Agricultural Science ENote for JSS2 Second Term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE JSS2 SECOND TERM
- Revision of last term’s work
- Animals feed and feeding
- Classification of livestock feed
- Factor to consider before deciding Animal Feeds
- Farm animals diseases: definition and causes
- Farm animal diseases- Bacterial
- Farm animal diseases-Viral
- Farm animal diseases-Fungal and Protozoan
- Farm animal diseases-worms and nutritional
- Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools Book 2 by Anthony Yandeowei, S.O.Adesiyan, J.N Ogbazi, Terry Olowu.
WEEK ONE DATE: …………………
TOPIC: REVISION OF LAST TERM’S WORK
- Answers to last term’s objective questions
- Answers to last term’s theory questions
WEEK TWO DATE: …………………
TOPIC: ANIMALS FEED AND FEEDING ENOTE
- Meaning of feed
- Types of animal feed
- Feeding tools
DEFINITION OF FEED
Feed refers to the food given to animals. They contain nutrient element either alone or in combination with other substances which supports the healthy growth and development of livestock.
TYPES OF FEED
Animal feeds can be classified into four main groups according to the digestibility, quantity of fibre, quantity required and moisture in the feed. The four groups of feeds are;
- Concentrates: They are fee with a low proportion of fibre and water content. They are easily digested by farm animals. Concentrates can be further be subdivided into two groups: Those containing a high proportion of carbohydrates are called carbohydrate concentrates/basal feed/energy feede.g maize, guinea corn, cassava e.t.c while those with a high proportion of proteins are called protein concentrates e.g beans, peas, cotton seed, sunflower seeds and heads, groundnuts, palm kernel and animal products such as meat, blood meal, bone meal, fishmeal and milk.
- Roughages: Roughages are very low in protein and carbohydrate but high in fibre. They are not easily digested by animals, therefore are fed together with concentrate foods for young animals and those kept for milk and meat production. Examples are hay, groundnut hulls, straw, bean pods and maize stover.
- Succulents: These have high water content. They are easy to digest. Examples are freshly cut/lush grass and legume plants (soilage), pumpkin, silage, melons and most green crops.
- Supplements (minerals and vitamis): they are required in small quantities, low in energy, protein and fibre but high in vitamins and minerals. They aid digestion and increase animals resistance to diseases. They are available in basal and protein concentrate feeds. Other sources are bone meal, oyster shell, salt licks etc.
- What do you understand as animal feed?
- List types of animal feed.
FEEDING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT FOR FARM ANIMALS
Common animal feeding equipment includes:
- Hay racks: They are used for feeding animals with hay and other forages
- Feed troughs or bunks: These are used for feeding grain and silage. Troughs for feeding cattle are usually stationary and located on a well-drained site preferably on concrete or hard surfaces.
- Self-feeders: These are mainly used for fattening cattle. Self-feeders may be stationary or portable.
- Watering facilities: Farm animals cannot survive for a long time without water. Mature cattle can consume an average of 12 litres of water per head daily depending on the size of the animals, season and the type of feedconsumed. Water troughs, wells, springs, streams, or lakes are the main sources of water supply for cattle. Water troughs and tanks should be of adequate size when used.
NOTE: Farm animals should be provided with suitable shade while feeding particularly during the dry season to reduce heat burden.
- Define animal feeds.
- List three farm animals feeding tools and equipment.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Define animal feeds.
- Mention and explain three types of animal feed.
- Describe four tools and equipment commonly used for feeding livestock.
WABP Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools BK 2 By A.Youdeowei, S.O Adesiyan, J.N Ogbazi, Terry Olowu. Pages 56 – 67
Answer revision questions 2 and 3 on page 67 of WABP Junior Secondary Agriculturefor Nigerian Schools BK 2 ByA.Youdeowei, S.O Adesiyan, J.N Ogbazi, Terry Olowu.
- The following are not easily digested by animal except A. hay, B.groundnut hulls
C. bean pods D. silage.
- Protein concentrates include the following except A. meats B.peas C. cotton seed
D. maize stover.
- The types of feed which have high water content is known as _____________
A. succulent B. roughages C.concentrates D.fibre.
- __________are used for feeding the animals with hay and other forages A. hay troughs B. Hay racks: C. hay pan D.feed racks.
