English Language Lesson note for SS2 second Term – Edudelight.com
SECOND TERM ENGLISH LANGUAGE E-LEARNING NOTE
SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH LANGUAGE SECOND TERM SS 2
- (i) Revision of Last Term’s Work and Examination Questions
(ii) Structure – Use of Possessive Apostrophe
(iii) Comprehension (Reading to Grasp Main Points): Unit 9; Stock Exchange, Effective English, pg. 134 – 136
Writing (Narrative) “My SS 1 Experience.”
- Comprehension: (Reading to Grasp Sentence Paragraph Transition): Unit 10 – Nothing Gets Done. Effective English, page 150
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with the Press
Structure: Punctuation Marks (Comma, Semi-colon, Question Mark, Colon)
- Essay Writing (Formal Letters) Letter of Complaints
Structure – Sentence Types According to Functions
Speech Work – Diphthongs
Summary – How to Answer Summary Questions
- Essay Writing: (Informal Letters) Letters to a Friend in Another Town.
Speech Work: Diphthongs /ei, ai, au, ᴐi/
Comprehension (Reading for Implied Meaning): unit II – Moral Behaviour, Effective English, page 168
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Environment.
- Summary Writing: Wole Soyinka, Effective English, pg 158 – 159
Structure: Kinds of Pronouns
Speech Work: Rhyme Scheme
- Comprehension: (Reading for Critical Evaluation) Communication; Effective English page 181
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Nation Building
Structure: Introduction to Sequence of Tenses
Speech Work: Diphthongs /Iә, eә, әƱ, Ʊә/
- Structure: More About Phrasal Verbs
Comprehension: unit 12 Advancement in Technology, Effective English, pg 109 – 111
Vocabulary Development: Technology
Speech Work: Comparison of /tᶘ/ and /ᶘ/, /ʤ/ and /ʒ/
- Essay Writing: Articles
Structure: Active and Passive Structures
Register: Words Associated with Cultural Entertainment
- Structure: Making Uncountable Nouns Countable
Summary: Writing Answers to Model Summary Passage
Vocabulary Development: Noting Words Commonly Misspelt.
Writing: Writing Semi-Formal Letter.
- Montgomery et al: Effective English for SS 2 ( Main Text) Evanz Publishers, Ibadan
- Ogunsanya et al: Countdown to SSCE, Evans Publisher, Ibadan.
- Onuigbo S.M: Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Africana Publishers, Enugu.
- Ayo Banjo et al: New Oxford Secondary English Course SS 2. University Press PLC, Ibadan
- FoluAgoi: Towards Effective Use of English. A grammar of Modern English
- Ayo Akano: Maclimillan Mastery English Language for Senior Secondary Schools, Macmillan Nigeria Publishrs limited, Ibadan
- Ken Mebele et al: Goodbye to Failure in English for Senior Schools, Book 2, Treasure Publishers LTD, Lagos.
- Benson O. A Oluikpe et al: Intensive English for Senior Secondary Schools, 2 Africanal Publishers LTD, Onitsha.
- Oxford, Advanced Learners Dictionary.
- WAEC Past Questions.
- REVISION OF LAST TERM’S EXAMINATION
Structure – Use of Possessive Apostrophe
The apostrophe ( ’ ) has three uses: contractions plurals and possessives. It is used with ‘s’ to show possession. The formation of possessive is treated in different ways.
Formation of Possessives
- The possessive of the singular noun is formed by adding ‘s’ (apostrophe and ‘s)
Example:Ada’s medical book.
The child’s toy.
- The possessive of a plural noun is formed by adding only an apostrophe when the noun ends in ‘s’ Example: Girls’ hostel
The boys’ baseball team.
- The possessive of the plurals not ending with ‘s’ is formed by adding apostrophe and ‘s’
Example: Men’s club
- Nouns having several words must have their possessive only to the last word.
Example: The President of Nigeria’s speech.
The Prime Minister of India’s visit to Japan.
The door of my friend’s house.
- Two nouns having close association must have the possessive to the latter.
Example: Wren and Martin’s grammar.
Johnson and Johnson’s baby face powder
- The possessive of nouns in apposition must be put to the second noun.
Example: This is Sharon, the teacher’s favourite student
This is Bisi, my friend’s wife.
He lives in Okaa, Anambra’s capital
- Two different nouns having no relation, require separate possessive forms.
Example: Mike’s and John’s books
Note: ‘s’ is omitted when there are hissing sounds
Example: For goodness’ sake.
For conscience’ sake.
If a singular possessive noun ends with an ‘s’(such as James, Moses), you can either use an apostrophe before a second ‘s’ or after first ‘s’
Example: Saint James’ Cathedral or Saint James’s Cathedral.
Show the possessive of these expressions using apostrophe where appropriate.
- Kunle house.
- Workers salary.
- Moses followers.
- At his finger tip.
Countdown in English, pg. 217
- Comprehension (Reading to Grasp. Main Points); Stock Exchange, page 134.
The passage explains what shares are and what the purposes of the stock exchange are.
Read and answer the questions.
Effective English, 134, 135.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
Give the past and past participle form.
(i) awake (ii) Freeze
(iii) fight (iv) swear
(v) lay (vi) quit
(vii) lie (viii) tread
(ix) creep (x) wind
Writing – Narrative – A Place of Interest I Visited
Remember, to write a good narrative, the following must be done.
- Use the past tense forms of verbs to give an account of events which happened in the past.
- Present the events or actions in a natural sequence.
- Divide the tune in which the actions took place into small periods.
- Discuss one main idea or event in a paragraph.
- Drop the ideas or points which do not contribute to the unity and the coherence of the narrative
Write a narrative essay on the topic. “A Place of Interest I Visited”
Heading: A PLACE OF INTEREST I VISITED
Paragraph 1: Description of the place you visited
Paragraph 2: Preparations made or put in place before the journey was embarked on.
Paragraph 3: The events that took place there
Paragraph 4: Narrate one spectacular event or incident that caught your attention or that affected you
Paragraph 5: (Conclusion) Narrate how it all ended
Use the outline provided to write a full length essay.
