English Language Lesson note for SS2 first Term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS 2 FIRST TERM
- Comprehension: Reading for Main Points
- Structure: Revision on Nominalization of Adjectives and Verbs.
- Speech Work: Review of Consonants Followed by /j/ and /u/ Sounds. Summary: Revision of the Features of Summary.
- (i) Comprehension – Learning about Main Ideas and Supporting Details Unit 1:
Basketball, pg 19
(ii) Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with the Human Body System and Functions
(iii) Speech Work: Cluster of Two, Three and Four Consonants
(iv) Writing (Expository): Meaning, Features and Examples
- (i) Comprehension: Reading to Follow Writer’s Ideas; Unit 2: Insurance, pg 33
(ii) Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Health e.g. diagnosis, contagious etc.
(iii) Structure: Noun Phrases: Meaning, Identification and Functions
- Summary (Reading to Summaries): Nnamdi Azikwe,pg 26
Vocabulary Development – Words Associated with Building and Building
Writing – (Narrative) Meaning, Features and Examples.
Structure – Relative Pronouns
- Comprehension Reading For Main Points – 2; Unit 4; Building,pg 66
Speech Work: Unstressed Vowel Sound /ə /
Writing (Argumentative) “Corruption Should be fought from the top to the bottom”
- Comprehension:Reading to Extract the Main Points from a Passage: Unit 6; On the Road pg 90
Structure: Sentence Types
Speech Work: Stress OfFour Syllable Words
Writing: Descriptive: “Valedictory Ceremony in My School”
- (i) Comprehension: Reading to Take Notes; Unit 7; Technology, pg 104
Structure: Adverb – Types (Manner, Place, Time, Frequency, Degree etc.)
Summary: Reading to Summarise an Argument
- Structure: Word Modifiers: Adjectives and Adverbs
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Colours, Smell and Taste
Comprehension (Listening); Unit 8; Uganda’s National Resistance Army, pg 119
Writing: A Report
- Structure: Plural Forms of Nouns
Speech Work: Stress of Five Syllable Words
Writing – Creative Writing: Features of a Short Story.
Summary Writing – Identifying Topic Sentences: Agriculture; Technical Aid Corps Proposed for Africa.
- Comprehension: Reading to Paraphrase a Prose Passage; Unit 5; Nazruddin, pg 80
Structure: Phrasal Verbs.
Writing: Features and Format of an Informal Letter.
- Montgomery et al: Effective English for SS 2 ( Main Text) Evans Publishers, Ibadan
- Ogunsanya et al: Countdown to SSCE, Evans Publisher, Ibadan.
- Onuigbo S.M: Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Africana Publishers, Enugu.
- Ayo Banjo et al: New Oxford Secondary English Course SS 2. University Press PLC, Ibadan
- FoluAgoi: Towards Effective Use of English. A grammar of Modern English
- Ayo Akano: Maclimillan Mastery English Language for Senior Secondary Schools, Macmillan Nigeria Publishrs limited, Ibadan
- Ken Mebele et al: Goodbye to Failure in English for Senior Schools, Book 2, Treasure Publishers LTD, Lagos.
- Benson O. A Oluikpe et al: Intensive English for Senior Secondary Schools, 2 Africanal Publishers LTD, Onitsha.
- Oxford, Advanced Learners Dictionary.
- WAEC Past Questions.
- Revision of Last Term’s Work and Examination
- Topic: Comprehension – Basketball. Effective English. Pg 19,
The passage centers on Hakeem Olajuwon’s playing record and character.
Read and answer the questions (see Effective English, page 19)
Effective English, page 19
Topic: Review of Nomination of Adjectives and Verbs.
Content: Meaning of Nominalization, Examples of Nominalized Adjectives and Verbs.
Nominalization is the process by which words other than nouns are made to function and behave as nouns. The parts of speech that are usually nominalized are verbs and adjectives.
They become nouns through the following processes:
Verbs and adjectives become nouns by taking noun suffixes.
- Verbs take suffixes like the following
-or/-er -tion/-ation -age
-ant -ment -ice
-ee -al -ance.
Examples of Suffixation
endow – endowment.
endure – endurance
acquit – acquittal
defend – defendant.
teach – teacher.
create – creator.
- Adjectives takes suffixes such as :
-ness -y -cy
-ty -ism -hood
-ity -ist -th
good – goodness
false – falsehood
ideal – idealist/idealism.
certain – certainty.
deep – depth.
clear – clarity.
Verbs and adjectives become nouns by taking on the definite article: the
Verbs: They payme well.
Noun: The pay is good.
Verb: He was injured during the match.
Noun: The injured were taken to the hospital
Note that verbs in the present participle (verb+ing) can be used as nouns e.g.
Weeping does not solve the problem.
Fighting is prohibited in our school.
Adjectives: Tunde is an honest man.
Noun: The honest receive their reward in the end.
Adjectives: Obi is taller than Chisom.
Noun: The taller of the two is a better athlete.
Adjective: He is the strongest boy in the group.
Noun: The strongest will emerge as the champion.
Change the following verbs and adjectives into nouns
Verbs: break, drain, arrive, continue, submit
Adjectives; free, real, safe, inferior, tender
Countdown in English, page 209
Revision of the Features of Summary
Content: Definition, Notes.
A summary is a brief account of what has been read or heard, it requires giving short but concise information about something without giving all the details.
Features of a Summary
- Brevity: The answer to any summary question must be brief and precise.
- Clarity: The answer must be clearly written down.
- Relevance: This calls for a student’s answers to be relevant to the points mentioned in the passage.
- Coverage: Every aspect of the passage must be read and understood.