- Farm animals should be provided with suitable _____________ A.feed troughs
B. watering facilities C.self-feedersD. shade.
- What are the criteria used in classifying animal feed.
- State four feeding tools and equipment for farm animals.
WEEK THREE DATE:………………………
TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF LIVESTOCK FEED
- Feed nutrients.
- Classes of feed nutrient.
These are substances obtained from feed and used by the body to promote growth, maintenance and repairs of body tissues. About 21 chemical elements make up the various feed nutrients needed for the nutrition of farm animals. The following shows the elements and their chemical symbols.
Name of element Chemical symbol
|Non mineral elements|
|Macro mineral elements|
|Micro mineral elements|
- State the elements which make up feed nutrients.
- Provide the chemical symbol of (a) Calcium (b) Nitrogen (c) Chlorine (d) Fluorine (e) Phosphorus (f) Molybdenum.
Classes of livestock feed nutrient
There are many types of feed nutrients suitable for livestock. It is important to understand the main classes and its constituent elements and functions of animal feeds.
The major feed nutrients include:
These foods are needed by livestock for supplying the energy required by the body for doing work and for the functioning of different organs of the body. Carbohydrates occur in nature as starches, cellulose or fibre. They contain elements, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which are easily ‘burnt up’ or oxidized to produce energy. Examples are yams, cassava, potato, rice and breaD.
Fats contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fats have more carbon and oxygen than carbohydrates. They supply energy needed by the body for keeping the body temperature at the correct level. They produce two and a half times the energy produced by carbohydrates. Fat can be found in plant and animal materials. Examples are milk, fatty seeds such as groundnuts, coconuts and cotton seeds, animal by-products, fish by-products, cereals, roots and tubers.
Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and sometimes iron, phosphorus and or sulphur. Proteins are found in the protoplasm of all animals and plants. They are required by animals for growth and for the repair of worn-out tissues and organs of the body. Examples of protein-rich foods include soybeans, cotton seeds, groundnut, peas and beans as well as fish and meat. The common sources of protein for animal feeds are forages, animal and fish by-products, roots and tubers and cereal grains.
Minerals are necessary in an animal’s diet. They are required in small quantities only, except phosphorus and calcium which are important for bone formation. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are four of the twenty one elements that function in animal nutrition and are called non-mineral elements. The other 17 elements are called mineral elements. Macro-elements are required by the animals in large quantities and they are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, chlorine and magnesium. The remaining ten elements are required in very small quantities and are called micro-elements or trace elements and they are iron, iodine, copper, cobalt, chromium, fluorine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum and selenium.
Water contains hydrogen and oxygen. Water is needed by farm animals to aid digestion and distribution of food in their body. It also helps in the regulation of body temperature through heat loss by evaporation from the skin and lungs. Water is contained in the feeds of animals.
These are another group of substances which must present in very tiny amounts in the rations of farm animals. They are essential for the proper and normal functioning of the animal’s body. Their deficiency leads to ill-health of the animal. Vitamins contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Vitamins can be grouped into
- Water-soluble e.g Vitamin B and C and
- Fat-soluble vitamins e.g Vitamin A, D, E and K.
- Differentiate between macro and micro elements.
- Mention with examples types of vitamins you know.
- Define animal feeds.
- Why are the following food elements healthy for livestock?
- Fats and oil
Answer revision questions 1, 4 and 5 on page 67 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 56 – 67.
- _______ are required by the animals in large quantities A. Mega-elements B. Nano-elements C. Macro-elements. D. Micro elements.
- One of the nutrient which supply energy needed by the body for keeping the body temperature at the correct level. A. protein B.carbodydratesC. fat D. vitamin.
- The following are trace elements except _______A.ironB. iodine C. manganese
- Carbohydrates occur in nature as except A. starches B. cellulose B.fibre. C. fat.
- Protein concentrates include the following except A. meats B.peasC. cotton seed
D. maize stover.
- State the elements which make up feed nutrients with their chemical symbol.
- Mention and explain the importance of constituents of livestock feeds.
