of an excellent dinner.
  • Separates a tag question from the rest of the sentence

Examples:

It’s a fine day, isn’t it?

  1. Indicate the omission of a word or words, and especially a word or words used earlier in the sentence.

ASSIGNMENT: Write out ten punctuation marks and state the uses of each with examples.

WEEK THREE

STRUCTURE: TYPES OF SENTENCES

CONTENT

TYPES OF SENTENCE BY FUNCTION

  1. The declarative/ assertive sentences
  2. The imperative sentence
  3. The interrogative sentence
  4. The exclamatory sentence.
  • THE DECLARATIVE/ ASSERTIVE: is a statement of fact that declares or asserts what is true universally or habitually.

Examples:          

  1. Tinuade won the election
  2. Bola plays a lot
  3. Birds fly in the sky

THE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE: is used in giving commands

Example:            

  1. Get out of the class.
  2. Leave out once.
  3. Do as you are told.
  • THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE: as the name implies refers to questions asked in a direct manner

Examples:          

  1. Did you see the boy?
  2. Where are you coming from?
  3. Who are you looking for?
  • THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE: this is a statement that expresses emotions, like surprise, anger, joy, etc.

Examples:          

  1. It is good to see you!
  2. You look gorgeous!
  3. I am frustrated!

                ASSIGNMENT: write out the types of sentence and give five examples each.

ESSAY WRITING: FORMAL LETTER

A letter is a writing communication sent by post or messenger “these two persons might be living in the same town, city, and country or may as well be living in different countries.

TYPES OF LETTER

Letter writing is divided into two major types:

  1. Formal letter
  2. Informal letter.

FORMAL LETTER

This is an official type of letter. In most cases, the persons involve in this types of letters are not known to each other. They may not have met in their lifetime. Everything about this letter is formal/official. The writer has to mind his/her language and tone. This letter could be from one person to a group of people e,g. letter for employment or (letter from a group of people to an individual) e.g a letter from a community to their local government chairman.

FEATURES OF FORMAL LETTER

The following has to be put into consideration when writing a formal letter

  1. Two addresses
  2. Title of the letter
  3. The body of the letter (i) the language has to be formal (ii) the tone of the letter has to be respectful (iii) the need to be straight forward and brief (iv) answers must be given to all question asked,
  4. Subscription
  5. Signature
  6. Name.

Two addresses: Ina formal letter two addresses are required from the writer, his/her own address and the address of the addressee.(the person he/she is writing the letter to.)

Example:

4, Mohammed Way,

P.o.Box 2641,

Benin city,

                                                                                                                                                     Edo  State.

14th June, 2014.

The Personal Manager,

Sumai Food Limited,

14, Oluyole Industrial Estate,

Ring Road,

Ibadan,

Oyo State.

 SALUTATION: The common salutation used in a formal letter are: Dear sir or Dear madam as the case may be.

TITLE OF THE LETTER: Every formal letter has a title, it is this that shows or tells from the beginning what the letter is all about.

THE BODY OF THE LETTER: In a formal letter, the language has to be formal. Also, formal letter does not allow the use of slang and sweet mounting. The tone has to be respectful. This is because the writer may not know the age of the addressee, and he/she might not take it kind, if the tone is not courteous. The formal type of letter is known for its straight forwardness, there is no need beating around the bush. Where questions are asked, you must give detail to every question asked.

SUBSCRIPTION: The common subscription used in a formal letter is yours faithfully, ypu sign your signature before writing your name at the end of the letter.

EVAULATION.

  1. Many articles have appears recently in one of the national dailies criticizing the security system in your country.
  2. Write a letter to the edition of the daily contributing your views.

SPEECH WORK:

 INTONATION

Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech or the variation in pitch.

Pitch means many things. However, in relation to speech, it means the rise or fall of the voice or sound. It relates to the speakers strong feeling; it also determines the strength of such feeling. Thus, pitch could rise or fall suddenly and heavily in a particular direction. It may be to low or high.