Useful Hints on Summary Writing
- Read the passage at least twice to ensure thorough understanding.
- Proceed to read the questions based on the passage and then try to spot relevant portions.
- Try to identify the these statement in the passage and the topic sentences in the paragraphs so that you can follow the line of discussion.
- Adhere strictly to the instruction(s) given, e.g. “state in ………….. sentences”…….. Do not write your answers in phrases unless otherwise stated.
- Do not write more or less than the number of sentences required.
- Do not lump two points in one sentence.
- As much as possible write the answers in your own words. Avoid mindless lifting.
- Avoid illustrations, repetition and poor expression.
- Keep strictly to the contents of the passage, and do not try to correct any piece of information given in the passage.
Mention five useful hints in summary writing.
Read page 26, Effective English: NnamdiAzikwe Stadium
Topic: Consonants Followed by /j/ and /u/ sounds.
Content: Notes, Examples.
When we speak, we produce vowels and consonants which are individual contrastive sound units of the language. Learners of English, particularly in Nigeria, have difficulty in pronouncing some words. One major cause of this problem is that it is difficult to point out the presence of some sounds by merely looking at the written form of the words. Such words show the presence of other sounds only when they are pronounced. Most of such words are consonants followed by /j/ and /u:/ sounds. Look at the following examples:
Words Correct Pronunciation.
Note: these words form a cluster (a cluster is the occurrence of two or more consonants without an intervening vowel). See notes on CONSONANT CLUSTERS for more points
Write the correct pronunciation of the following words: dew, humor, due, beauty, future.
Countdown in English language, page 293
GENERAL EVALUATION/PROVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- What are the basic features of summary writing?
- Give three examples of consonant clusters that have /w/ e.g queen /kwi:n/
Instruction: from the list of options, choose the most appropriate.
- There ……..news about your application A. are good B. is a good C. is some good
- The recent rainstorm did …….. to our farm A. much damage B. many damage C. damages
- The students were punished for bad ……..A.conduction B.conductC. conducts
- The policemen received …… about the robbers’ hideoutA.many information B. some information C. an information
- There …….. in Lagos last Wednesday.A. was much traffic B. were many traffic C. were plenty traffic.
Complete the gaps in practice 2, page 22.
English Language Lesson note for SS2 first Term – Edudelight.com
- Topic: Comprehension – Insurance, Effective English, pg 33.
The passage explains that people can insure anything. It also reveals how insurance companies get enough money to pay for any loss incurred by the insured.
Read the passage again and answer the questions which accompany it.
Vocabulary Development – Words Associated with Human Body Parts.
Content: Words, Meanings.
- Skin – This is an elastic organ that covers the entire body.
- Ears – The ears are found on both sides of the head. It is almost a funnel like organ used for perceiving sounds.
- Eyes – The eyes are spherical organs found in front of the head within the eye sockets.
- Nose – This is the protruded part of the face which has two nostrils which channel air to the nasal cavity.
- Mouth – The mouth is the channel to the digestive stem. It constitutes two lips, jaw, teeth and tongue which aid chewing and swallowing of food.
- Lungs – This is a pair of pale pink broad organs found in the chest region, mainly for respiration and gaseous exchange.
- Kidney – This is a pair of reddish bean shaped organs found in the abdomen. The kidneys produce urine and excreta waste product of metabolism.
- Spleen – This organ serves as a reservoir for blood in the body.
- Heart – This is a muscular structure found in the thoracic (chest) region. It pumps blood through the arteries to other organs of the body.
- Brain – The brain is the center of reasoning and intelligence and it controls the nerves system in the body.
- Oesophagus– This is a long tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Other parts of the body are the legs, hands etc. all which perform different functions
- What are the five sense organs?
- Make sentence with each.
Topic: Speech Work: Cluster of Two, Three and Four Consonants.
Content: Definition, Basic Types, Examples.
In English, certain phonemes occur together regularly to form a sequence of sound units called cluster. English consonants are a good examples of this phenomenon. A consonants cluster is the sequence of two or more consonant sounds without any intervening vowel. For example str at the beginning of straight and strain forms a clusters
A cluster of consonants may occur at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word. Above all, there may occur a cluster of two three or four consonants.
TWO CONSONANT CLUSTERS
THREE CONSONANT CLUSTERS
FOUR CONSONANT CLUSTERS
The presence of a consonant cluster in some words is however not easy to identify by just looking at written forms of such words. Such words manifest the cluster only when pronounced.
Cure / kjuә/
(see more examples from Consonants Followed by /j/ and /u/).
Note:The maximum number of cluster of consonants that may occur before a vowel is three while the maximum number of consonants in a cluster that may occur after a vowel is four (CCCVCCCC) according to the syllable structure.
- Write five(5) examples of four consonant cluster which occurs at the end.
- Write the syllabic structure of the following words e.g. class /CCVC/
Read pages 295 – 296, Countdown in English.
Topic: Writing – Expository
Content: Definition, Features, Sample Question.
An expository essay is one that requires you to explain a thing or a process. The explanation demands writing a great deal about what distinguishes the subject of the essay from all other things. Such topics explain how a camera works; or how to mend a puncture.
Exposition combines narration, descriptions, with explanation, illustration and argumentation.
- It must have a heading.
- It must have an introductory paragraph.
- Its body should contain at least three well developed paragraphs which serve as the content.
- It must contain a concluding paragraph.
- The present tense is usually used in expository essays.
There has been anexplosion in Nigeria’s population. In an article for publication, identify the major causes of explosion in population and suggest ways to manage the explosion.
Heading: EXPLOSION IN NIGERIA’S POPULATION
Paragraph (Introduction) 1: Definition of population explosion.