WEEK FOUR DATE: …………………
TOPIC: FACTORS TO CONSIDER BEFORE DECIDING ANIMAL FEED ENOTE
Factors to consider before deciding animal feeds are
- Physiological status
- Purpose of rearing the animals
- Management system
Younger animals require more proteinous feeds than the older animals.
Pregnant and lactating animas will consume more feed and need nutritious feed to sustain their young ones and foetus.
Purpose of rearing the animals
Animals kept for production of milk, egg, worke.t.c will be fed with feed suited for that purpose and will need more in terms of quantity than other animals.
Animals kept under intensive management system would require more quantity and quality feed due to the fact that they are confined and cannot fend for themselves as compared to animals kept under other management systems.
Definition of some terms associated with animal feeding
Diet is the amount of feed formulated to meet the specific need of an animal
Ration is the total amount of feed supplied to animal per day.
Abalancedration is a feed constituent that contains all essential nutrients in their appropriate quantities before being offered to an animal. There are two types of balanced ration, they are
Maintenanceration: is the amount of feed given to an animal to within a 24 hour period just enough for the animal to maintain its normal bodily functions without adding or losing live weight.
Productionration: is the amount of feed given to a specific group of animal within a 24 hour period to enable them produce appropriately.
Categories of animals fed production ration are:
- Lactating animals for milk production.
- Growers/Weaning animals to support growth.
- Fattening animals to reach desired weight in good time.
- Flushing for female animals prior to breeding.
- Steaming up for pregnant animals prior to parturition.
- Pregnant animals to support growing foetus.
- Broilers to for rapid growth.
- Layers for quality egg production.
Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O.A Iwena.Pages 335 – 336
Answer question 4 and 10a in Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwena. Pages 337 – 338
- A _____ is a feed constituent that contains all essential nutrients in their appropriate quantities A. balanced ration B. imbalanced ration C. maintenance ratio D. diet
- Layers are animals that A. lay eggs B. are reared for meat C. produce milk D. are used for mating
- Flushing is the process of getting an animal ready for A. breeding purposes B. daily activities C. parturition D. lactation
- ______ is the amount of feed formulated to meet the specific need of an animal.
A. Balanced ration B. Imbalanced ration C. Maintenance ratio D. Diet
- ______ is the total amount of feed supplied to animal per day. A. ration B. imbalanced ration C. ratio D. diet
- What are the factors to consider before deciding animal feed?
- List four categories of animals that requires production ration.
WEEK FIVE DATE:………………….
TOPIC: FARM ANIMAL DISEASE I
- Definition of disease
- Causes of diseases in farm animal
- Mode of transmission of farm animal disease
- Symptoms of farm animals diseases
Disease is any change in the normal function or well-being of farm animals caused by another organism. Animals, like human beings, suffer from many serious diseases which may make them sick and may cause their death in large numbers if they are not treated.
CAUSES OF DISEASES IN FARM ANIMAL
Five groups of organism which commonly cause animal disease; they are:
- Worms (parasitic nematodes)
- What do you understand by the term ‘Disease’ in farm animals?
- List four causes of disease.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASE
Disease-causing organisms can transit diseases to farm animals through the following modes:
- Air (airborne)
- Direct contact with organism
- Bites from insects, ticks and mites
However, preventing exposure of farm animals to these sources of transmission of diseases, the chances of farm animals being affected by diseases which can make them sick can be reduced.
SYMPTOMS OF FARM ANIMAL DISEASES
Symptom refers to the sign or indication of the presence of an abnormal condition in an animal. Diseased animals show specific symptoms which farmers can recognize that there are changes in the normal functioning of the bodies of farm animals. Farmers can recognize symptoms of different diseases in their sick animals. Such sick animals are taken to veterinary doctors who can prescribe medicines to cure the farm animals. Common symptoms of diseases in animals include the following:
- Stunted growth
- Reduced food utilization
- Rise in temperature- high fever
- Abortion in female animals
- Sores and exudates from the skin
- Enlarged udder
- Stained blood in orifices
- Loss of hair (alopecia)
- Loss of weight (emaciation)
- Loss of appetite (anorexia)
- Anaemia (shortage of blood)
- Define the term disease.
- Mention how farm animals can be infected.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- What is a disease?
- What are the four major modes of transmission of diseases in farm animals by the disease-causing organisms?