Countdown in English, pg 5 – 6; Effective English, page 87.
- By nature, armed robbers are ruthless: I have never seen a ________ one among them. A. humane B. barbarous C. ferocious
- The taxi driver slowed while overtaking the lorry when the proper thing to do was for him to have _________ A. accelerated B. negotiated C. throttled
- The probationary workers do not have the same right as __________ staff A. approved B. confirmed C. dismissed.
- The journey by road ___________ where the rail journey ended. A. commenced B. originated C. concluded.
- Instead of laughing about this serious matter, you should be ___________ A. whimpering B. bitter C. sober.
Practice 2, pg 73, Effective English.
English Language Lesson note for SS2 second Term – Edudelight.com
Structure – Punctuation Marks; Comma, Semicolon, Question Mark and Colon.
Punctuation marks are the marks or signs inserted in a piece of writing to mark off words or groups of words. The use of punctuation marks makes for effective presentation of ideas.
Comma ( , )
The comma is used ……
- To mark off words in a list.
Example: She gave us two pencils, four rulers and pens.
- To mark off phrases or clauses;
Example: Having seen her son, she felt relieved.
- To mark off non-defining relative clauses;
Example: Mr. kargbo, who happens to be a lawyer, is aware of our situation.
- To mark off main clauses linked by a conjunction such as and, or, but, as ,for.
Example: They have been complaining about their flight since five years ago, but unfortunately, the management has not paid any attention
- In direct speech, to separate the speech (in quotes) from non-speech.
Example: She said, “Run as fast as you can”
Semi – Colon ( ; )
A semicolon is used …
- To separate two main clauses, especially those not linked by a conjunction
Example: She looks awful; she needs a shower.
- In place of a comma, to separate parts of a sentence which already contains comma;
Example: He made up his mind to take the bull by the horns; he would purge the country, no matter the cost.
Question Mark ( ? )
A question mark is used …
- To mark the end of a direct question;
Example: Have you had lunch?
- To express doubt
Example: He was in Toronto?
- At the end of a question tag
Example: Bisi left late, didn’t she?
Colon ( : )
A colon is used …
- To introduce a list
Example: These are the items they are asking for: a bicycle, two goats and four gallons of palm oil.
- To introduce a phrase or clause which supplies additional information about the main clause
Example: He could not leave her in spite of her misbehavior: he lacked the courage.
Punctuate the following passage:
She was waiting for us small dowdy dirty in sharp contrast to the sham graudeur of the carson but unprepossessing as she looked the burgeo was wise in the ways of unforgiving world of water she was a proper sea – boat not a floating motel.
Lesson Note on English Language SS 2 Second Term
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Press.
1. Tabloid – A newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers)
2. Verbatim – A report written word for word (i.e. exactly as spoken or written)
3. Journalism– The work of collecting and writing news, stories for newspapers, magazines, radio
4. Press man – A journalist
5. Column – One of the vertical sections into which printed page of a book, newspaper etc. is divided.
6. Opinion poll – The process of questioning people who are representative of a large group in order to get information about general opinion.
7. Newsreel – a short film of news that was shown in the past in cinemas/movie theaters
8. Commentator – An expert on a particular subject who talks or writes about it on television reporting on a particular area of news.
9. Press conference – A meeting at which somebody talks to a group of journalist in order to answer their questions or to make official statement.
10. Editorial – connected with the task of preparing something such as a newspaper, a book etc.
11. Headline – The title of a newspaper or article printed in large letters especially at the top
12. Byline – a line at the beginning or end of a piece of writing in a newspaper or magazine that gives the writer’s name.
13. Type setter – a person, machine or company that prepares a book etc. for printing
- Ministers and other important persons in public life speak to journalist at a press _______ A. assembly B. conference C. opinion poll D. meeting
- A report written word for word is known as ____ A. verbatim B. copy right C. verboseD. news item
Effective English, page 131
- Comprehension (Reading to Grasp Sentence Paragraph Transition); An Absurdist Dramas pg 150
This drama is an absurdist one. The events are woven around strange and sometimes improbable situations. It creates a situation when things are only close to being done but are never done.
Answer the questions that accompany the passage.
Effective English, pages 150 – 154
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Form nouns from the following adjectives or descriptive word.
(a) serene (b) civil (c) antique (d) modern (e) grave (g) loyal
- Replace the following nouns with appropriate adjectives.
accurate poverty brilliance admiration power industry
Instruction: Choose the word that best completes each of the following sentences.
- The officer expressed his ____ at being dismissed. A. indignity B. indignation C. indigestion
- It gives me much _________ to welcome you to the beginning of the new session A. pleasure B. relish C. indulgences
- Miss Funke is very _______ with her pupils because she loves them all A. prevalent B. familiar C. popular
- He added a brief __________ to his letter. A. postmark B. postscript C. post mortem
- The __________ that the hospital should be upgraded was warmly welcomed A. design B. proposal C. theorem.
Practice 2, page 131, Effective English
Essay Writing (Formal Letters); Letters of Complaints
Remember that formal letters are letters to offices rather than persons, and so are regarded as impersonal letters. As such, they should neither contain personal greetings nor discussion of personal affairs. They include.
- Letters to offices and business houses
- Applying for jobs.
- Making requests.
- Replying to official letters
- Complaining about a faulty product etc.
- Placing orders for books, shoes etc.
- Invitations, notices, memos, advertisement, circulars
- Letters to institutions asking for admission, permission or making complaints etc.
- Letters to editors of newspapers, magazines etc. on topics of public interest
The focus here is letters of complaints. These are letters written to address issues that displease the writer and for which he or she would like to express himself.
- The opening paragraph, contain expressions, like …
- I regret to inform you that …
- I feel sad to inform you that ….
- The closing paragraph contains expressions such as:
- I look forward to an early reply
- I expect an urgent action from you.
- The tone of a letter of complaint should be serious but not rude. Use ‘shall’ and ‘will’ to show strong request, rather than the polite ‘should’ and ‘would’. If you are rude, the recipient may take offence and if you are too polite or soft, the recipient may not take you seriously. You must strike a balance between the two.
