Lesson Note Civic Education SS 2 Third Term

Civic Education ENote For SS 2 Third Term – Edudelight.com


WEEK             TOPIC

1             Responsible Parenthood.

2             Factors that can lead to the Success of Responsible Parenthood.

3             Traffic Regulations.

4             Ways of Reducing Accidents.

5             The Roles of Individuals and Government in Maintaining Traffic Regulations

6             Interpersonal Relationship.

7             Inter-communal Relationship.

8             Settlement of Disputes in Inter-communal Societies.


1.         Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Schools, Book 2, Sola Akinyemi.

2.         Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, R.W. Okunloye et.al.



Responsible parenthood is the ability of parents to provide for the overall needs of their children in order to become responsible citizens in the society. It involves the ability of parents to take care of their children and see to their financial, educational, social, emotional and material needs. It also refers to the duties of parents towards their children in order to prepare them for responsible adulthood.

The duties of parents start immediately the child is conceived.  Both husband and wife ensure that there is adequate care for the baby and so the wife must attend antenatal clinic regularly and takes adequate nutrition for the total development and wellbeing of the baby.

After the child is born, both parents monitor the child from cradle to adult stage, monitor the type of friends he or she keeps and also guides the children in the way of God.


1.         He provides for the financial needs of his family.

2.         He provide for the nutritional needs of the family.

3.         He provides security for his family.

4.         He provides shelter for the family.

5.         He pays adequate attention to his children’s education.

6.         He disciplines the family members when any of them is at fault.

7.         He ensures that the children imbibe good values.

6.         He shows his family love and care.


1.         She prepares food for the family.

2.         She keeps the house and surroundings clean.

3.         She ensures the children are well fed.

4.         She wakes up early to prepare the children for school and also get their food ready.

5.         She supervises the children’s homework and also finds time to visit the children at school to ascertain their performance and behavior.

6.         She supports her husband financially when necessary.

7.         She monitors the health of the children.

8.         She teaches her children to be obedient and respectful to family members and neighbours.

9.         She must also show exemplary qualities in areas of character, relationship with neighbours and high moral values and also discipline and correct the children when they go wrong.


1.         It produces responsible children who would build up the nation.

2.         It promotes good character and good values system in the society.

3.         It brings aboutpeace and harmony in the society.

4.         It reduces the rate of crime in the society.

5.         It gives the children a sense of belonging and encourages them to contribute to the development of their country.

6.         It reduces the level of illiteracy in the society.

7.         It helps to reduce conflict in the society.

8.         It produces future leaders with spirit of nationalism and patriotism.

9.         It enhances unity in the society.

10.       It ensures responsible families in the society.


1.         Explain responsible parenthood

2.         Mention five importance of responsible parenthood in the society.


1.         What is rule of law?

2.         Explain three principles of rule of law.

3.         In what five ways can leaders emerge in a state?

4.         Outline any five roles of judiciary in a modern state.

5.         List five importance of citizenship education.


Responsible Parenthood: Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, R.W. Okunloye et.al, Pages 44-47.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         The ability of parents to provide for the needs of their families is termed A. Responsible father

B. responsible parenthood C. grandparents D. Providing parents

2.         The duties of parents towards their children start from A. conception B. birth C. adulthood D. adolescent

3.         It is the primary duty of the father to A. provide for the family    B. Cook for the children C. take children for excursion         D. prepare the children for school

4.         Whose duty is it to pay the children’s school fees? A. parents B. aunts C. uncle D. nephew

5.         One of the roles of the mother is A. prepare the children for school B. pay children’s school fees C. pay for house rent D. Show leadership


1.         List any six responsibilities of the children to their parents.

2.         List five consequences of irresponsible parenthood to the society.

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The following factors are required to bring about responsible parenthood.

1.         Effective Education: Good education is one factor that can lead to successful responsible parenthood. Education gives the necessary exposure and knowledge that will help the parents to attend to the needs of their children.