FUNCTION OF INTONATION

  1. EMOTIONAL:  The most obvious function is to express a wide range of attitudinal meanings- excitement, boredom, surprise, friendliness etc. thus(i) it reflects the speaker’s vitality.(ii) it arouse or expresses the speaker’s emotions.(iii) it reveals the speaker’s attitude or character.
  2. GRAMMATICAL: Intonation performs some grammatical functions like making grammatical contrasts. It therefore helps in (i) identifying major units like clauses and sentences. (ii) Connecting parts of sentences. (iii) Distinguishing word classes. (iv) Identifying sentence types.
  3. INFORMATION STRUCTURE: Intonation conveys a great deal of what is new and what is already known in the meaning of an utterance e.g (i) I saw a BLUE car(not green) (ii) SAW a blue car(not have)
  4. INDEXICAL: Supra – segmental features also have a significant function as markers of personal identity and indexical function. They help to identity people as belonging to different social groups and occupations like preachers, market woman, soldiers etc.

Intonation is so important in English that it forms an important part of the spoken utterance and shows the speaker’s attitude to what he is saying or to his listener. Intonation may indicate doubt, certainty, disbelief, interest, surprise or indifference. Intonation and stress work together to convey special meaning in English. There are two basic patterns of intonation (also known as tones): they are the falling and rising tone.

WEEK FOUR

VOCABULARY DEVELOPNMENT: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT

CONTENT:

: Most of our activities are carried out in our various environment. In some places, certain days have been declared as environmental sanitation days. i.e in Lagos state, Thursdays of each week is for the traders while the last Saturday of the month is the general environmental sanitation day.

What is environment? The simple meaning of environment is “surroundings” i.e what surrounds a thing, our environment therefore can be said to be everything that makes up our surroundings, and this affects our being able to carry out our activities on the face of the earth.

Reference: students should read more on environment on page 124 – 125 of new oxford secondary English course for senior secondary schools (2).

ASSIGNMENT: new oxford secondary English course for senior secondary schools (2). Page 126

ESSAY WRITING: INFORMAL LETTER

ASSIGNMENT: Your friend living abroad has written to you asking about the cost of living in your country. Write back to tell him or her about the situation, including the rise in the prices of commodities and whatever things that makes living more expensive nowadays.

SPEECH WORK: FALLING TONE

The falling tone is used in declarative sentences, commands, exclamations and WH – questions (question introduced with interrogative words e.g what, who, whose, where, etc.).

EXAMPLES

Statements

OLA WORKS HARD in SCHOOL

WE’LL SEE about THAT

HE GOT it RIGHT

SHE IS GOING to THE OFFICE

Commands or orders

GO OUT

DON’T TOUCH the FOOD

DON’T JUST STAND and STARE

CLOSE the BOOK

INTERJECTIONS

 My GOD

What a DAY

How PRETTY SHE looks

WH- QUESTIONS

Whose BOOK IS THIS

When IS SHE COMING

WEEK 5

SUMMARY:

TOPIC: SUMMARY WRITING

Summary writing is primarily concerned with starting so much in very few words by remouing superfluous and expanded details.

Also, summary writing is concerned  with producing a bridged versions of a given text or passage so that all the salient issues are brought out. It also involves writing down a brief and concise account of a long passage.

There are four main things students have to note in order to write a good summary. These are:

1. Brevity: this demands that the student must be brief and concise in their answers. There is no room for the use of flowering language or any other additional information aside from the main points.

2. Relevance: thus calls for a candidate’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage. Students are not expected in summary writing to give any fact or point outside the passage, however relevant they think the fact or point is

3. Proper courage of the passage: this demands that students must read and understand every aspect of the passage.

4. Clarity: this means that students are expected to put down their answers clearly.

Answering summary question in page 66 of new oxford secondary English course for senior secondary schools (2).

TOPIC

PRONOUNS:

CONTENT

The pronoun is a word used in place of a noun to avoid repetition and monotony in speech or writing.  In replacing the noun however, the pronoun must reflect gender and number of the noun.