- The topic given will specify what should be the content of the letter. The topic should be understood instructions obeyed. It should not be filled with irrelevance in an attempt to make it voluminous.
Write a letter to the General Manager of a book shop, complaining about some shortcomings of a branch located in your neighbourhood. It should be about 400 words long.
- Start with the format for formal letters
5, Oba Akran Road,
P.O Box 1008,
12th June, 2021.
The General Manager,
- Write the heading:
COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE CMB BOOKSHOP IN MY AREA.
- Start with the acceptable expression for letters of complaints:
I feel sad to inform you that …………………………..
- Give your complaints against the branch e.g. poor services rendered by the staff, exhorbitant prices, refusal to change damaged books, inadequate stock etc.
- Point out the effect these shortcoming can have on the set-up.
- Conclude with the acceptable expression for letters of complaint already discussed:
I expect and urgent action from you.
- End with format for formal letters:
Use the outline above to write a full length essay.
Effective English, pg 192
Sentence Types According to Function
Sentences are classified, according to their functions, as:
- Declarative Sentences (Statements)
A declarative sentence expresses a statement or declaration and usually end with a full stop.
Examples: (i) She suggested we go by bus.
(ii) The high men took away the money she had.
Interrogative Sentences (Questions)
They are used to ask questions.
Example: Do you want some oranges?
Can you solve the problem
Where do you live?
These are sentences used when we want to make people do something. Imperatives range from polite requests to sharp orders (or commands). Imperatives are also used to give instructions, directions and make suggestions.
Example: Would you be kind enough to dust the shelves?
Do you mind dusting the shelves.
Can you please dust the shelves – polite request
Dust the shelves!
Stop ! Sharp orders.
They convey different feelings or emotions of love, surprise, anger, hatred. Etc.
Example: Whoops! I almost smashed the car.
Ugh! How can you drink that.
Identify the sentence type contained in each of the sentences below
- Have you been studying hard for your examination?
- What an elegant look you have!
- Our country has great economic potentials.
- Get out of my room!
Countdown in English, pg 271.
Speech Work: Diphthongs.
A diphthongs is a double quality vowel. It starts with one quality and ends with another. However, it still function as one vowel. There are eight diphthongs in English and their phonetic symbols indicate the initial and final vowels represented in the articulation.
Diphthongs are generally classified into two groups, taking into consideration the direction of the movement in their production. Thus, there are closing diphthongs –/ eI, ai, Ͻi, ǝƱ, aƱ / and centering diphthongs /Iǝ, eǝ, Ʊǝ /. The closing diphthongs involve gliding movement towards the close region / I, Ʊ/ the centering diphthong on the other hand, are produced with the movement of the tongue towards / ǝ / which is a central vowel.
|/ eI /||ei||eight, weight, vein, freight|
|a..e||bake, fake, waste, hate|
|ai||maid, train, brain, laid|
|ay||pray, play, may, stray|
|/ ǝƱ/||o||Go, no, so, old|
|oe||toe, hoe, foe,|
|oa||goat, toast, boat, loaf, toad.|
|ow||sow, grow, throw, low, borrow|
|ou||dough, soul, though, although|
|/ ai /||i||hide, tide, bite, site, mind,|
|ie||tie, pie, tie, tries,|
|igh||high, thigh, right, sight, plight|
|/ aƱ/||ow||bow, cow, vow, allow|
|ou||out, about, shout, bout, vouch|
|ough||plough, drought, bough|
|oun||bound, round, found|
|/ Ͻi /||oi||oil, boil, toil, coil, soil|
|oy||boy, toy, joy, coy, ploy, employ|
|/ Iǝ /||ere||here, mere, sincere|
|ear||clear, fear, sear, rear, dear, near, hear, gear|
|eer||beer, cheer, deer, steer, peer|
|iou||curious, serious, savior|
|ier||pierce, fierce, tier, plier|
|/ eǝ /||are||share, care, spare, rare, dare|
|air||fair, air, pair, hair, stairs|
|ear||tear, bear, wear, pear|
|/Ʊǝ /||ure||cure, pure, sure, lure, endure|
|oor||poor, moor, boor|
From the words lettered A – D, choose the word that has the SAME VOWEL SOUND as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
- sew A. soothe B. new C. soar D. know
- they A. there B. day C. eye D. key
- high A. ghost B. low C. hit D. buy
- oil A. buoy B. bay C. toll D. tortoise
- cheer A. chair B. ear C. check D. cheat
Oral English for Schools and Colleges, pages 21 – 28.
- Summary – How to Answer Summary Question; African Mud Sculpture, pg. 234, Effective English.
Always have these points at the back of your mind before answering summary question
- Read the passage carefully.
- Determine intention of the writer by resigning the key problems in the passage.
- Do not exceed the required number of sentences.
- Provide your answer in good sentences bearing in mind sentence structure.
- Avoid lifting and unnecessary repetition.
The passage reveals that the brass figures of Benin are well known African art. These figures are crafted by men with high skills
Read the passage and answer related questions.
Effective English, pg 234.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISONAL QUESTIONS
- Identify the figures of speech present in the following expressions.
- Life is a stage.
- People say women are necessary evil
- My driver’s children are pigs.
- Dan Musa can drink a whole brewery day.
- Dolapo sings like a nightingale.
- What are the basic features of a formal letter.
Instruction: Choose the word that best completes each of the following sentences.
- The visitors expressed appreciation for the __________ shown to them during their stay. A. condemnation B. pretence C. hospitality
- The principal ________ the students for performing brilliantly in the examination A. condoned B. commended C. admonished
- The judge ________ her to two year improvement A. pronounced B. sentenced C. tried
- Alinco is generally _________ as the most experienced mason in town. A. recommended B. recognized C. informed
- The board of Directors is discussing how the company can be run more _________________ A. effeminately B. efficiently C. effortlessly
No 6 – 10, pg 89; No 1 – 5, page 89, Effective English.