- Define the term symptoms.
- List eight Symptoms of farm animals diseases.
Answer revision questions 1 and 2 on page 79 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 68 and 69.
- Which of the following is a common symptom of disease in animal.A. uremia B. normal blood C.AnaemiaD. increase food consumption.
- A change in the normal function or well-being of farm animals caused by another organism is known as ___________________ A. pest B. parasite C. disease D. symptoms.
- The following are mode of transmission of farm animal disease except A.Air (airborne) B. Water C.direct contact with organism D. in-direct contact with organism.
- Veterinary doctors help to A. disseminate information to farmers B. vaccinates infected human being C. apply chemicals to wipe-out diseases D. prescribe medicines to cure the farm animals diseases.
- Loss of hair and appetite are parts of the symptoms of A. parasites B.pest C. disease D. harsh weather.
- Differentiate between cause of a disease and symptoms.
- Mention three common symptoms of diseases in animals.
WEEK SIX DATE:………………….
TOPIC: FARM ANIMAL DISEASES II
- Bacteria diseases – modes of transmission, methods of control, symptoms
Anthrax is a bacterial disease which attacks mammals’ especially herbivorous animals, such as sheep and goats.
Mode of transmission: The disease is mostly transmitted by eating infected or contaminated materials. It can also be transmitted through contact with affected animals and feeding equipment and infected wounds.
Symptoms: Grinding of teeth, rise in temperature and convulsion. This disease can kill an animal suddenly. It starts when the animal respires rapidly and stops feeding.
Method of prevention and control: Sick animals should be isolated. Vaccination of the animals should be done regularly; proper sanitation should be maintained in all animal houses. Animal that dies of the disease, together with all the beddings should be buried deep in the ground. The animal house should be disinfected immediately.
Treatment: Sick animals should be isolated. The disease is treated with antibiotics such as penicillin.
This is a bacterial disease found mainly in poultry birds. It affects the intestines of the birds.
Mode of transmission: Through contact with the body fluids of infected birds.
Symptoms: The symptoms include high fever, tiredness and reddish droppings.
Method of prevention and control: Consult a veterinary doctor. Poultry birds should be vaccinated against this disease.
Treatment: Consult a veterinary doctor.
- What is a disease?
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of the following:
- Contagious abortion: This is a bacteria disease of cattle, goats and pigs. It is also referred to as brucellosis.
Mode of transmission: This disease is transmitted through food and water contaminated with discharge and aborted foetus.
Symptoms: This includes; still births, retained placenta, abortion during the 7th to 9th month of pregnancy and infertility in males.
Method of prevention and control: The affected animal should be isolated from the other animals in the herd. All animals should be vaccinated before breeding. Animals should be given food in very clean containers and surroundings.
Treatment: This is by vaccination.
- Mastitis: This is bacterial disease that affects the breasts of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs(swine).
Mode of transmission: The disease is transmitted into the breasts (mammary glands) of the animals by bacteria from dirty floors and milkers through the teat and udders.
Symptoms: include fever, pains, swellings of the udder, blood in the milk and rise in temperature of the animal.
Method of prevention and control:
- The udder of animals should be properly washed before and after milking.
- Milking by hand should be done in clean environments.
- Hands to be used for milking must be well washed with soap and clean water before commencing milking.
- Overcrowding of diary animals should always be preventeD.
Treatment: The disease can be treated by injecting penicillin and other antibiotics in the body of the affected animals.
This disease affects cows as well as sheep and poultry.
The udder of an affected cow is swollen; there are eruptions on the udder of cows.
Method of prevention and control: Disinfect all equipment used for feeding and milking cattle.
- Describe the method of prevention and control of the following
- List three bacteria diseases you know.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of the following;
- Contagious abortion
Answer revision questions 3i on page 79 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 70 – 72.
- The following are bacteria diseases except A. Anthrax B. Typhoid C.Mastistis
- The following are methods of preventing and controlling anthrax disease except
A. Sick animals should be isolatedB. Vaccination of the animals should be done regularly C. partial proper sanitation should be maintained in all animal houses.
D. Animal that dies of the disease, together with all the beddings should be buried deep in the ground.
- Mastitis affects the following animals except A. cattle B. sheep C. goats D. poultry.