2.         Good Values System: The exhibition of positive values in the society will promote responsible parenthood in the country. Positive values teach us to be respectful, honest, responsible and patriotic.

3.         Employment Opportunity: Engagement in economic activities will enable parents to provide for the basic needs of their children. Parents without jobs or good jobs may not be able to lead responsible family.

4.         Family Size: The size of the family is determined by the number of people living together as a family. Small size family will promote responsible parenthood than a larger family. It is advisable that family size should not be larger than the income of the family.

5.         Enlightenment Campaign: Public enlightenment campaign on the importance of responsible parenthood will go a long way to influence parents in response to the needs of their children.

6.         Good Governance: A responsive and responsible government will provide the necessary infrastructures that will enable parents to be responsible.

7.         Respect for Law and Order: People tend to be more responsible in a society where there is respect for law and order.


1.         Poverty: One of the major constraints of good parenthood is the inability of the parents to provide for the basic needs of the family i.e. food, clothing and shelter. A situation where parents cannot fend for themselves it will become difficult to attend to the needs of the children either educationally, socially, materially, financially and otherwise.

2.         Illiteracy: Illiterate parents lack basic knowledge and exposure that ensures responsible and good parenthood. The children are at the mercy of their peers and neighbours for survival. This is a major constraint of good and responsible parenthood.

3.         Customs and Traditions: Some of our traditional practices and cultural beliefs are restrictions of good parenthood. In some cultures sending a girl child to school is a waste of time and resources. Such children can grow up to become threats in the society.

4.         Bad Governance: Government that is not responsive to the needs of the citizens is creating a platform for parents become deficient in their responsibilities. Bad government can lead to criminality, insecurity, injustice and conflicts in the society. These are serious concerns for good parenthood.

5.         Unemployment: Parents who are not gainfully employed may be compared by the circumstances and situations of the moment to become bad parents. They will have low self-esteem and high sense of inadequacy.

6.        Environmental Factors: The effect of the environment of the parents and the children is a major constraint of responsible parenthood. People are products of their environment. In most cases children turn out to replicate the lifestyle, behaviour and attitude of their immediate environment. This is a constraint of good parenthood.


1.         Mention any five factors that can promote good parenthood.

2.         What makes responsible parenthood difficult in our society today?


1.         Define drug and drug abuse

2.         What do you understand by values?

3.         Mention five positive values you know.

4.         Define citizenship education.

5.         List five importance of citizenship education.


Responsible Parenthood: Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, R.W. Okunloye et.al, Pages 44-47.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         Which of the following is not a major challenge of good parenthood? A. Illiteracy B. Education

C. Unemployment D. Poverty.

2.         The Primary agent of child’s socialization is A. society B. familyC. school D. office.

3.         One major factor that can promote good parenthood is A. indifferenceB. honesty C. employment D. loyalty.

4.         It is the duty of the children to A. spite their parents B. provide for family’s upkeepC. employ their parents D. obey their parents.

5.         Employment will promote the following except A. good imageB. responsibility C.indolence D. self-esteem.


1.         Explain how responsible parenthood can promote peace in the society.

2.         What factors are necessary for good parenthood?



Traffic regulations are the various laws, regulations and signs guiding the road users on the proper and effective use of roads. The road users include motorist, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and passengers.


PEDESTRIANS: The pedestrians refer to persons on foot who have need to either walk beside the road, cross the road or engage with other road users.


  1. Always walk on the side of the road.
  2. Ensure you are walking to face oncoming traffic.
  3. If you are walking in the dark, wear bright or reflective colour of clothes such as white, green so that you will be easily seen by motorists.
  4. Look left and right of the road and left again before crossing the road.
  5. Use pedestrian bridge and zebra crossing where they are available.
  6. Observe road signs.
  7. Respect the rights of other road users.

CYCLISTS: Cyclists refers to road users who engage in the use of road by riding either in motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles, etc.