Essay Writing: (Informal Letters) Letters to a Friend in Another Town.
Speech Work: Diphthongs /ei, ai, au, ᴐi/
Comprehension (Reading for Implied Meanings): unit II – Moral Behaviour
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Environment.
- Comprehension – Reading for Implied Meanings; Moral Behaviour, Effective English, pg168
It is important to realize that, when reading, the writer sometimes takes for granted that the reader knows something about the thing he writes. He expects that you will be prepared to piece together the information he gives you and draw conclusions from the information. It is your job then to read for implied meanings. You can do this by:
- Reading the questions before, during and at the end of reading assignment
- Linking ideas to follow the writer’s line of thought
- Bringing in what you know from your background to help understand the reading assignment.
- Testing any conclusions you draw against information given.
The passage on page 168, Effective English, focuses on the misdemeanor committed by a prefect who got a junior student pregnant. He had to be publicly caned an unprecedented thirty – six strokes.
Read and answer the questions which accompany it.
Effective English,pg 168
Speech Work – Diphthongs /eI, ai, Ͻi, aƱ and ǝƱ/
Remember that these diphthongs are called closing diphthongs as their production require a gliding movement of the tongue towards the close region as shown on the chart below.
This vowel starts from an e-like quality. Then the tongue moves slightly up and back into a position for /I/. there is no identifiable break between /e/ and /I/
Example; fate, date, gape, save, day, pay, waist, eight.
The articulation of / aI/ starts with a sound which has the quality of /a/ but the quality changes with the gradual glides towards./I/If you pronounce the word “high” the opening of the mouth gets smaller with the closing movement of the lower jaw following the glides toward / I/
Example: site, pipe, dye, fight, height, buy.
/ Ͻi /
This is a dipthong which begins from the back towards the front and the lips which are “rounded”, gradually become spread as the tongue glides moves towards /i/
Example: boil, toy, soil, coy.
In the production of / ǝƱ/, the glide starts with the centre of the tongue and moves to a position between the centre and the back with a slight closing movement of the lower jaw.
Example: go, toe, goat, soul, slow, hope
The tongue glides from /a/ and gradually towards / Ʊ/with the closing movement of the jaw. The shape of the lips changes from neutral to a rounded position.
Example: cow, bow, out, shout, plough.
From the words lettered A – D, chose the one that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the underlined letter(s)
- boys A. noise B. purse C. bout D. most
- laid A. plait B. light C. said D. raid
- now A. crow B. bout C. naught D. know
- sight A. still B. seethe C. lite D. life
Oral English for Schools and Colleges, pg 22 – 24
- Vocabulary Development – Power Production
The principal sources of power, apart from our own bodies are:
- Animals: (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.) to ride on, to carry heavy loads and to pull vehicles.
- Moving water: currents will cause boats to drift; waterfalls can drive heavy machinery1Inwatermills and likes,tides can be used to generate electricity.
- Moving air (winds): can drive heavy machinery in windmills and propel ships equipped with sails.
- Tension: can project weapons and in the form of springs can drive light machines, e.g. clocks, watches and toys.
- Fuels: (wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas) which when ignited, can release energy to drive machines or to be converted into electricity.
- The sun: solar energy is used on a limited scale for domestic and other heating.
- Nuclear fission: releases energy for conversion into electricity.
For every modern nation, the generation of electricity, to provide light, heat and motive power, is the most important form of power production. Each nation therefore establishes power stations using water turbines in hydro-electric plants, steam turbines in hydro-electric plants, steam turbines in coal-fueled or oil–fueled plants and nuclear reactors fueled by uranium, uranium oxide or uranium carbide. The use of tidalenergy to generate power is still relatively small. However, when mineral fuels are exhausted, it seems that wind, water and the sun will again become man’s principal source of power.
- Learn the words and phrases in bold. Find out the meanings of those unfamiliar to you.
- Choose the correct answer from letters A to E to fill in the gaps in the following sentences
- Coal is one of the ________ fuels. A. extracted B. nuclear C. native D. fossil E. fission
- Electricity is _________ in power stations A. made B. ignited C. generated D. developed E. converted
- Nuclear ________ is used to generate electricity A. fusion B. fission C. uranium D. reactor E. turbines
- Windmills use ________ power to drive machinery. A. wind B. water C. moving D. electric E. nuclear
- Nuclear __________ are fuelled by uranium. A. power B. electricity C. stations D. turbines E. reactors
Essay – Writing: Letter to a Friend
A letter to a friend is also known as friendly letter. A friendly letter as you will remember, is an informal letter. Revise a few things about an informal letter here before you write more letters especially to a friend.
A good friendly letter has the following parts:
- The address and date:
Government Secondary School,
10th July, 2008.
- Salutation – Dear Bola,
3. The body – Introduce the topic of the letter and discuss it fully, writing in paragraphs. Make use of acceptable language for informal letters. Since it is a letter to a friend, you must be chatty. Discuss freely, as if you are actually chatting with the receiver. Use short forms. Like I’m, you’ve, can’t, he’s etc.
(i) Paragraph 1 – Inquire after the well-being of your friend and tell him about yours.
(ii) Paragraph 2 & 3: Bring in other topics of interest to both of your into the letter, but keep the main topic in mind as your write.
(iii) Paragraph 4(conclusion): Extend greetings to people known to both of you.
4. Complimentary close: – Yours sincerely,
Your friend who lives abroad has written to ask about the cost of living in Nigeria. In a reply, tell him about the situation, include the rise in the prices of commodities and whatever else that make living more expensive nowadays.
Effective English, pg 131
Match each idiom in the left column with its explanation in the right column.
- to anxiously listen to a person a. to show ones colour
- to be annoyed b. to hand on someone’s lips
- to reveal one’s character c. to play one’s card close to one’s chest
- to make one’s actions d. to go off the deep end
- to beware of losing one’s e. to pay off an old grudge
importance or superior position
- to treat someone badly because f. to look to one’s laurel.
of an old unfriendly action
- to persevere in spite of odds g. to stay the course
- to nerve oneself to act h. to take one’s courage in both hands.