- Which of these diseases mostly affect the intestine of the birds?A. ringworm
B. cowpox C. typhoid D. contagious abortion
- Another name for contagious abortion is A. Anthrax B. Typhoid C.Mastistis
- State the mode of transmission, Symptoms, Method of prevention and control of the following;
WEEK SEVEN DATE:………………….
TOPIC: FARM ANIMAL DISEASES III
- Viral diseases- symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and control
- Rinderpest or cattle plague: This is a serious and very contagious viral disease that attacks cattle quickly. It can also attack sheep and goats. The disease is very deadly; it killed thousands of cattle in Nigeria several years ago. It is found in the blood, tissue fluids and secretions of affected animals.
Mode of transmission: it is transmitted through direct contact and also through contaminated feed and water.
Symptoms: include rise in temperature, loss of appetite, blood stained diarrhea, difficulty in breathing and frequent abortion. The major effect of the disease is high mortality.
Method of prevention and control: Immunization; vaccination is a good preventive measure as no medical treatmenthas been successful. Affected animals should be isolated.
- Foot and mouth disease: This is a virus disease of cattle, birds, goats, sheep and pigs. The disease is highly contagious
Mode of transmission: The disease is transmitted by contact with affected animals.
Symptoms: The symptoms are fever, headache and swellings or blisters on the mouth, skin, udder and salivation.
Method of prevention and control: The disease is better controlled than treated.Infected animals, particularly cattle, are often destroyed by mass killing to prevent the disease from spreading to other animals. It can be controlled by immunization and good sanitation. Infected animals should be isolated from healthy animals.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of:
- Foot and mouth disease
- Newcastle Disease
This is a viral disease of poultry.
Mode of transmission: it is transmitted through secretions from the birds and contact with infected dead birds on the farm. The disease is also air-borne.
Symptoms: include coughing and sneezing, nasal and eye discharges, difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, diarrhea, paralysis and general weakness.
Method of prevention and control: proper sanitation should be maintained. Affected animals should be quarantined. All animals should be vaccinated.
- Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)
Bird flu is also called Avian Influenza. This is now a very well-known disease which affects poultry in many countries, including Nigeria. It is a highly contagious viral disease that is caused by a virus affecting the respiratory, digestive and or the nervous system of poultry. In some cases in some Asian countries, human have been reported to be affected by this disease.
Mode of transmission: This disease can be transmitted by direct contact with the secretions from infected birds, especially the faeces. The disease can be transmitted indirectly through contaminated water, animal feeds, equipment and even clothing. The virus penetrates into the body through the respiratory and digestive systems.
Symptoms: Severe depression, refusal to eat, greatly reduced egg production, difficulty in breathing, watery eyes, swollen face especially the comb and wattle which change colour to blueish black, diarrhea, sudden death, with or without showing any symptoms. Ducks may usually die without showing any symptoms.
Method of prevention and control:
- Avoid contact between domestic poultry and wild birds.
- Separate different species of poultry raised on the same farm from one another.
- Quarantine newly acquired or re-introduced birds for example unsold birds taken to the market.
- Do not allow unauthorized persons to visit the farm
- Install foot baths with disinfectant at the entrance of all poultry houses in the farm.
- Wash hands and feet with clean water before entering and leaving poultry houses in the farm.
- Frequently disinfect soiled materials and farm equipment.
- Make sure that the source of poultry feed and water are clean and not already contaminated so that poultry are protected from infection.
- If poultry are dying in large numbers or you observe the symptoms described, call a veterinary doctor immediately.
- Bury or burn all dead birds and wash your hands and feet thoroughly with soap and clean water after burning or burying the dead or infected birds.
- Pneumonia: This is a virus disease of cattle. It attacks the lungs of cattle.
Symptoms: Symptoms include rise in temperature, vigorous breathing, loss of appetite and discharge from the nose and eyes. (pneumonia can also be caused by bacteria).
Method of prevention and control: Proper sanitation should be maintained. Affected animals should be quarantined. All animals should be vaccinated.
Treatment: The use of antibiotics or administering anti-viral medication.