Paragraph 2: Major cause of explosion in population.
Paragraph 3: Other causes of the explosion in population.
Paragraph 4: Effects of explosion in population.
Paragraph 5: Suggestions on how to manage the population.
Paragraph 6: Conclusion.
Write out a full essay on the sample question using the given outline.
Countdown in English, pages 19-24
GENERAL EVALUATION/ REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- What are the features of an expository essay.
- Make nouns from the following verbs and adjectives.
organize, scarce, clear, strong.
Choose the most appropriate option
- We are looking forward to __ the editor A. met B. meet C. meeting D. meets
- I wonder if you are averse to __ parties A. go B. going C. went D. gone
- He is insistent __ doing the job alone A. for B. on C. that D. at
- Your aptitude __ grammar should have improved by now A. on B. with C. for D. in
- Moses has shown enough aversion __science A. to B. for C. with D. on
Complete the sentences in practice 2 page 30, Effective English.
English Language Lesson note for SS2 first Term – Edudelight Lesson Note
Topic: Structure: Noun Phrases.
Content: Definition, Identification and Functions.
Recall that a phrase is a group of words without a finite verb and is used as a single part of a speech or sentence.
A noun phrase is a phrase that has the noun as its headword and which performs any of the six functions of a noun – subject, object, complement, etc.
Examples of Noun Phrases
- The fat woman with a tiny voice took ill shortly after the exercise.
- The new English teacher called John a lazy student.
- She is a woman of virtue.
Other Types of Noun phrases.
- Gerundial Phrase.
This is a phrase introduced by a gerundial (verb ending in –ing)
- The government has banned smoking in public.
- Fixing that computer should not be a problem for him.
- Infinitive Phrase
This phrase is identified by an infinitive (i.e the basic form of verb preceded by to)
- It is an offence to smoke in public.
- To fixthat computer should not be a problem.
Functions of Noun Phrases
- Subject of the verb
The young woman in pink gown is watching us.
- Object of the verb
The girl bought a big brown bag (direct)
- Noun phrase as subject complement.
Our principal is a hard-working woman.
- Noun phrase as object complement.
The infamous leader calls himselfan evil genius.
- Noun phrase as complement of preposition
The man died after a prolonged illness.
- Noun in apposition
Roberts’s fiancée hails from Ondo, a town in the west of Nigeria.
State the grammatical functions of nouns or noun equivalents with examples.
Countdown in English,Page 211.
- Topic: Comprehension: Peptic Ulcer, Effective English, page 48.
This passage deals with peptic ulcer, which happens when parts of the stomach lining the duodenum are attacked by protein – digesting enzymes, pepsin and hydrochloric acid.The acid of these enzymes give rise to internal bleeding and pain which can only be relieved by taking food in small quantities at frequent intervals.
Read the passage again and answer the questions that accompany it (See Effective English,Pg 48)
- Vocabulary Development: Words Associate with Health.
Contract – To get a disease or to be infected.
A syndrome – A pattern of illness that go together.
Chronic – Long lasting disease or illness.
Convalescence – A resting period after recovery from an illness.
Transfusion(Blood) – This is giving a person blood that has been supplied by someone else.
Viruses – Tiny organisms, smaller than bacteria which cause disease.
Contagious – Spread by having contact with a patient suffering it (disease).
Coma – State of unconsciousness.
Anesthesia – This is given when an operation is about to be carried out.
Intravenous – Given through the vein.
Debilitating – Weakening.
Relapse – Fall back into the illness after recovery.
Practice 2, pg 50 – 51, Effective English.
Effective English,pg 50.
- Explain the duties of the following in a hospital setting;
a pathologist, a dermatologist, an obstetrician, a gynecologist, a physician.
- What is the function of each underlined noun phrase in the sentences below:
- Mr. Kola needed to see the principal
- To err is human.
- He remembered to clean his shoes.
- I saw my car __ from the parkA. been drivenB. driving C. being driven
- I saw ten naira note __ ta my feet A. laying B. lying C.lieing
- It is too expensive; we had better __ A. not buying B. not bought itC. not buying it
- Oil is a(n) __resourceA. finishedB. infinite C. finite
- He did apply for the job? A. isn’t itB. didn’t heC. hadn’t he
Complete the sentence in section A, page 32
- Summary (Reading to Summarize): Nnamdi. Azikwe. Pg 26
The passage focuses on Nnamdi Azikwe Sport Complex, the ultra- modern stadium in Enugu. The complex is said to have been named after the man who has given Nigerian sportsmen the greatest inspiration through his involvement in sports.
Answer the questions that follow.
Effective English,pg 26.
Structure: Relative Pronouns.
Content: Definition, Identification
Pronouns are words used as substitutes for noun. They are mostly employed to avoid unnecessary repetition of nouns or noun equivalents. Pronouns are of different kinds, one of which is relative pronouns.
A relative pronoun is a word that relates or links an adjectival or relative clause to the word it describes (i.e its antecedent. They include pronouns such as who, whom, that, which, whose, where, etc.
- That is the boy whose father once killed an elephant.
- I can identify the boy who took your toy.
- He wrote the poem which (or that) won the prize.
- The school where the football field is, produced the best player.
- The time when I was asleep was when he came in.
Note: the pronouns who (subject), whom (object) and whose (possessive) are used strictly in reference to people.
The word ‘which’ is used for things, while ‘that’ goes with people or things.
Write or construct five meaningful sentences using any of the relative pronouns.
Countdown in English, page 220.
Vocabulary Development: Building.
Content: Words, Meanings
Trench – A long narrow ditch or hole dug in the ground.
Concrete – Mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water that hardens as it dries.