Select the word that is closet in meaning to the italicized one in each sentence from the alternatives labelled A – E
- Uche is an itinerant trader A. generous B. roving C. wholesale D. petty E. export
- The girl refused to take part in the perilous trip A. expensive B. famous C. risky D. pleasant E. unpopular
- A jubilant crowd cheered the politician after the rally. A. sad B. anxious C. happy D. large E. weary
- I was fortunate to win the prize. A. happy B. anxious C. lucky D. determined E. unfortunate
- He did not supply the goods as his client did not meet his financial obligation A. bill B. bargain C .receipt D. responsibility E. means
Section A; Continuous Assessment, Unit 9, no 1 – 5 (Effective English)
- Speech Work – Rhyme Scheme
Another aspect of Test of Orals which students must be very familiar with is rhyme. Rhyme occurs when words end in same sound. To be more precise, two words rhyme with each other when they have:
- Same vowel ending.
Example: go – know
do – sue
buy – thigh
- Same final consonants (or consonant cluster sequence)
Example: worst – burst
count – amount
just – dust
- Same final vowel and consonant.
Example: half – laugh
From the words lettered A – D, choose the word that rhyme with the given word
- done A. gone B. pen C. dawn D. don
- shook A. hoot B. hook C. roof D. soak
- amend A. rescind B. abound C. resent D. depend
- pale A. palm B. abound C. resent D. depend
Countdown in English, pg 312.
Structure: Pronoun Types
In the first series, we saw the use of relative pronouns (who, whom, which, whose etc.). But this time, attention is on some other pronoun types: Personal, demonstrative, interrogative and possessive
These are words used in place of any of the three persons we have in English language
- The first person refers to the person(s) being addressed
- The second person refers to the person(s) or being addressed and;
- The third person refers to the person(s) or things spoken about.
Note that personal pronouns have singular and plural forms and they can also be used both in the nominative or subjective as well as accusative or objective cases. The table below illustrate the personal pronouns at a glance.
|3rd person||He, She, It||Him, her, it||They||Them|
These are so called because they point out particular persons, places, or things. The English demonstrative pronouns are: this, these, that, those. “this” and “that” are singular, “these” and “those” are plural.
Also “this” and “these” point at objects that are near, while “that” and “those” are used for distant objects.
Examples: This is my friend.
These are my books.
That is her shop.
These are my cars.
Interrogative pronouns are employed or used in asking questions.
Examples: What is your name?
Which of the dresses is yours?
Whose hat is this?
To whom did you give the letter?
Where do you live?
Note: The interrogative pronoun ‘which’ is used when we are making a selection from a known set of possibilities or when the choice is limited to a specific number.
These are pronouns which show ownership. For example, “The house is mine” means that the house is owned by me.
Other examples of possessive pronouns are his, ours, yours, theirs.
It is important for students to note the difference between possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives.
Possessive Pronoun Possessive Adjective
The ruler is mine This is my ruler
These books are ours These are our books
The table below illustrates the possessive words in their adjective and pronoun forms.
|Poss. Adjective||Poss. Pronoun||Poss. Adjective||Poss. Pronoun|
Note that apostrophe cannot be used with possessive pronouns e.g.
This pencil is yours This pencil is your’s
This school is theirs This school is their’s
Underline and classify the pronouns in the following sentences.
- What did you do to my box?
- That is the room which I used as the store
- Give the book to him.
Read about, Emphatic, Reflexive, Reciprocal and Indefinite Pronouns.See Countdown in English, pg 218 – 220
- Summary – Identifying the Topic Sentence of a Passage, Wole Soyinka – Effective English pg158
The passage is a review of James Gibbs book on Wole Soyinka. The reviewer points out the strengths and weaknesses of Gibbs’ study of Wole Soyinka’s life, career and works.
Read the passage and answer the questions (see Effective English, pg 158)
Effective English, pg 161 (Adverbial Expression – Intensifiers and Linking Expressions).
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Write five words that rhyme.
- For each of the following words, write two sentences, determine when each is used as possessive pronoun or possessive determiner (adjective)
Choose the word which contains the same vowel sound that is underlined.
- Know A. sew B. how C. vow
- Make A. height B. take C. says
- fair A. wear B. mere C. dear
- best A. regal B. leopard C. legal
- story A. drought B. spot C. fought
Practice 3 (1 & 2) page 73, Effective English.
- Comprehension – Reading for Critical Evaluation; Unit 12: Communication, Effective English pg 181.
The passage reveals the main criticism of Nigerian film and television. It explains that most programmes have no relevance to the Nigerian culture. More so, the funds generated for the Nigerian film industry are usually in the wrong hands.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
Countdown in English, pg 169
- Structure – Introduction to Sequence of Tenses
Sequence of tenses is the principle which requires all the verbs in a sentence or a number of sentences to be in the same tense all through.
- Today is my happiest day. At last, I have completed my project. I am now free to do anything I like – Present tense
- The match had already begun when we got there, so we decided to wait and watch the second half which started an hour after – Past tense
It is however sometimes possible to have a mixture of past and present tenses in a sentence especially if a fact or generally acceptable notion is referred to here.
Example: The teacher taught us that the earth goes round the sun.
My father told me that character is strength.
Choose either of the options in bracket in each of the following sentences bearing in mind the rules of sequences of tenses.
- The police (has/have) arrived and (is/are) checking all vehicles on the road.
- Segun and Adeleke ate some food but (they were not feeling/did not feel/ are not feeling) satisfied.
- Segun lived in Osogbo, so he (is/was) seen in a taxi, (waving/waved) to them.
(Countdown in English, pages 232 – 235)
Speech Work – Diphthongs /Iə/, /eә/and /Ʊə/
The articulation of these diphthongs involves a gliding movement of the tongue towards the centre as illustrated in the vowel chart below
For this sound, the glide begins with a tongue position for /I/and moves in the direction of /ə/
Example: here, hear, beer, weird.