  1. If you are riding a cycle, ensure it is in good condition; check the brakes, tyres, lamps and rear reflectors.
  2. Take a quick look behind you before starting off and if you wish to turn, hold out your arm sideways, showing the direction you wish to turn to.
  3. Do not ride too close to moving vehicles.
  4. Do not wear flowing garments to ride a motorcycle or a bicycle.
  5. Ensure you put on a helmet.
  6. Do not carry more than one passenger on your motorcycle.
  7. Do not carry loads that are too heavy in order to ensure balance.
  8. Respect road signs.
  9. Do not drink and ride.
  10. Respect the right of other road users.
  11. Obey traffic warders.

MOTORISTS: This comprises of vehicle users (drivers). It includes car drivers, bus drivers, trailer drivers, truck drivers, etc.


  1. Obtain a valid drivers’ licence before you drive any vehicle.
  2. Every morning before driving your car out, check the condition of the car and ensure it is in good state.
  3. Obey speed limits and traffic lights.
  4. Do not drink and drive.
  5. Do not overload your vehicle.
  6. Do not drive a vehicle with a damaged windscreen.
  7. Always use your seat belt while driving.
  8. Do not engage in distractive activity while driving.
  9. Obey traffic rules and regulations as well as road signals.
  10. Respect the rights of other road users.


1.         What is traffic regulation?

2.         State some of the rules on the uses of roads by cyclists.


1.         What is political apathy?

2.         What are the reasons for political apathy?

3.         What is political party?

4.         Mention four ways leaders emerge in the society.

5.         What is primary election?


Traffic Regulation: Fundamentals of civic education for SS Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 89-99



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         When you are walking on the road, you …. the oncoming vehicles. A. face B. back C. run to meet D. jump

2.         If you must walk at night, you are advised to wear A. dark clothes B. bright clothes C. brown clothes

D. green clothes

3.         One of the causes of road accidents is A. well serviced car B. overload buses C. traffic light D. good cars

4.         When the traffic light turns green this is saying  A. stop moving  B. start moving C. ready to move D. turn green light on

5.         Seat belts are meant to be fastened A. when you see a LASTMA official B. when you get to the expressway            C. immediately you start driving D. when you sense an accident.


  1. What are road signs? Explain the types of road signs.
  2. Outline five ways road accidents can be reduced if not totally eradicated.

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Accidents are sudden occurrences that distort the proper functioning of a procedure, event or exercise. Road accidents are unexpected occurrences on the road that comes from failure to adhere to traffic regulation. It could lead to traffic congestion, car damages, bruises or death of the victim.

  1. The rate of accidents on the roads can be reduced through the following ways.
  2. Vehicles that are not in good working condition should not be allowed to ply the roads.
  3. Drivers under the influence of drugs or alcohol should not drive.
  4. Traffic rules should be well observed and obeyed.
  5. Road signs should be displayed at strategic locations where they can be seen.
  6. Enlightenment campaign should be carried out regularly to educate road users on the best use of roads.
  7. Law enforcement agencies on the use of roads should be well equipped to carry out their duties.
  8. There should be regular repairs and maintenance of roads.
  9. There should strict punishment of traffic law offenders.


The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) was established in 1988 to ensure safety and sanity in Nigerian roads. Over the years this commission has contributed immensely to the reduction of road accidents in Nigeria.


  1. To ensure the safety of road users in Nigerian roads.
  2. To maintain and enforce traffic regulations in Nigeria.
  3. To assist to ascertain the road worthiness of vehicles.
  4. Issuance of drivers’ license to qualified persons.
  5. Research into the causes of accidents and how to prevent reoccurrence.
  6. Arrest and prosecution of traffic laws offenders.
  7. Assistance in the rescue of accident victim on the roads.
  8. Education and enlightenment of the public on the best use of roads.
  9. To ensure that roads are traffic free for users.
  10. To work with other related agencies for effective use of roads.