Foundation – Part of a house on which the other parts test for support.
D.P.C (Damp Proof Course): Layer of material application to prevent moisture or damp from passing through a wall or floor.
Scaffold: A structure made of scaffolding, for workers to stand on while working on a building.
Glazier:A person whose job is to put glass in windows.
German floor: Concrete floor made over the short walls of a foundation to ground floor.
Plumbers:An individual who fits water pipes, basins, baths, water tanks etc.
Gravel: Pebbles and pieces of rock coarse than sand.
Complete the sentences on page 135, Countdown in English,
Countdown in English, page 135.
Topic: Writing – Narrative
Content: Definition, Features, Sample Question.
A narrative essay is one in which the writer tells or relates a story or a past event. It involves giving an account of an incident or event in which somebody was involved to an audience that has not experienced it or to people who were not there when it took place. Every narrative involves:
- time and;
- Tense forms (use the past tense forms).
- Natural sequences of events (i.e. arrangement in order of occurrence).
- Linkage of events: let there be unity and coherence.
Also note that there must be arrangement into different paragraphs – introduction, body and conclusion.
Sample Question: Narrate a journey by train that you embarked on.
Heading My Journey by Train to Kano
Paragraph 1: What necessitated the journey to Kano.
Paragraph 2: Arrangements for the journey.
Major things that happened during the journey while you were on the train
Paragraph 5: The arrival in Kano.
Paragraph 6: The resolution. Lessons learnt and recommendations.
Use the outline to write a full length essay.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
Make short sentences with the given words on building.
Write five sentences featuring the relative pronouns treated and underline the words.
Choose the correct option.
- She read through the manuscript but could not make __what it meant A. out B. up C. off D. in
- Aware of the fact that he will soon be caught, the thief turned himself __ to the police A. out B. up C. down D. in
- Although Charles was tired, he didn’t want to break __ the party A. off B. away C. up D. down
- How many players turned __ for the practice? A. in B. up C. out D. off
- I’m easily turned __ by foul smell A. in B. out C. of D. off
Complete practice 2, page 35, Effective English
- Comprehension – Building, Effective English, page 62.
The passage gives an insight into the processes that are undertaken before a building can be set up. The persons who play vital roles in these processes include the surveyor, foreman and the architect.
Answer the questions which accompany the passage.
Effective English, page 62.
Topic: Speech Work: Unstressed Vowel /ә/
The ‘schwa” as this vowel is called, is a short vowel produced with the lips in neutral position. The vowel is represented by many letters usually in unaccented (unstressed) syllables.
This unstressed vowel may occur in initial, medial or final positions of words.
initial medial final
allow perhaps sailor
adore understand factor
approve entertain baker
obstruct ignorant doctor
achieve permanent water
agree comfortable teacher
offence contain famous
Read the sentence below taking note of the unstressed vowel /ә/
Suppose the gentleman would attend the dinner.
Writing – Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay is one that requires you to present a subject with a view to persuading your reader to agree with your own point of view against another one.
Features of Argumentative Essay
Heading: preferably written in capitals
Introduction: A paragraph which contains a statement of purpose.
Body/Content: At least three well developed paragraphs, each with a topic sentence.
Conclusion: (A paragraph) Recommendations.
Heading: CORRUPTION SHOULD BE FOUGHT FROM THE TOP TO THE BOTTOM.
Paragraph 1: Introduction – Definition of corruption: The percentage of the population that constitutes the top against the population at the bottom.
Paragraph 2: The fight against corruption starts from bottom as it is not perpetuated only by those at the top.
Paragraph 3: Mass mobilization, education of the youth in the fight against corruption.
Paragraph 4: Teaching of values starts from the root-family
Paragraph 5: The community should stop celebrating corruption
Paragraph 6 (conclusion): Recommendation to the government, members of the public on the need to fight corruption
Use the outline to write a well-developed essay.
Countdown in English Language, page 29
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Complete each word with –al, -el or –ie
- I had to wrestle with a nav__ officer, it was a strugg__ to tack__ a riv__ with such enormous musc__
- There is a sharp ang__ in the tunn__ under the Nation__ stadium.
- How to lev__ the ground was a puzz__ for the medic__ offici__
- State whether each group of words underlined is a participial phrase, an infinitive phrase or prepositional phrase.
C. 1. The Lagos Referees’ Society has elected officers to run its affairs for this year.
- The junior champion with a disarming smile does not fail to emphasize the source of her glowing swimming might.
- Soaked to the skin, she ran inside the room
Choose the option that best completes the following sentences.
- Banji __ to have spoken so rudely to his mother A. shouldn’t B. daren’t C. oughtn’t D. didn’t ought
- I didn’t see Mr Tunde at the party,he __ after I left A. had to come B. should have come C. must have come D. ought to have come
- Perhaps what Pius told us __ true after all A. must not be B. may not be C. cannot be D. would not be
- Someone must have given that shirt to Dele, he __ it himself A. couldn’t have bought B. mustn’t buy C. can’t be buying D. can’t buy
- To have gone through the civil war __ a terrible experience A. must have been B. was to be C. might have to be D. was able to be.
Section B no: 1-5, page 46, Effective English
Topic: Structure – Sentence Types. According to Structure.
Looking into the internal components of sentences, there are various ways of classifying sentences according to their structural patterns. The five main classifications are: simple, compound, complex, compound-complex, multiple
- The Simple Sentence: This contains only one independent clause.
Ex: The notorious robber has been executed.
Lekan fears snakes.
- The Compound Sentence
This type of sentence is made up of two main clauses linked by a co-ordinating conjunction and, but, or, etc.