To produce /eə/, the glide begins from the front of the tongue towards the centre. The shape of the
lips is neutral throughout the production. Some words with /eə/ may have a final ‘r’ in the spelling but the ‘r’ is not pronounced unless it is followed by another word beginning with a vowel.
Example: hair, hare, their, there, swear
The production of /Ʊə/ involves tongue glide from the position for the production of /Ʊ/ towards the position for the production of / /. The shape of the lips changes from rounded to neutral.
Example: boor, poor, sure, tour, yours.
From the words lettered A – D, choose the word that contains the sound represented by the given phonetic symbol.
- /Iə/ A. pear B. near C. herd D. marry
- /eə/ A. cart B. face C. vary D. idea
- /aƱ/ A. low B. through C. height D. about
- /əƱ/ A. board B. mat C. stew D. below
- /eI/ A. said B. mat C. male D. key
Oral English for Schools and Colleges; pg 26 – 28
Vocabulary Development – Words Associated with Nation Building.
Nation – building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. It aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run.
According to Harris My Lonas,legitimate authority in modern national states is connected to popular rule, to which majorities are constructed.
Nation builders are those members of a state who take the initiative to develop the national community through government programmes including military conscription. Nation – building can involve use of propaganda or major infrastructure development to foster social harmony and economic growth.
- Find the meaning of the words written in bold.
- Make sentences with five of them.
Effective English, pg 177 – Position of Adverbs.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS.
- State the grammatical names and function of the following phrases:
- The woman in the next apartment is a drug peddler
- The girl left the principal office, beaming with satisfaction.
- The man to succeed the king has not been born
- What processes are involved in nominalizing adjectives and verbs. (show examples).
Read Countdown page 217
Choose the option that has a different stress pattern.
- (a) commit (b) compare (c) complete (d) column
- (a) afraid (b) allow (c) always (d) attempt
- (a) decision (b) continue (c) plantation (d) continent
- (a) monitor (b) register (c) possible (d) promotion
- (a) leader (b) judgment (c) money (d) report
Complete the sentences in practice 2, page 43, Effective English
Structure – More about Phrasal Verbs.
Remember phrasal verbs are made up of verbs followed by a prepositions or adverbs – particles. The meanings of these combinations, as already known, cannot be determined in isolation, rather they have to be comprehended from the entire phrase. These meanings can sometimes be obvious or obscure. When the meaning is obscure, it becomes idiomatic. On the other hand, if the meaning is obvious it becomes non-idiomatic. Some phrasal verbs can express single meaning while in some cases, a single phrasal verb may have different meanings.
- Phrasal verb with obvious meaning
Example: They waited for him to come down
They were sitting down
- Phrasal verb with obscure meaning
Example: The convict broke down (lost control of his feelings)
Did you catch on (understand)?
I will not be surprised if he goes back on his words (= breaks his promise)
- Phrasal verbs with same meaning.
Example: After completing his prison term, he kept out of
Kept away from trouble
Stayed away from
- Phrasal verb with different meanings.
Example: During the Christmas party, I fell in with (met by chance) an old friend of mine.
I am ready to fall in with (agree to) anything you propose.
At this juncture, it is necessary to note that a single verb can combine with different particles. This means that there will be a change in meaning of each phrasal verb as the particle changes.
- break in – enter a building by force.
break up – end a relationship
break down – stop working suddenly
break through – to overcome.
- turn out – prove, show
turndown – reject/refuse
turnin – submit
turnoff – make somebody lose interest or feel bored
- stand up for – support
stand up to – oppose
- give in – surrender
give up – renounce
give away – reveal
- look after – take care of
look down on – despise
look up to – respect
- From the words lettered A – D, choose the word or group of words that best complete each of the following sentences.
- Personally, I ________ rather easily when it comes to arguments. A. give in B. give from C. give against D. give on
- If she takes _______ her mother, you can be sure of her efficiency. A. up B. on C. with D. after
- Their marriage finally ____________ A. fell about B. fell apart C. fell down D. fell upon
- For each of the underlined phrasal verb, substitute with a single-word verb.
- It is doubtful my provisions will hold out for one more week.
- He is always hard up because he does not lay out his money wisely.
Countdown in English, pg 240 – 241.
- Summary – Advancement in Technology, Effective English, pg 109
The passage reveals that advanced technology has brought about productivity of workers. Many organisations now use computers not only to save, access information but also, to save time and cost. With flow of information, however, every organisation has to be security conscious. There is need for protection against hackers
Relationships of time – see Effective English pg 112.
Speech Work – /ʧ/ and /∫/, /ʤ/ and /ʒ/
This is a voiceless palato – alveola fricative consonant. It is realized when the tip of the tongue and blade make a light contact with the alveolar ridge and the airstream escapes with a frictional noise.
Examples sh – sheep, shop
ch- champagne, machine
s – sugar, sure
ss- mission, pressure
c – ocean
ti – nation, education
ci – special, sufficient
This is called voiceless palato – alveolar affricate. In its production, the blade and rims of the tongue from a total obstruction to the airstream with the alveolar ridge while the front of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate. The spellings symbols for /ʧ/ are listed below
Examples ch – chief, church
-ture – nature, picture
tch – match, catch
tual – ritual, factual
This consonant is a voiced palato – alveolar fricative which has the same process of articulation as /ᶘ/ except that the vocal cords vibrate as if it is produced. In other words, /ʒ/ is the voiced counterpart of the voiceless /∫/. The symbols for /ʒ/ are as follows:
s – usual, measure
z – seizure,
si – evasion, vision
This is the voiced palato – alveolar affricate which is the same way as /tᶘ/. However, /ʤ/ is voiced because the vocal cords vibrate during its production. The spelling symbols for /ʤ/ are as follows:
j – judge, joy
g – gin, giant
dg – bridge, badge
d – soldier
Identify the underlined consonant sound used in each the words below:
sheep / /
Asia / /
invasion / /
joke / /
punctual / /
Oral English for Schools and Colleges, page 54 – 58
- Vocabulary Development – Technology.
- Invention –a thing or an idea that has been invented
- Pollution –substances that make air, water, soil etc. dirty
- Robot –a machine that can do some tasks that a human can do and that works automatically or is controlled by a computer.