- Kata: This is a virus disease of goats, found in the southern parts of Nigeria. The disease affects the respiratory and intestinal tracks of animals. It is also called peste des petits ruminants/goat plague.
Symptoms: the signs of disease include coughing, discharge from the nostrils, scrabs on the lips and other parts of the mouth and diarrhea.
Control: avoid over-crowding of animals.
Treatment: vaccination against the disease, no specific treatmentbut outbreak of the disease should be reported to the veterinary doctor.
- Mention three types of viral disease.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of the following diseases:
- Foot and mouth disease
- Newscastle disease
- Bird flu
Answer revision questions 3ii on page 79 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 72 – 74.
- The following disease results into difficulty in breathing in the following animals except A.RinderpestB. Newcastle disease C. pneumonia D. kata
- Which of these diseases is air-borne A.coccidiosisB.trypanosomiasisC.newscattleD.Rinderpest
- It is a highly contagious viral disease which mostly affects poultry is known as
A.coccidiosisB.RinderpestC. Bird flu D. pneumonia
- Pneumonia affects what part of the animal body A. Brain B. Lungs C. Intestine
- Another name for rinderpest is A. cattle plague B. goat plague C. sheep plague
D. contagious abortion
- List two symptoms of kata diseases.
- Mention three methods of prevention and control of bird flu.
WEEK EIGHT DATE:…………………………
TOPIC: FARM ANIMAL DISEASES IV
- Fungal and Protozoa disease
- Trypanosomiasis (Nagana)
Trypanosomiasis, also called Nagana, is a deadly disease suffered by some breeds of cattle like white Fulani and Red Bororo. The Ndama and Muturu cattle are resistant to this disease. It is caused by a protozoan called Trypanosomes. Trypanosome parasites can be transmitted by infectedtsetse flies when they bite humans. Persons who are infected with this parasite suffer from the disease called sleeping sickness.
Mode of transmission: it is transmitted by female tsetse flies when they suck blood from an infected animal and later transmit the parasites to the healthy animals when they suck their blood. Female tsetse flies require the blood of mammals for the development of young larvae inside the flies. Male tsetse flies do not suck blood therefore they cannot transmit this parasite.
Symptoms: Rise in temperature, dullness in appearance, sleepiness, nervous disorder, anaemia, paralysis, the infected animal loses weight, becomes drowsy and may finally die.
Method of prevention and control: Destroy the tsetse fly habitat by clearing the surrounding bushes and spray with recommended insecticides to kill the tsetse flies.
Treatment: Use drugs such as Bayer 205 or lomidine or consult a veterinary doctor.
This is a protozoan disease that attacks cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and rabbits.
Mode of transmission: It is transmitted through contamination with the faeces of infected animals through feed, dirty water and soil contaminated with droppings.
Symptoms: Symptoms include Watery discharge, loss of appetite, anaemia, bloody faeces, paleness, ruffled feathers and progressive emaciation and many animals may die.
Method of prevention and control: Droppings from infected poultry animals should be properly separated from the healthy animals. High level of sanitation should be maintained in poultry houses. Feed and water troughs should always be kept very clean. The disease can be treated with many drugs that are recommended by veterinary doctors.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of Trypanosomiasis.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of coccidiosis.
FUNGAL DISEASES: diseases caused by fungi
This is a disease of poultry.
Mode of transmission: This disease is transmitted through the air (air-borne) by inhaling air through the nostrils of birds. It is also transmitted through mouldy litter and feed, overcrowding and contaminated incubators.
Symptoms: Symptoms include loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing, rise in temperature and whistling noise.
Method of prevention and control: All sources of contamination should be removed. The hatchery should be kept clean, water and feed spillage should be prevented.
This is a fungal disease that affects all farm animals.
Mode of transmission: This disease is spread through contact with infected animals and bushes.
Symptoms: Ringworm is manifested in farm animals with the appearance of lesions on the skin, skin irritation, loss of weight and loss of appetite.
Method of prevention and control:
- All bushes around the farm should be cleared.
- The affected skin should be treated with a mixture of sulphur and Vaseline.
- In poultry, violet or iodine ointment should be rubbed on the ringworm lesions.
- State the mode of transmission, symptoms, method of prevention and control of the following diseases:
Answer revision questions 3iii and iv on page 79 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 74 – 76.