Ex: Emmanuel attended all the lectures but he did not sit for the examination.
I am not sure whether she wants me to attend the wedding or stay at home.
- Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is made up of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses which are connected by subordinating conjunction
Ex: We brought the book which he recommended
- Compound – Complex Sentence
This type of sentence is made up of at least two main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
Ex: I had left the house and boarded a taxi when I looked back to see my younger sister waving me down to tell me my mother had arrived.
- Multiple Sentence
This type of sentence is made up of more than two main clauses joined by co-ordinating conjunctions.
Ex: I will go to the office and ask the Manager to sign the form but I will not submit it today
State the type of sentence each of the following is according to its structure
- We caught the thief who was plucking maize in our compound.
- The man with the black hat is my uncle.
- As soon as the chief arrived, we stood up and greeted him, but he did not respond to our greetings.
- The film was thrilling and we enjoyed every bit but we were greatly disappointed at the death of the hero.
- Although Olubiyo was a rich man, few people knew this.
Countdown in English, pg 271-272
Topic: Speech Work: Stress of Four Syllable Words
When some syllables are uttered with greater breath effort and muscular energy than the others, they are louder and longer and are therefore said to be stressed.
Words of two syllables are either stressed on the first or second syllable, based on the nature of the word. Words of three or more syllables have different stress pattern especially words that end in certain suffixes.
Words of Four Syllables
demarcation de-mar-ca-tion demarCAtion
fortunately for-tu-nate-ly FORtunately.
positively po-si-tive-ly Positively
nepotism ne-po-ti-sm Nepotism
tribalism tri-ba-li-sm TRIbalism
political po-li-ti-cal POLItical
certificate cer-ti-fi-cate cerTIficate
communicate com-mu-ni-cate comMUnicate
impossible im-pos-si-ble imPOSsible
reciprocate re-cip-ro-cate reCIProcate
economic e-co-no-mic ecoNOmic
photographic pho-to-gra-phic photoGRAphic
indigestion in-di-ge-stion indiGEStion
supervision su-per-vi-sion superVIsion
investigate in-vesti-gate inVEStigate
administer ad-min-is-ter adMINister
Stress the following words of four syllables
1) affinity 2) education 3) reproduction 4) community 5)ethnicity
Oral English for Schools and Colleges, pg 88; Effective English, pg 86.
- Topic: Comprehension; On the Road, pg 90, Effective English
The passages explains that the driver behind the wheels is the one in control at any point when he has to convey people from one place to another.
Read the passage and answer the questions.
Writing – Descriptive – Definition, Features, Sample Question
A descriptive essay is one that requires the writer to describe a thing, place or a person. The subject for description could be an object, a person, a place, an animal, a scene or an incident. The main preoccupation here is to describe. Description does not place emphasis on action but on definite qualities or characteristics. Here are other things you should do in order to write good descriptive essays.
- Form a good mental picture of what you want to describe.
- Make your description true to life by translating your mental picture into words.
- Get yourself fully involved in your description.
- Avoid flat enumeration of facts or the qualities of the thing or person you are describing.
A friend of yours who has not attended your school’s valedictory ceremony before has requested you to give a description of your school’s valedictory service.
Heading: VALEDICTORY CEREMONY IN MY SCHOOL
Paragraph 1 (Introduction): Begin by stating where and when the programme usually hold.Include the arrangement put in place before the commencement of the programme.
Paragraph 2 and 3: Mention the dignitaries that are always in attendance, the activities that usually take place. Describe the peculiarity of each event that happens.
Paragraph 4: Describe one spectacular thing that happens in the course of the programme which catches the attention of all parents and students present ( e.g prize and award giving ceremony).
Paragraph 5: Conclusion.
Use the outline given, write a full essay on the topic.
Effective English, pg 115
Divide the following words into syllables and write in capital the syllable that carries the stress.
Choose the options that are most nearly similar in meaning to the underlined expressions.
- The Prince’s uncle will usurp the throne.A. wrongfully take B. wrongfully attack C. wrongfully destroy
- Sodiq is a very versatile scholarA. dullB. clever at his special field C. show
- Nigerian soldiers are very virile.A. vindictive B. strong and manlyC. virtuous
- He always tries to do everything with zeal.A.enthusiasmB. pride C. force
- Jide is a a(n) mediocre student. A. an average B. poor C. unfortunate.
Answer question B, 1 – 10, page 32, Effective English
- Topic: Summary: Traditional Mud Architecture, page 68, Effective English
The passage focuses on African mud architecture. It reveals that beautiful buildings built with mud exist in parts of Mali especially; Mopti and Djenne. Also, it reveals that mud as a building material has some peculiar advantages.
Answer the questions which accompany the passage.
Effective English, Pg 68
Structure: Adverbs and Types.
Content: Meaning, Identification and Types.
An adverb is a word that modifies or offers additional information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase and even an entire sentence. Examples of adverbs are quickly, fast, quite, too, always, often, now, seldom, there etc.
She dances well (adverb modifying the verb, well)
He scored the goal quite easily adverb modifying adverb
That well is incredibly deep (adverb modifying adjective)
They were caught right in the act (adverb modifying phrase – prepositional)
Types of Adverbs
- Adverbs of Time (answers the question – When?) e.g there, here, outside, out.
- Adverbs of Manner ( answer the question – How often?) e.g seldom, hardly, rarely, never, sometimes
- Adverbs of Degree (answer the question To what extent ?e.g badly, extremely, greatly, too, much, quite, so.
Underline the adverbs in the following sentences and state what types they are:
- Our examination starts tomorrow.
- They have been working since yesterday.
- I have never eaten snails.
- She did the work badly.