1.         What is road accident?

2.         Mention five ways road accidents can be avoided.


1.         What is community service?

2.         Mention some examples of community service

3.         Explain the features of democracy

4.         Define rule of law

5.         How can the rule of law be encouraged?


Traffic Regulation: Fundamentals of civic education for SS Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 89-99



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         Which of the following is a major cause of road accident?  A. HIVB. Drug abuseC. Bumps          D. Traffic

2.         Safety on roads is the duty of   A. motorists B. police C. traffic wardersD. road users

3.         FRSC was established inA. 1963 B. 1988 C. 1973 D. 1999.

4.         The traffic light for “stop” is A. red B. yellow C. green D. blue

5.         One of the following will help to avert accidents on the roads.A. Overload B. High speedC. Obedience to traffic regulations D. Honesty.


1.         Describe any four challenges of FRSC.

2.         List four measures that can help to reduce accidents on Nigerian roads.

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  1. Obeying traffic rules and regulations.
  2. Considering other road users and put their safety in mind.
  3. Obey road signs.
  4. Obey traffic authorities and agencies.
  5. People should not destroy roads  orroad signs in periods of violence.
  6. Traders should avoid selling along roads and expressways.
  7. Individuals can also help in controlling traffic especially during periods of traffic congestion.


As part of government efforts to ensure effective implementation of traffic regulations in Nigeria, some agencies have been established both at the federal and state levels to ensure traffic regulations in Nigerian roads.  Some of these agencies are Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Vehicle Inspection Office (VIO), the Transport Department of the Nigerian Police,  Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps, Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA), etc.

The Federal Road Safety Commission ensures that the highways are free of obstruction and they educate the public on the proper use of roads.  They also determine and enforce speed limits and provide prompt attention to road accident victims.

The VIO inspects vehicles to ensure that they are road worthy.

The police and traffic wardens help to control traffic on roads in order to reduce congestion.  The police also enforce traffic regulations.

LASTMA manages traffic in Lagos State.

Other roles of government include:

1.         Construction of roads with relevant road signs.

2.         Ensure traffic lights are erected at strategic locations.

3.         Funding of traffic agencies for optimum performance.

4.         Punishment of traffic offenders.

5.         Enactment of laws to cater for emerging traffic challenges.

6.         Enlightenment campaign on traffic regulations and signs.


1.         What are the roles of individuals in maintaining traffic?

2.         Explain some of the roles of government agencies in traffic regulations.


1.         Define employment

2.         What are the causes of unemployment?

3.         How can unemployment problem be reduced in Nigeria?

4.         What is HIV/AIDS?

5.         Differentiate between HIV type I and II.


The Role of Individuals and Government in maintaining Traffic Regulations: Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 89-102.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

  1. One of these agencies maintains traffic in Lagos State. A. NURTW   B. MOT   C. NAFDA    D. LASTMA
  2. All are duties of the police except A. controlling traffic B. enforcing laws on traffic C. collecting money from motorists          D. arresting traffic offenders
  3. All are ways of reducing road accidents except A. Fastening seat belts B. respect for road signs C. obeying speed limits D. drinking while driving.
  4. One way of improving obedience to traffic rules is A. Educating the people on traffic issuesB. Leaving the roads un-tarred C. building airports D. Providing more buses
  5. Which of the following agencies is responsible for issuance of drivers’ licence in Nigeria? A. VIO B. FRSC C. NURTW D. Police.


  1. List any three areas you think the government needs to do more in maintaining traffic regulations.
  2. Draw any four road signs and write their meaning.

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Interpersonal relationship is the interaction or association between two or more people in the society. It will be difficult for one to exist in isolation without relating with other people. Interpersonal relationship is therefore essential for human coexistence.


1.         Man and Woman Relationship: This relationship exists between a man and a woman at different levels and for various reasons. This kind of relationship often leads to marriage between a mature man and woman.

2.         Man and Man Relationship: This relationship exists between a man and another man. This relationship lasts long if the people involved have something meaningful to benefit from one another.

3.         Woman and Woman Relationship: This is the kind of relationship that exists between a woman and another woman. The basis of this relationship or friendship could be economic, social, religious or otherwise.