- Which of these is a fungal disease A.CoccidiosisB. Anthrax C.AspergillosisD. Foot and mouth.
- The following are one of the symptoms of Trypanosomiasis except A. Rise in temperature, B. nervous disorder, C. paralysis D. hyperactivity.
- Skin irritation is manifested in animals infected with A.newcastleB.Rinderpest
C. kata D. ringworm.
- Trypanosomiasis is a disease transmitted by A. mosquito B. black fly C.tsetse fly
- The following breeds of cattle are resistant to Nagana except A. n’dama B. keteku
C. red bororo D. Muturu
- List any type of protozoans diseases you know.
- Mention three methods of prevention and control of Aspergillosis.
WEEK NINE DATE:…………………
TOPIC: FARM ANIMAL DISEASES V
- Worms: identification, types of worms, symptoms, control of worms.
- Nutritional bloat
- General Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Animal Diseases.
There are several types of parasitic worms that attack farm animals. An attack may lead to
the death of an animal. Some of the worms live in the intestine, respiratory tract and
various organs of the body.
Examples of worms
- Roundworms, and
- Liver fluke
Symptoms of worm infection
The signs of worm infection in the animal depends on where the worms are living in the body of the animal. Generally these signs include the following:
- Loss of weight
- Worms in faeces.
- Mention three examples of worms.
- List three symptoms of worm infection.
Control of worm infection:
Worm infection in farm animals can be controlled through the following means:
- The affected animals should be isolated and treated with worm expellers
- Grazing of animals on pasture should be avoided. The animal faeces should be removed at regular intervals. Water and feeds should not be contaminated by the faeces.
- Farm animals should be well fed so that they can resist the effects of worms.
This is a disease of cattle, sheep. Goats and rabbits.
Mode of transmission: It is contacted through eating succulent fodder and blockage of the digestive tract especially in cattle.
Sypmtoms: Sypmtoms include swollen digestive tract and enlargement of the bowel.
Method of prevention and control: The feeding of succulent fodder should be reduced. The animal should be fed with protein supplement. Cattle, sheep and goats should not be allowed to eat a lot of seeds.
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES
To maintain animals in good, healthy condition, the farmer must pay attention to the following general guidelines:
- Only clean and healthy animals should be brought into the herd
- Lots should be drained in order to make them dry and free from stagnant water
- Farm animals with contagious diseases should be isolated.
- Farm animals should be tested at least once a year for brucellosis, tuberculosis and other diseases.
- All farm animals should be vaccinated against diseases common in the locality as a preventive measure.
- Disinfect housing and equipment regularly
- Use only recommended insecticides and their application methods for the control of parasites.
- Do not allow animals to lie on cold floors
- Isolate newly acquired animals for a minimum of three weeks (quarantine) before they are mixed with other animals.
- Spray newly acquired animals with insecticide to control lice; also check for internal parasites and treat infected animals.
- Seek the advice of the veterinary doctor.
- State the symptoms of worm infections.
- Mention three control of worm infections.
- Explain the transmission, symptoms, prevention and control of bloat disease.
- State five general guidelines for prevention and control of animal diseases.
Answer revision questions 3v and 4 on page 79 of WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al
WABP junior secondary agriculture for Nigerian schools book 2 by A. Youdeowei et al pages 77 and 78.
- The following are symptoms of worm infection except A. Coughing B. Diarrhea
C. Loss of weight D. tuberculosis.
- Which of the following is effective in the control of worm infection on farm animalsA. isolation and treatment of infected animal B. increase in grazing of animals on pasture C. irregular sanitation of farm animal waste D. Farm animals should be seldomly fed to resist worms effect.
- _____ of newly acquired animals is important before introduction to other animals in a farm A.Unity B.Feeding C.TreatmentD.Isolation.
- The disease which is characterized by the enlargement of the bowel is called A. kata B. diarrhea C. bloat D.coccidiosis.
- The following are examples of worm affecting farm animals except A. earthworm
B. tapeworm C. roundworm D. liver fluke
- Describe the transmission, symptoms, prevention and control of bloat disease.
- Mention two general guidelines for prevention and control of animal diseases.