- The dog barks occasionally.
Countdown in English, pages 248 – 251
- Topic: Comprehension: Technology, Effective English, pg 104
The passage explains the meaning of DVD, its advantages over other methods of recording sound and video.
Read the passage again and answer the questions that follow.
Effective English, pages 104-105
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- What are adverbs?
- Make adverbs from the following adjectives: quick, slow, hard, fast, rude
- Give the possible interpretation of the following sentences below:
- At last Halima decided to make a clean breast of everything
- Tolu advised that it is always good to steer a middle course in whatever one does.
- The former leader has no moral right to criticize the present leader because he has a skeleton in his cupboard.
Choose the alternative which best completes each sentence
- I have now given you __ to complete the investigation a. a few information b. many information. C. a sufficient d. sufficient information
- He certainly has __ in his house a. plenty furnituresb. much furniture c. many furniture d. plenty furniture
- My mother bought two __ for lunch a. breads b. loaf of bread c. loaves of bread.
- One of the soldiers _______ reported missing in action in Cameroon. A. has been B. have been C. have being D. has being
- __________ people go to the beach in the rainy season because it is very swampy. A. Few B. Not much C. A little D. Some
Vocabulary Development – Words Associated with Smell,Taste and Colour
Adjectives of Smell
Adjectives that describe pleasant smells include fragrant, perfumed, scented, sweet, fresh, floral, fruity and those that refer to unpleasant smell include acrid, fetid, putrid, stinking rancid, rotten, pungent, tart etc.
Adjectives of Taste
These include bitter, hot, piquant, salty, sharp, sour, spicy, stale, crispy. garlicky, hot, lemony.
Adjectives of Colour include amber, lilac, black, navy, blue, bronze, olive, red, orange, orchid, pale, peach, charcoal, chocolate, pink, purple, coral, silver, fuchsia, topaz, green, henna, indigo, vermilion, lemon, yellow, white, brown, wine, turquoise, grey.
Write ten adjectives that have to do with shape.
Countdown in English, page 245
Topic: Structure – Word Modifiers; Adjectives and Adverbs.
A modifier is a word or phrase added to another word or phrase to give a clearer picture of the latter. Modifiers are usually adjectives and adverbs.
Adjectival modifiers describe nouns while adverbial modifiers modify verbs. A wide inventory of them is needed to enable precise, valid and effective descriptions, especially in essay writing.
Compare the sentences on the left with the sentences on the right in the box column.
|Without modifiers||With modifiers|
|The hunter entered the forest.||The hunter entered the forbiddenvirgin forest.|
|He shows her love.||He showed her true love.|
|She served us chicken.||She served us rotten, putrid, frozen chicken.|
|She pays us a visit.||She regularly pays us a visit.|
|He surrendered his keys.||He reluctantly surrendered his keys.|
A varied and apt use of modifiers (adjectives and adverbs) as earlier said, will make your descriptive and narrative essays more interesting to read. A few of these are listed below:
|Sight – slender, amorphous, ugly, colossal, elephant, scruffy, plain, trim etc.||a). Movement – jerkily, rapidly, awkwardly, sluggishly, gingerly, cautiously etc.|
|Feeling – airy, soothing, unerring, cooling, refreshing, gentle, intense etc.||b). frequency – occasionally, permanently, rarely, bi – monthly etc.|
|Touch – feathery, wooly, tepid, hot, thorny, prickly, ice – cold||c). manner of doing things –brazenly, brusquely, fiercely, non-chalantly, rashly, thoughtlessly etc.|
|Of a person’s character – crooked, fickle, flightly, frivolous, quick-witted, richly endowed etc.( see notes on adjectives for more examples).|
See notes on adjectives of colour, smell and taste for more examples.
- Look up the meaning of the following words from the dictionary.
stealthily, frivolous, loquacious, tortuous, perennially, pungent
- Make sentences with them.
Countdown in English, pages 245 – 249
Topic: Writing – A Report.
A report means an account of a happening. It is similar to a narrative writing. Indeed the report of a meeting, an event, an activity, an important occasion etc. is another form of narrative writing. It however becomes more than a mere record of events when the writer makes comments criticisms of his own.
For a report to be interesting, it must possess certain qualities in content and style. It requires a straight forward account of the event or incident in a simple and uncomplicated language. The account is also presented in proper sequence, generally in order of time and then grouped into paragraphs according, to the stages in the report. Correct choice of tense must be made, especially use of past tense.
As the prefect in charge of games in your school, you were present when a student sustained a serious injury while playing one of the games. Write a report to your school principal, describing how the incident happened and the necessary measures taken to send the student to the hospital.
- Opening salutation
- Paragraph (Introduction) 1: Notify the principal of the injury sustained by the student (recording the opening formalities e.g name of the student, class, time of the game, which part on the body got injured etc.)
- Paragraph 2}
Paragraph 3} Narrate what happened in the cause of the game, how the casualty was cared for
- Name ( Surname and then first name)
- Class or Post
Use the outline above, write a full length report
Effective English, page 101
- Topic Comprehension – Uganda’s National Resistance Army, Page 119
The passage centers on the account of Uganda’s National Resistance Army (NRA) which was borne as a result of the violence, injustice and the cruelty suffered by the innocent citizens of Uganda during the regimes of Idi Amin and Multi Obote in 1970s and 1980s respectively.
Answer the questions that follow the passage
Effective English,page, 119
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- From letters A – D, choose the answer nearly opposite in meaning to the bold word(s)
- Badmus is a very crookedman, I hate relating with him. a. bent b. straightforward c. changing d. steadfast
- Cigarettes leaves a lingeringodour on the smoker. a. lasting b. an irritating c. an offensive d. a damaging
- Paul prefers _____ girls to amorphous ones a. slender b. garrulous c. pretty d. tall
- Convert the following simple sentences into compound and complex sentences.