4.         Government and Individual Relationship: This is the relationship that exists between the government and an individual in the society. This relationship becomes necessary where the individual has businesses to transact or services to render on behalf of the government.

5.         Peers Relationship: This is the relationship that exists between people of same group, age bracket, mates or even colleagues.

6.         Relationship across Culture/Race: This is the type of relationship that exists between two or more people from different cultural background, language and race.


  1. Honesty.
  2. Tolerance.
  3. Love.
  4. Patience
  5. Selflessness.
  6. Hospitality.
  7. Truthfulness.
  8. Forgiveness.


1.         What is interpersonal relationship?

2.         Mention five skills of interpersonal relationship.


1.         It promotes peace in the society.

2.         It encourages the spirit of unity in the society.

3.         It ensures progress and development in the society.

4.         It helps to reduce conflicts in the society.

5.         It ensures law and order in the society.

6.         It promotes the good image of the people.

7.         It enhances security in the society.


1.         Explain the types of interpersonal relationships.

2.         Mention any four importance of interpersonal relationship.


1.         What is youth empowerment?

2.         Mention any five skills of youth empowerment.

3.         Define political apathy.

4.         List five reasons for political apathy in Nigeria.

5.         Mention five factor that can promote popular participation.


Interpersonal Relationship: Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 103-112.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         Which of the following is not required for interpersonal relationship? A. Tolerance   B. Truthfulness

C. Selfishness    D. Forgiveness

2.         Good interpersonal relationship will lead to   A. unity     B. conflict     C. development    D. progress

  • The interpersonal relationship between people of the same age group is  A. individual relationship

B. age group relationship C. governmental relationship   D. peers relationship.

  • The interpersonal relationship that can easily lead to marriageis A. husband and wife relationship    B. peers relationship      C. man and woman relationship D. man and man relationship.
  • The ability to tell and stand for the truth at all times is called A. tolerance            B. patience       C. honestyD. love.


  1. Explain how selflessness can promote interpersonal relationship in the society.
  2. List any three factors that can hinder interpersonal relationship.

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A communal society is a type of society in which the population is small and the people share things in common as brothers and sisters. Examples of communal societies are villages, hamlets, camps, etc.


  1. The community is usually small
  2. It is usually homogeneous in nature.
  3. Majority of the people engage in primary activities e.g. farming.
  4. Majority of the people are not educated.
  5. Houses are dispersed and may be separated by farmlands.
  6. Social relationships are personal and intimate
  7. There is a strong sense of communal responsibilities and group solidarity among members of the community.

INTER-COMMUNAL RELATIONSHIP: This is the relationship between people from different communal societies.The relationship between people from different communities is based on economic,social and political activities.


Communal societies are basically agrarian in occupation and in most cases, the community produces the same type of agricultural products.Members of the community work together in clearing bushes and preparing farmland for plantingand harvesting. In many parts of Nigeria, men are assisted by their wives to harvest agricultural product, others in the community may be engaged in some specialized occupations such as pot-making, mat weaving, blacksmithing, hunting  and traditional medicine.


Communal societies encourage inter-communal marriages, worshipping in common ancestral shrines, and belief in a god or goddess. They also work together in digging wells and ponds, maintenance of common markets and clearing of roads. This helps to promote the spirit of solidarity, oneness and healthy community life.


Political activities in communal societies include the grouping of people into different age-grades, selection of leaders, enforcement of local customs, punishment of erring members and assignment of roles. Leaders are periodically chosen and replaced. It should be noted however, the most communal societies practice direct democracy.


  1. Explain how people living in communal societies relate with one another?
  2. Explain economic and political activities in communal society.