- Fumes –smoke, gas or something similar that smells strongly or is dangerous to breathe in
- Astronauts – a person whose job involves travelling and walking in spacecraft.
- Spacecraft – a vehicle that travels through space
- Missile – a weapon that is sent through the air that explodes when it hits the thing it is aimed at
- Mast – a tall pole on a boat or ship that supports the sails/ a tall metal tower with an aerial that sends and receives radio or television signal.
- Automobile – a car.
- Technician – a person whose job is keeping a particular type of equipment or machinery in good condition
Some other words include:
Computer, electronic, factory, machine, install, telephone, industry, metro-line, traffic, high-precision, discoveries etc.
Complete each of the following sentences with one of the words in brackets (discoveries, transfer of technology, manufacture, life, style, standard of living, pollution, labour, market, revolutionalised, fumes, robot)
- Nigeria can only achieve greatness in technology ______________
- Our ___________ is rather low.
- Mr. Onum has made several amazing __________ this year.
- Too many industries in the town cause ___________.
- I am determined to ____________ bar soap in that factory.
- When the retrenchment exercise began, many people were thrown into the _____________.
Countdown in English, pg 175
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Write two words each to show contrast of the following pairs of sounds:
/ᶘ/ and /ʒ/
/tᶘ/ and /ʤ/
- Write five examples of phrasal verbs and their meanings.
Choose the word or phrase that is opposite in meaning to the underlined word.
- Olu was delighted when he heard the news. A. saddened B. frightened C. saddened D. frightened
- His hard work proved fruitful in the end. A. negative B. hostile C. futile D. ordinary
- Amadi is too garrulous for my liking. A. laconic B. slow C. dull D. dumb
- The doctor certified the tumourmalignant. A. benign B. ripe C. painless D. dangerous
- You have ample time to do the job A. little B. less C. enough D. excess
Practice 2 page 123, unit 8, Effective English
Essay Writing – Articles
An article is a piece of writing on any subject of public interest, specifically for publication in a magazine or a newspaper. The topics of such articles may be narrative, descriptive, argumentative or expository. It is important to recognize the audience for which the article is written as this determines the tone and language. The audience may be large or limited. The article however should have a mass appeal or to be able to appeal to a large number of people with different biological, psychological and social background at the same time.
Rudiments of Good Article Writing
- Write just the title of the article and go straight to the introductory paragraph. Make sure to give your article a catchy title
- Make the tone and language suitable for the audience specified
- Go straight to the point
- The body must be well-organised and developed strictly respecting the writing style or clarity, originality, or imaginativeness, unity, precision and coherence.
- If the article is a controversial topic, make reference to previous articles supposed to have been contributed by others on it.
- Write your full name and address at the end of your article. If for a school magazine, write your full name and class.
Suppose you were asked to write an article suitable for publication in your school magazine on ‘Examination malpractices in public examinations and their remedies
Title: Examination Malpractices: Causes and Remedies
Paragraph 1: Explain what examination malpractice means, stating the various forms. E.g. impersonation, copying answers from textbooks, etc.
Paragraph 2: State efforts being made by the government, examining bodies, school administrators etc. to curb this evil
Paragraph 3 and 4: Give reasons why the efforts being made by the various bodies are not yielding the desired results. State the root causes of the evil, suggesting solutions to them.
Paragraph 5: Conclude by giving your opinion on how to finally curb the evil. This should be followed by the writer’s full name at the right hand corner of the next line. Write your class underneath your name.
Use the outline given to write a full length essay on the topic
Effective English, pg 57.
Structure – Active and Passive Structures.
When the subject of a sentence represents the doer of an action, the verb of the predicate is in the active voice. When the subject of a sentence represents the sufferer of the action, the verb of the predicate is in the passive voice.
More often than not, verbs are used in the active, and less frequently in the passive
Chikebroke the plate The plate wasbroken by Chike
The workers swept the streets The streets were swept by the workers.
Nkechiate the food The food was eaten by Nkechi
When changing Active to Passive, the following must be noted:
- Only transitive verbs (i.e. verbs that receive objects can be used in the passive). This implies that the active sentence has an object that becomes the subject of the passive sentence
- The tense of the transitive verb in the active sentence determines the tense of be in the passive sentence.
- The preposition ‘by’ is introduced in the passive sentence. (not in all cases except when absolutely necessary).
Note that not all active sentences can be changed to passive because the passive form has its proper place and function in English.
Consider the following
- Sentences with transitive verb:
- Ada travelled with Obi to Enugu
- She slept for a whole day.
- Sentences with linking verbs.
- He became a lawyer
- You friend seems a very nice person.
- Sentences with special transitive verbs like the following:
- They have a new house.
- The new dress fits the girl.
- She resembles her mother.
The passive form should not be seen simply as an alternative to the active form. The main reason for using the passive is used
- To give due emphasis to the verb activity rather than the active subject:
Coal is mined at Enugu.
‘Things Fall Apart’ was written in the 1950’s
- When the doer of the action is not known.
He was killed during the war.
- Change the following sentences into the passive
- They appointed him a prefect
- The policeman is chasing the thief.
- The dentist extracted one of my teeth yesterday.
- Write the active form(s) for each of the following:
- The papers were collected by the teacher.
- A speech was made by the Chairman.
Countdown in English, pg 238 – 239.
Vocabulary Development – Words Associated with Cultural Entertainment
Italy is a nation that hosts unique and fascinating events of international resonance throughout the year, providing innumerable opportunities for experiencing intense emotions.
Art exhibitionare inspired by over a thousand years of heritage, and events such as the Venice Biennale with its design and contemporary art focus, are flanked and alternative with theatre and ballet performances. For music lovers, the festivals and operatic seasons offered by Milan’s La Scala and the Verona Arena are unique. But that’s not all. It offers a wide range of traditional and modern cultural events, such as literary festivals or the many carnivals held, most notably in Venice,but also in many other regions, and the various historical and religious representations that fill Italy with fantasy and vitality throughout the year.