- In my sleep last night, I had a pleasant dream.
- My father gave me a pen, I lost it
Choose the appropriate options.
- All the grass __ neatly uprooted A. has B. was C. have D. were
- The whole luggage __ yet to be checkedA. hasB. is C. are D. have
- The __ of equipment in the laboratory are over utilized A. few B. muchC. more D. most
- All the company’s employees refused to appear before the __ disciplinary committee A. seven men B. seven men’s C. seven manD. seven man’s
- Do not worry __ water is on the fire A. some B. allC. a D. any
Do practice 2, page 43, Effective English
Topic Structure: Plural Forms of Nouns.
English nouns derive their plural forms in a variety of ways. The various methods of signifying plurality is the subject of this section.
- Addition of –s
Many nouns in English are generally denoted by the addition of the pluralizing morpheme –s
table – tables
stones – stones
key – keys
book – books
sister – sisters.
shirt – shirts
- Addition of –es
The plural form of some nouns ending in –s, -x, -sh, -ch, -o is derived by adding –es
potato – potatoes.
bonus – bonuses.
mango – mangoes.
box – boxes
churches – churches.
bus – buses.
dish – dishes
Some nouns ending in –o derive their plural forms in the normal way (i.e adding –s)
piano – pianos
zoo – zoos
Kangaroo – Kangaroos
- Addition of –en/-ren
Child – children
Ox – oxen
- Some nouns ending in –f.-fe either take an ‘s’ or change ‘f’ to ‘-ves’
belief – beliefs
chief – chiefs
cliff – cliffs
calf – calves
thief – thieves
leaf – leaves
wife – wives
knife – knives
life – lives
Some of these words however have double plural
dwarf – dwarfs / dwarves
scarfs – scarfs / scarves.
hoof – hoofs / hooves
wharf – wharfs / wharves.
- Certain nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing the ‘y’ to ‘ies’
city – cities
baby – babies
lorry – lorries
lady – ladies
country – countries
Nouns which end in ‘y, preceded by a vowel form their plurals by taking ‘s’
tray – trays.
donkey – donkeys
monkeys – monkeys
toy – toys.
- Some nouns have their vowels changed in the plural forms
foot – feet
man – men
goose – geese
mouse – mice
tooth – teeth.
- In some nouns, ‘is’ change to ‘es’
axis – axes.
crisis – crises
hypothesis – hypotheses.
- Some species unchanged in the plural
deer – deer
cattle – cattle
sheep – sheep
swine – swine
furniture – furniture
information – information
baggage – baggage
luggage – luggage
damage – damage
knowledge – knowledge
advice – advice
- Some nouns that end with ‘s’ are always treated as singular
Other changes in singular – plural forms are:
datum – data
criterion – criteria
medium – media
formula – formulae
Choose the appropriate word or group of words of the two options provided.
- I have (a saving/ savings) account.
- Linguistics (is/are) not the learning of many languages.
- The surroundings of the uncompleted building (is/are) always kept clean.
- Measles (is/are) highly contagious.
- I met some (Chinese/ Chineses) in Lagos yesterday.
Effective English, page 187
Topic – Speech Work – Stress of Five Syllable Words.
Recall that a stressed syllable is usually pronounced longer and louder than unstressed syllable
Words of five syllables that end in –ion, have the second syllable from the end stressed
co – opeRAtion
Stress the third syllable from the end if a word ends in –ity
Stress the third syllable from the back in the word that ends in –al,
Words that end in –ism, -ive, -ible/-able have the stress placed on the fourth syllable from the back
Stress the following words
durability, electricity, distributional, temperamental
Countdown in English Language, pages 297 – 300
Topic – Writing: Creative Writing; Features of a Short Story.
Creative writing refers to literary work produced for readership. It involves skillful and imaginative production of something original which could take the form of a short story, poetry or drama.
Short Story Writing
A short story is a narration created from the writer’s imagination or factual knowledge of events that happened. It comes under the umbrella of narrative essays as the features are the same. The features of a short story are as follows.
Features of a short story:
- Theme: A short story must have a central point (theme) from which a story is developed.
- Plot: It must have a story line. This means the order the story follows to develop the theme.
- Characters: The story must show who and who took part in the actions/events of the story. The story comes to life more when names are given to the characters and show interaction among them through using dialogue.
- Setting: The story must tell the readers where the events/actions and when interaction took place.
- It must have a beginning, a climax an anti-climax and a conclusion. A good writer can begin or start a story from any order.
Example: Read through these three beginnings of a short story.
- From the beginning
On 16th April 2002, I set out with my sister Obiageli for our grandma’s at Bodija in Ibadan about five kilometres away from our house in the University of Ibadan.
- From the climax
‘Watch out!’ I shouted. The driver swerved but it was too late. A trailer overtaking at the top speed had brushed the bus conveying us to grandma’s. the rest was sad to tell as I lay…….
- From the conclusion
Can I ever walk again? Is my dream of entering university this session over? Had I listened to the voice of wisdom?
These were my words of regret as I remembered the 16th of April, 2002 when I set out with my sister, Obiageli for …….
- The tense of the narration must be past, but when dialogue is brought in, the tense can be present.
- Use of dialogue, humour, anecdotes, and rhetorical question will certainly bring the characters to life and enrich the story.
- The narration can be in the first person (I, we) or third person ( he, she, they)
- Use imaginary that appeals to the senses in descriptive portions of your story.