1.         Tolerance among members of the communities.

2.         Respect for human rights.

3.         Access to justice whenever the need arises.

4.         Inter-communal marriages.

5.         Engagement in sport activities.

6.         Good governance.


1.         What is communal society?

2.         State three characteristics of communal society.

3.         Explain the activities in a communal society?

4.         State four duties of the police.

5.         What is human right?


Inter-Communal Relationship: Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 113-118.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

  1. A type of society in which majority of the people engage in farming is  A. urban  society B. conurbation   centerC. rural community D. developed community
  2. All are activities in a communal society except A. fishing B. carving C. bankingD. weaving
  3. The homogenous setting of the communal society means that   A. the people are related and familiar with one another  B. the people do not really know one another   C. the people do not have a close relationship with one another   D. the people are far apart.
  4. In communal societies, leaders are  A. elected though electionB. appointed through ballot C. selected by the government D. chosen by the people.
  5. Which of the following does not belong to a communal society? A. Oba B. Emir C. commissioner D. age grade.


  1. List four benefits of inter-communal relationship.
  2. State five duties of the community leaders in a communal society.

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Inter-communal societies have their gains as well as their challenges. There is no human relationship that is free from disagreements or misunderstanding. Communal societies are no exempted from this rule. Due to the simple way of life of villagers, conflict resolution in such community is also simple. However, where serious issues are involved it may require the intervention of the court.The common areas of conflict in communal societies borders on properties such as land, inheritance, disobedience to existing laws and appointment of people into positions of authority. What is important however is how to manage such crises or challenges when they arise. Disputes and conflicts are resolved in the following ways:

DIALOUGE: This is a method of dispute resolution whereby the warring parties are called to state theirgrievances and the leaders will settle the issue using their local experiences and knowledge.

MEDIATION: In this type of conflict resolution, a neutral and impartial outsider works with those involved in the conflict to assure them of a satisfactory outcome. Those who are usually involved in this are  community heads and traditional rulers.

COMPENSATION: This is the replacement of what has been destroyed or badly damaged in the course of conflict in order to ensure peace in the society.

ARBITRATION: This is a conflict resolution method where special bodies are set up to investigate and settle conflicts between warring parties.

COURT SYSTEM: This has to do with the settlement of dispute in the court through the services of professional lawyers.

SPECIAL PEACE-KEEPING TASKFORCE: This is the use of armed forces such as JTF to restore sanity between warring communities to avoid destruction of lives and properties. This kind of conflict resolution method is usually followed up by roundtable discussions.


  1. State the methods of dispute resolution in communal society.
  2. Explain each of the methods you have mentioned above.


  1. Peaceful settlement of disputes.
  2. Close relationship among members of the communities.
  3. It creates conducive environment for social, political and economic activities.
  4. It ensures peace and progress in the society.
  5. Non-existence of rebellion by militants due to peaceful and simple way of life.
  6. It promotes respect for leaders and elders in the communities.
  7. Promotion of unity and cohesion in the community.
  8. It enhances law and order in the society.


  1. What are the ways through which conflict is settled in a communal society?
  2. State the importance of communal societies.
  3. Who is a citizen?
  4. Mention four duties of a citizen.
  5. How can the rights of citizens be restricted?


Settlement of Disputes in Communal Society: Fundamentals of Civic Education for Senior Secondary Book 2, Sola Akinyemi, Pages 116-118.



Instruction: From the options lettered A-D, choose the letter that is most appropriate for the following questions. Answer all the questions.

1.         One major cause of conflict in communal societies is A. boundary dispute B. social amenities C. racial discrimination  D. location of industry.

2.         The following are examples of communal society except  A. hamlet B. village C. camp    D. city

3.         The primary method of dispute settlement in a communal society is A. court systemB. dialogueC. taskforce   D. arbitration.

4.         Which of the following is an importance of inter-communal relationship?A. Misunderstanding    

B. Disagreement   C. unity        D. pride.          

5          JTF stands for?   A. Junior Trainee Force B. Justice Transfer ForumC. Joint Task ForceD. Jungle Travelers  Funds.


1.         Describe one way of settling dispute in advanced society.

2.         State four factors that can reduce disputes in communal societies.

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