TYPES OF PRONOUN

Pronouns replace noun perfectly and perform the roles the nouns they replace and perform.

  1. PERSONAL PRONOUN: These refers to the person or thing that is involved in the action either as subject or object. The pronouns also have singular and plural forms while they also reflect the first person, second person and third person.

Singular                                                                plural

First person                       I, ME                                                 WE, US

Second person                  YOU                                                    YOU

Third person                      HE/SHE/IT                                      THEY

                                    HIM/HER/IT                                        THEY

Example:             She scolded them

                                I kicked him

                                They surprise me with their conduct.

  • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: These show possession or ownership of items. These pronouns also have two forms. One form functions as adjectives and are known as pronominal adjective while the other functions as pronouns and are known as such.

Pronoun                              adjective             pronoun / adjective

1st person            MINE                     MY                         OURS           OUR                              

2ND person          YUORS                  YOUR                    YOURS         YOUR

 3RD person         HIS/HERS             HIS/HER/ITS       THEIRS

Example:             This pen is mine (pronoun ‘mine’ is subject complement)

                                This is my pen (adjective ‘my’ modifies the noun ‘pen’).

  • REFLECTIVE PRONOUN: These pronoun refers to reflect the subject of the sentence and also shows emphasis. They have ‘self’ ending for the singular and ‘selves’ for the plural.

Singular                                                                plural

First person                       MYSELF                                                OURSELVES

Second person                  YOUSELF                                              YOURSELVES

Third person                      HIMSELF/HERSELF/ITSELF                             THEMSELVES

Example:             The man killed himself

                                I did the work myself

                                People sometimes talk to themselves

  • RELATIVE PRONOUN: The relative pronoun are used to describe or modify an antecedent noun and also to introduce the subordinate clause to the main clause. The pronouns include WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHICH, THAR, WHERE, WHEN AND HOW.

Example:

  1. The man who helped him has come.
  2. The boy whom I told you about is crying.
  3. The girl whose father died in an accident wanted to assist me.
  4. I saw the book which he wrote.
  5. She knows the boy that stole the money.
  6. We suspected how it must have happened.
  7. That was the time when I came in.
  8. Mama went to the place where she first met father
  • DEMONSTRATIVE NOUNS: These pronouns incudes THIS, THAT, THESE, AND THOSE. They are used to point out specific persons, places or objects.

‘THIS” and “THAT” are used for singular, while ‘THESE’ and ‘THOSE’ are used for plural. ‘THIS’ and ‘THESE’ are used for object that are near ‘THAT’ and ‘THOSE’ are for object that are far.

Example :

This is my sister.

These are my sisters

That is my school

Those are the goats he bought.

EVALUATION: Use the following pronouns in two sentences each

  1. Whom
  2. Me
  3. Yours
  4. These
  5. I
  6. Myself

ASSIGNMENT: NEW OXFORD FOR SS2 PAGE 30 EXERCISE 1-5

SPEECH WORK: – RHYMES

Rhymes is the basic and paramount to determine the quality shared by words/syllables that have or end with the same sounds as each other be it vowel or consonant sound.

Examples:

Great /seat, cow/how, bend/send, fight/bright.

Rhyme is very important in spoken English because it is related to good pronunciation; stressing of the correct syllable and intonation.

Note

That if two words end with the same letters if does not always mean that they rhyme as in close/lose, death/health, rough/bough, said/laid.

The above pairs do not rhyme because they end with different sounds although they end with the same letters. In this wise, there are two features in rhyme which are of great importance to bee noted and understood. They are homophones and homographs.

HOMOPHONESS: these are words that have the same pronunciation but spell differently with different meanings. This feature has a lot to do with rhyme.