Example: the car screeched to a halt and three hefty fierce – looking menjumped out of it. I held my breath and tip – toed to the back of the house.
Study the features of a short story, then write a complete story using any of the three approaches given above. Your story should not be more than 450 words.
Countdown in English, page 39
Topic: Summary Writing; Agriculture technical aid corps proposed to Africa.
A summit to tackle the problems of food security in Africa was organized with delegates from different African countries. NEPAD adviser, Professor Richard Mkandawire in his address hoped for a situation when African countries would establish some form of technical assistance programmes within the African countries.
Read and answer the summary questions.
Effective English page 84 – 85
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUEATIONS
Choose the correct option in each of the following sentences.
- The woman, togetherwith her son, always attend/attends our church.
- Neither Emeka nor his friends was/ were at the party
- The committee was busy discussing the problem facing it/them.
Complete the spelling of the following words by filling the blank spaces with correct letters
dec __ve, dro__ing (drop), pro__essor, __nopsis, dia__oea, cata__h, __monia
From the items numbered 1 – 5, choose the word that rhyme with the word against each number.
- Sponge A. blunt B. bunk C. plunge D. front
- Clutch A. clause B. scourge C. touch D. merge
- Crux A. flux B. dispute C. fox D. execute
- Bulk A. pulp B. gulp C. sulk D. exult
- Aid A.grade B. flake C. snake D. opaque.
Do practice 3, page 51
- Comprehension (Reading to Paraphrase a Prose Passage; Effective English; Nazzruddin, page 80
A paraphrase is saying or rewriting something in different words that makes it simpler. Paraphrase may mean using fewer words or it may require using more words and changing its structure or sentence.
A paraphrase is different from a summary to an extent. In a summary, you are expected to pick out the essence, the bare bones of the matter, you leave outillustrations and examples. In a paraphrase, you try to re-express the same information in a simpler, less complicated, less figurative form. Also any illustrations and examples are paraphrased.
The passage, Nazzruddin is an extract from A Bend in the Rivers by V.S Naipaul. It reveals his (Nazzruddin) plans to put up his property for sale. He however used terms that could not easily be understood by anyone not in the business world.
Read the passage and answer the questions
Effective English pages 80-81
Structure: Phrasal Verbs.
Verbs often combine with adverbial particles to form multi – word verbs or phrasal verbs. It is a group of words composed of simple (lexical) verb and a preposition, an adverb or both. The complete meaning of a phrasal verb cannot be determined from the meaning of the verb and the particle in isolation; rather, it has to be comprehended from the entire phrase.
Examples of Phrasal Verbs
Turndown – refuse, reject: I turned down the offer.
Give in – surrender: Our team refused to give in to their opponents.
Run across- meet by chance: We ran across an old friend yesterday at Aba.
Fall on: attack – The robbers fell on two travellers on the lonely road
Fall out – quarrel: They were good friends before but fell out yesterday.
Give up – stop: My brother has given up smoking.
In the phrasal verb structure, the lexical or simple verb constitutes the nucleus of the unit while the adverbial particle modifies the lexical verb.
Sometimes, phrasal verbs have more than one particle, and the whole combination has a single meaning. Phrasal verbs of this kind are sometimes called phrasal verbs with double particles.
- My town has done away with certain obsolete customs (abolished).
- I cannot put up with his insulting behavior (tolerate).
- I will not be surprised if the man goes back on his promise (breaks).
- Our friend may look in on us today (visit).
- Everyone seems to be fed up with his attitude (tired of).
More Examples of Phrasal Verbs:
Come to, come round, go off, cut in, do in, get through, take after, throw up, let down, make away with, make up, set in etc.
Use a single word verb to replace the following underlined phrasal verbs.
- Ronke fainted but came to when some water was thrown on her face
- Tadetakes after his father, he walks and talks like him.
- I moved aside to let the man get by
- The chairman decided to hold over the remaining items till next week.
- The bad weather held up work on the building for a week.
Features and Format of an Informal Letter
We have different types of letters and different styles or ways of writing them. Formal, semi-formal and informal letters are the three types of letters we have.
Informal letters are friendly letters to contemporaries ( classmates/colleagues, friends and relatives), close older relatives (father, mother, uncle etc.) and close pen-pals.
Features of an Informal Letter
- An informal letter must be chatty. Open minded and discuss freely, as if you are actually chatting with the receiver.
- The language must be very familiar, colloquialisms and slang are expected to be used, but do not overdo it e.g. “How life?” Hope no skin pain. Warn that coconut head for me. Bye for now.
- Use short forms. They are expected here. E.g. I’m, you’ve, can’t, he’s etc.
- In the first paragraph, inquire after the welfare of the recipient and tell him about your own welfare.
- Bring in other topics of interest to both of you into the letter, but keep the main topic in mind as you write.
- In the concluding paragraph, send greetings to people known to both of you.
Format of an Informal Letter
The format is as shown in the box.
Informal letters are the easiest to write, in that no limitations are placed on you as regards choice of language and content, provided you do not write off the topic or use official language. However, you have to use correct grammar and punctuate collectively.
What are the features of an informal letter.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISIONAL QUESTIONS
- Write ten phrasal verbs that have more than one meaning
- What distinguishes a formal letter from an informal letter.
Countdown in English, pg 70 – 72
Choose the option that has the same consonant sound as the sound represented by the letters underlined:
- Chief A.Cheap B.Graph C.Save D.Think
- Cease A.Place B.Plays C.Please D.Lazy
- Work A.Whose B. Draw C.View D.Which
- Social A.Shoot B.Circle C.Science D.Local
- Giant A. Measure B. Gap C.Juice D.China
Practice 2, page 99