Italy is also a natural film set. Its beautiful scenery make sit the perfect background for every kind of film production. From its metropolises, to its renaissance palaces and amazing natural landscapes. Italy is an ensemble of art, culture, natural landscapes, tradition, magic………… in a word diversity. Enjoy Italy and its daily countless events!
- Find the meanings of the words written in bold
- Find more words related to entertainment.
Countdown in English, pg 169
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
Indicate the subordinate clause used in each of the underlined expression and state the function of each.
- The girl wanted what I could not give her.
- I know I must succeed.
- The book about which so much has been said is not interesting.
- The man behaves as though he were the boss.
- He talked so loud that he disturbed the students reading for their examination.
- The house is not mine; it is __________ A. my uncles B. mine uncle C. my uncle’s D. my uncle
- As a boy, I enjoyed __________ novels A. read B. reading C. to read D. to be read
- The manager was entrusted _________ solving the problem. A. with B. by C. for D. to
- The artiste wore a _______ at the concert. A. silk blue beautiful dress B. beautiful blue silk dress C. blue beautiful dress D. silk dress beautiful blue \
- If I had known in time, I would have done it ____________ A. himself B. themselves C. ourselves D. myself
Test for Continuous Assessment B, Effective English, page 226
Structure – Making Uncountable Nouns Countable.
The focus here is to see how uncountable nouns can be made countable. Countable nouns are those we can count, they usually have singular and plural forms
Example: girl – girls
box – boxes
man – men
ox – oxen
Uncountable nouns are those that cannot be counted, and they therefore have only the singular form.
Examples: sand, rice, sugar, water, soup, advice, information, furniture, equipment, blood, knowledge, etc.
Uncountable nouns can however be made countable in the following ways:
- Using partitives
A partitive is a word or phrase that indicates a part or quantity of something as distinct from a whole. Also called noun partitive. Partitives appear before non count nouns as well as count nouns.
Example: a piece/chunk of meat
abottle of wine
acube/pack of sugar.
aplate/pot of soup
atin of milk.
afit of anger
aglass/cup of water
adrop/pint of blood
aloaf of bread
abar of chocolate
a piece of furniture
a clove of garlic
- Using Quantifiers
Quantifiers like partitives are used before nouns to indicate the amount or quantity. They can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
Example: Step out for some fresh air
Did you bring any luggage to the hotel?
Add a little flour to the dough
We had a lot of fun on our trip
- Using the Indefinite Article
An uncountable noun becomes countable when used with the indefinite article to suggest a kind of
- Singular and plural forms related in meaning
Plural Form Meaning
Cakes units of cakes
Foods kinds of foods
Difficulties instances of difficulties
- Singular and plural forms remarkably different in meaning.
Plural Form Meaning
Make the following uncountable nouns countable:
mucus news petrol darkness
Countdown in English, pg 205
- Summary – Writing Answers to Model Summary Passage – Food and Nutrition in Practice by J. Anazonwu – Bello, Effective English, pg 228.
According to the passage, food is necessary for quick recovery from ill health. Every individual must acquire knowledge of nutritional values and meal preparation
Answer the questions which accompany the passage.
Effective English, pg 228
Vocabulary Development – Words Commonly Misspelt
Wrong Spelling Correct Spelling
Correct the following misspelt words
aggresive secretray believe (noun) sergaent paralell
Effective English, pg. 82
Writing – Semi-formal Letter
This refers to a letter written to a distant adult relative, an adult family friend, distant pen-pal or an adult acquaintance. It has a lot in common with the informal letter, but also differs from it in many respects, which makes it semi-formal.
Features of a Semi-formal Letter.
- Only one address i.e. writer’s address.
- Salutation – This comes after the address and it depends on the level of familiarity e.g. ‘Dear
- Introduction – (Par. 1): Exchange of pleasantries and reason for writing the letter.
- Body of the letter
Paragraph 2, 3 and 4 Here, at least three or more points are discussed. The focusshould be the purpose for writing, be it to seek advice, ask for favour, show appreciation for help rendered etc.
- Conclusion (Par. 5) Sending of greetings is allowed here.
- Subscription: This is usually ‘Yours sincerely’ as it is in informal letter. No signature is
Note that the tone has to be respectful. Use of colloquial expressions must be limited to the barest minimum and use of slang is not allowed. The language should be direct, rather than wordy and circumlocutory as in an informal letter.
You were travelling on a long journey when you got to a point midway on your journey and the vehicle in which you were travelling broke down. It was getting dark and you were anxious to get to the nearest town. Fortunately, somebody whom you had never met, came along and offered you a lift in his car. You also put up with him or her for the night until the second day when you continued your journey and you eventually reached your destination. Write a letter of gratitude to him/her.
Countdown in English, pg 68 – 69.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Give the past and past participle forms of the following verbs:
awake find hold sweep
beat forget leave swell
cling freeze shut swing
drink grind sow take
feel hide stand wring
- Fill in the blank spaces with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets
- The child had __________ the entire bottle before I came in (drink)
- After I told Kola of the accident, he _____________ to cry (begin)
- When prices __________ consumers feel happy (fall)
- The wind has __________ away my shirt (blow)
Select the correct answers from the brackets.
- A (little/few) boys are still eating in the dining hall
- There is (few/little) water for Akin to drink: Please get (a/some) more.
- Do you know there are (less/lesser) days in February than January.
- The rain this year is (fewer/lesser) than that of last year.
- You know there is a (few/little) space we can only stay for a (few/little) minutes.
- We have (many/much) men, yet there isn’t (much/many) to be done
- Just put in (little/few) salt and give me (a/some) biscuits and a (few/little) orange juice.
- Go and cook (few/some) rice and prepare (a/an) stew with the fresh fish I bought.
- You make (many/much) noise. I hope you will talk (little/less) when you finish serving the punishment.
- Sade has put into the soup (many/much) pepper. The rice even contained (much/many) stones and (much/many)salt. No wonder I couldn’t eat it.
Practice 2, Effective English page 205
WEEK 11 & 12