Examples:

PREY      /prei/                    and        PRAY     /prei/

AIR         /eacd/                  and        HAIR      /ea(r)/

KEY         /KI:/                       and        QUAY    /ki:/

AURAL  /ᴐ:ra/                    and        ORAL     /ᴐ:ral/

BUY        /bai/                      and        BYE         /bai/

HOMOGRAPHS: These are words spelt identically but pronounced differently with different meanings

Examples:

BOW/bau/                          and        BOW/bau/

LEAD/li:d/                            and        LEAD/led/

WHAT MAKES GOOD RHYME

  1. The vowel sounds must be the same e.g pay/lay, bee/see, high/buy
  2. The consonant sounds must be the same. E.g. laid/paid, beat/seat, height/bite, thought/port.
  3. The syllables that rhyme should be those that bear a stress as in city/pretty, seven/heaven, mountain/fountain, and weather/feather.
  4.  

WEEK 6

TOPIC: WORD ASSOCIATED WITH NATION BUILDING

STRUCTURE: TOPIC TENSE

SPEECH WORK: RISING TONE.

TOPIC : TENSE

Tense is a function of the verb and if primarily relates the action to time. This is indicated when there is a change in the form of the verb and it should be noted, that tense does not exactly mean time. From the stand point of the utterance, tense is either present, or oast.

THE PRESENT TENSE

The present tense is used in reference to time now or the immediate.

The present tense is used in reference to time now or the immediate.

USES OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

  1. To express a habitual action. E.g. (i) Bukola gets up early in the morning (ii) Lanre returs from college at six (iii) My father loves taking tea every morning.
  2. To express general truths e.g. (i) the earth moves round the sun (ii) Honesty is the best policy (iii) the sun rises in the east.
  3. In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there e.g. (i) Here comes Amaka! (ii) There the bus stops! (iii) Look! How Bayo sings!
  4. To express planned activities e.g (i) The president visit America next Sunday. (ii) My uncles arrives tomorrow.
  5. To introduces quotations. E.g. (i) Shakespeare says “ lone is not a time’s fool” (ii) Keat says” A thing of beauty is a joy forver”

THE PAST TENSE

The simple past refers to one verb element that relates time to action. The uses are as follows:

  1. To express events that took place before the time of speaking. E.g. (i) I went home early yesterday. (ii) She slapped him at the party (iii0 Wale ate a bowl of beans.
  2. To express hypothetical meanings e.g. 9i) I would go, if I were you. (ii0 In the same circumstance, she would do it.
  3. Polite requests and conversations. (i) Should I wait for you? (ii) Did you ask for the key? (iii) could you lend me your pen?

THE PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE

This is used with the present tense and the past tense to express progression in the action or event.

PRESENT TENSE                                                         PAST TENSE

Bukola is cooking now                                            Bukola was cooking yesterday

We are sitting in the garden                We are sitting in the garden last night.

THE USE OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE

  1. For an action going on at the time of speaking e.g (i) Okoli is writing a letter at present. (ii) we are sitting in the garden.
  2. For a temporary action. e.g (i) I am reading Ben Nwaka’s “ the Guide” (ii) bukola is learning highlife dance.
  3. For a future planned action. E.g (i) We are visiting Jos this weak. (ii) Uche is getting married this April. (iii) Chidi is singing at the concert this Sunday.

THE FUTURE TENSE

The future tense is based on present circumstances and plans for the projected events

WAYS TO EXPRESS THE FUTURE TENSE

  1. The simple present. E.g (i) The plane departs at 8pm tonight. (ii) The new Rector resumes tomorrow.
  2. The present progressive aspect(ing) e.g. (i) She is coming back fortnight. (ii) we are looking forward to your visit.
  3. The modal auxiliary verbs will/shall. E.g.  (i) We shall leave Nigeria next month. (ii) You will feel better, if you take this drug.
  4. “Will” and “Shall” with the present progressive aspect-ing. e.g. (i) I will be going home soon (ii) We shall be relocating to know next year.
  5. By using “going” and the “to be” infinitive. E.g. (i) we are going to be late for the service. (ii) It is going to be windy tomorrow.

THE PERFECTIVE TENSE

The perfective aspect is both present and past. The present perfect expresses an event in the past with a present relevance. This is achieved by combining the auxiliary “have” with the participle of the verb.

USES OF PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 

  1. For just completed actions. e.g. (i) My brother has just gone out. (ii) Chika has recently been married.
  2. To express past actions whose time is not specific. E.g. (i) Have you been photographed? (ii) I have never seen her before.

THE USE OF PAST PERFECT

  1. To express one of the two past actions which had been completed earlier.. e.g. (i) When we reached the theatre, the looking counter had been closed. (II) When I went to the airport, the plane had taken off. (iii) When they entered the classroom, the lecturer had started the lesson.

EVALUATION: Explain the present, past and perfect tense with two examples each.

SPEECH WORK: THE RISING TONE

The rising tone is used in polar questions. (questions which demand ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answers) lising, and polite requests and for incomplete statements. It is also used to express doubt or interest.

YES/NO QUESTIONS

Is this your book?

Did you see them?

LISTING

EVERY STUDENT is to BRING a BUCKET, a HOE, a CUTLASS, a BROOM and a BRUSH (with every item, the rising intonation is used except on the last item where it falls).

INCOMPLETE STATEMENT

If I were you

Just as the BUS arrived

TO EXPRESS DOUBT

If you WANT to

I THINK that’s RIGHT

LET me CLOSE the DOOR

COMBINATION OF TONES

                The two patterns (tones) may be combined in longer sentences. Examples

While the GIRLS were WORKING.    The BOYS were PLAYING FOOTBALL.

If you WORK HARD and PASS your examination      you will be AWARDED a scholarship

By the time he came AROUND    I had gone to bed

TAGS

In tag questions the statement part is said on a falling tone while the question part is said on a rising tone

We can do it,    CANT WE?

We HAVE ENOUGH money    HAVEN’T we?

Did you HEAR the BELL?     She asked

WEEK 7

MID TERM TEST

                                        WEEK 8

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: ASSOCIATED WITH TECHNOLOGY

CONTENT: Some words that are associated with technology are: invention, industry, factory, communication, pollution, machine, fume, automobile, computer, robot, traffic, industry revolution, technician, install, metro-line, high- precision, space craft, astronauts, satellite, mast, electronic, telephone, missile, discoveries.

EVAULATION: write out ten things in the school that deals with the use of technology.

ASSIGNMENT: write out 10 words with meaning words associated with technology.

STRUCURE: TOPIC: PHRASAL VERBS

Phrases are group of words having incomplete meaning sometimes work as preposition. The phrasal verbs are types of compound verbs made up of a simple verb and adverbial particle. E.g. take off, a preposition e.g. go with, or the combination of both an adverbial particle and a preposition. E.g. make up to for its phrasal form.

Phrasal verbs and idioms have meanings different from the literal.

EXAMPLES OF PHRASAL VERBS AND MEANING

PHRASAL VERB: Ask in – invite somebody into the room. E.g. I asked the guests in and offered them seats.

PHRASAL VERB: Ask for – ask to speak to, request, and demand e.g. I asked for the principal of the college.

BACK AWAY – Step or back away slowly. E.g. when Amaka saw a snake in the garden she backed away in fear.

CALL UP: – summon for a military service telephone .e.g. the government called up the young men to join the army.

DO AWAY WITH- ABOLISH e.g. We must do away with the dowry system in marriages.

FALL THROUGH- FAIL TO MATERIALIZE e.g All my schemes fell through for want of money.

WINK AT­- ignore purposely pretend not to notice. E.g. susan winked at her studies and went to sleep.

MOST POLITICIANS Wink at poverty in developing COUNTRIES.

IDIOMS add beauty and charm to any language. English is rich in idioms.

A few of them are listed with their meaning and usage.

  1. A BIG GUN- A person of great importance. E.g. Dangote is a big gun in Nigeria
  2. A BLACK SHEEP- an evil person. E.g. we should be aware of black sheep in society.
  3. A BEAST OF PREY- A beast that lives by killing and eating other animals. E.g. the tiger is a beast of prey.
  4. APPLE PIE ORDER-: Neat and clean. E.g. you must arrange the books in apple pie order.
  5. A BLUE STOCKING-: A lady who pretends to have literary taste. E.g. Lola is a blue stocking.
  6. A CHICKEN HEARTED FELLOW-: A cowardly person. E.g. My friend is a chicken hearted fellow.
  7. A MAN OF PARTS-: A man of extraordinary qualities. E.g. the former president was a man of parts.
  8. A SERPENT IN THE EGG-: In the initial stage. E.g. terrorism is harmful to national integration, we should terminate the serpent in the egg.
  9. AN IRON WILL-: A strong will e.g. ply mother is a woman of iron will
  10. HUSH MONEY-: BRIBE e.g. he got a job by paying hush money
  11. A HENPECKED HUSBAND-: A husband who is under the control of his wife.
  12. A GALA DAY-: An important day. E.g. 1st October is a gala day in Nigerian history.
  13. A FAIR WEATHER FRIEND-: A false friend. E.g. it is a foolish thing to depend on a  fair weather friend.
  14. THE FAG END-: THE CLOSE E.g. we are at the fag end of poverty.
  15. A MAN OF STRAW-: An important person. E.g. No one respects my cousin because he is a man of straw.
  16. THE OLIVE BRANCH-: an officer of peace. E.g. Nigeria is always willing to offer the olive branch to her neighbours.
  17. A WHILE ELEPHANT-: A very expensive thing which proves to be a burden. E.g A journey by air is a white elephant for a poor man.
  18. A WET BLANKET-: A person who discourages. E.g. my friends is a wet blanket, he discourages me in everything.
  19. TO CRY FOR THE MOON-: To desire for what is impossible. E.g. my desire to marry Titi is nothing but crying for the moon.
  20. TO CHEW THE END-: To meditate on an idea. E.g. he chew the end of overcoming his poverty.
  21. TO BE TRUE TO ONE’S SALT-: to prove faithful. E.g. she is true to her salt and served him sincerely for ten years.
  22. TO BE LIKE A FISH OUT OF WATER-: to be in a difficult situation. E.g I felt like a fish out of water in America.
  23. TO CRY OVER SPLIT MILK-:  to regret for a past loss. E.g. it is really a foolish thing to cry over spilt milk.
  24. TO EAT THE HUMBLE PIE-: To pocket an insult. E.g. when I failed in the exam, I had to eat
  25. BETWEEN THE DEVIL AND THE DEEP SEA-: Between two dangers. E.g. she was to either endure his brutality or discontinue her studies, so she is in between the devil and the deep sea.
  26. A BOLT FROM THE BLUE-: an unexpected misfortune. E.g. Victoria’s death was a bolt from the blue to me.
  27. A WILD GOOSE CHASE-:  A foolish attempt. E.g. her desire to settle down in America is a wild goose chase for funmi.
  28. A CLEAN STATE-: A fresh beginning. E.g. she started with a clean slate in teaching.
  29. A BULL IN A CHINA SHOP-: An unnecessary person or evil. E.g. Amina is a bull in a china shop because she creates tension among us with her auguments.
  30. A TALL TALK-: A boatsful talk .e.g. I am not convinced of his tall talk because there is no truth in it.

EVALUATION: Give the meaning of these idiom

  1. Cog in the machine
  2. A slow coach
  3. A sword of Damocles
  4. Penelope’s web
  5. A storm in a tea cup.

ASSIGNMENT: GIVE MEANING AND USE IN SENTENCES THE FOLLOWING PHRASAL VERBS ANS IDIOMS

  1. THROW UP
  2. WIND UP
  3. SELL OFF
  4. SETTLE DOWN
  5. A BROKEN REED
  6. AN APPLE OF DISCORD
  7. A MAN OF LETTERS
  8. AN UPHILL TASK.

SPEECH WORK: TOPIC: COMPARISM OF /ts/ and /s/, /dз/ and/ tз/

The following sounds are consonant sounds. The /s/ is called the Alveolar sound because it is produced when the tip of the tongue is pressed against the upper teeth ridge. The sound is produced by making the air to escape and produce a sort of hiss.

Examples -: sack, size soft, swan, bus, site gospel, sow case, snail, dance, hiss, scent, circle, Centre, peace.

/tЅ/ and /Ѕ/-: these sounds are called the palate-alveolar. The palate-alveolar sound is produced by pressing the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge, and at the same time raising the body of the tongue towards the roof of the hard palate. The /ts/ is called palate-alveolar affricates because it sound somewhat like fricative and it also resemble plosives though the separation between the tongue and the teeth ridge is less sudden while /s/ is called palate-alveolar fricatives because it is produced between the tongue and the teeth ridge and the hard palate with an accompanying hissing sound similar to how /f/ and /v/ are produced.

Examples are:

/ts/ – capture, actual, chief, chew, chair, chip, rich, catch, match, punctual, question, cheat, cheese, batch, etc

/s/ – shop, shake, gnash, cash, shell, sugar, ensure, special, shape, she, shoe, shine, wash, bush

WORD CONTRAST

/ts/                                        /s/                                          /ts/                                        /dз/                                      

Chop                                     shop                                      cheer                                    jeer

Cheer                                    sheer                                    chest                                     jest

Cheap                                   sheep                                   chin                                        gin

Chin                                       shin                                        chill                                        gill

Chip                                       ship                                        chain                                     jane

Chair                                      share                                     choke                                    joke

Chew                                    shoe                                      cherry                                   jerry

Choose                                 shoes                                    rich                                         ridge

Chief                                     sheaf                                     larch                                      large

Cheat                                    sheet                                    batch                                     badge

ASSIGNMENT: give five examples each for these sounds /s/ /ts/ and /s/

WEEK 9 SS2

TOPIC: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

CONTENT:

Voice is the form of the verb which indicates whether a person or thing does something or something has done to a person or thing.

KINDS OF VOICE

There are two kinds of voice, namely:

  1. ACTIVE VOICE
  2. PASSIVE VOICE
  3. ACTICE VOICE: When a verb form shows that the subject has done something, it is known as Active voice.

Example :

  1. Lola wrote a letter
  2. She danced to the music
  3. Olu killed the goat
  • PASSIVE VOICE: When a verb form shows that something has been done to the subject it is known as passive voice.

Example

A letter was written by lola

The goat was killed by olu

Note: We can turn active voice into passive voice by using some guidelines.

RULES

  1. A sentence can be separated into subject, verb and object.

Example :             Lola Wrote a Letter

                                    S        V             O

  • The object of the sentence must be turned into subject

Example :             Lola Wrote a Letter

                                    S        V             O

                                A letter was written by Lola

                                         S               V                 O

  • The ‘be’ form must be used according to the tense of the verb

Example: A letter ‘was’

  • Past participle of the verb must be used

Example : A letter was written

  • Preposition ‘by’ must be added

Example: A letter was written by

  • The subject must be made the object

Example : A letter was written by Lola

More Examples

  1. Amaka sings a song (active voice).

A song is sung by Amaka (passive)

        2.   My sister is painting a sicture

                A picture is being painted by my sister

       3.     Emeka posted the letter

                The letter has been posted by Emaka

       4.     Tolu was cooking a nice meal

                A nice meal was being cooked by Tolu

EVALUATION: change the following from active voice to passive voice.

  1. Dele took the book
  2. I threw a stone
  3. She broke the window
  4. The man stole a box
  5. The postman delivered the letters

ASSIGNMENT: NEW OXFORD ENGLISH SS 2 PAGE 82 EXERCISE D 1-5

WEEK TEN: Revision

WEEK ELEVEN: Revision

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