English Studies Lesson note for JSS1 second term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK ENGLISH STUDIES
- Revision of Last Term’s Examination and Work
- Speech Work: Consonant/k/and/g/Structure Adverbs: Features, Position and Functions of Adverbs. Comprehension/ Vocabulary Development.: Reading Skill (Reading for maximum Retention and Recall) Composition: Letter Writing: Formal/ Features of Formal Letters Literature: Review on the Genres of Literature (Prose, Poetry and Drama); Use recommended texts)
- Speech Work: Consonants/f/and/v/Structure: Conjunctions: Features, Position and Functions of Conjunctions. Comprehension/Vocabulary Development: Writing Skill – answering questions on given passage. Composition: Letter writing Formal letters (Guided writing) Literature: Prose-Literary terms (use recommended text)
- Speech Work: Vowels/u/and/u:/: Structure: Prepositions: Features, Position and Functions of Prepositions. Comprehension/Vocabulary Development: Reading and writing Skills (Intensive) Reading/Answering questions on given passage. Composition: Letter Writing – Guided writing (emphasis on Arrangement of ideas in logical sequence) Literature: Myths and Legends (African and Non-African tales comprising Myths and Legends)
- Speech Work: Vowel /æ/ and /ℨ:/: Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Writing Skill Giving Specific Answers of a Given Passage Structure: Adverbials (making sentences with adverbial) Composition: Argumentative (Introduction)
- Speech Work Consonants/s/and/z/: Structure: More on Adverbials Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Reading and Writing Skill contd Composition: Argumentative – Elements of composition Literature: Drama – Drama text, theme, Features; related literary terms
- Speech Work: Vowels – Introduction to Diphthongs (example) Structure: More on Adverbials and Tenses (using each item in sentences) Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Reading Skill-Reading to understand the Author’s mood Composition: Argumentative – Arrangement of ideas in logical sequence
- Speech Work: Vowels:/ei/:Structure: Making sentences with adverbs, conjunctions and preposition Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Writing Skill Composition: Argumentative (Guided Composition/writing) Literature: Drama: Types, Literary terms, Written text (Costumes, play Director, etc)
- Speech Work: Vowels:/ai/Structure: More on Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Reading Skill Composition: Argumentative (Guided writing) Literature: More on Figures of Speech.
- Speech Work: Consonant / Ɵ/ and / ð /Structure: Verbs – Poems of Verbs Comprehension/Vocabulary Development.: Reading and Writing Skills Composition: Speech Writing – Introduction Literature: Prose (use recommended Text)
TOPIC: Revision of Last Term’s work and examination questions.
The writer uses “direction words” in the passage. Emeka’s aunt gave many directions.E.g.Go up this way, turn left by the market, run to the market etc. Find direction words as you read the passage.
Evaluation: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 8.2.2; page 77-78.
Assignment: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 8.2.3, 8.2.4 and 8.3.5 page 83.
(i) Definition of adverbs
- Forms of Adverbs
- Features, position and functions of adverbs.
DEFINITION OF ADVERB: An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or other adverbs. “Ad” in adverbs is a Latin prefix meaning “to”. Examples: Carefully, slowly, softly, silently, soon, regularly, early, twice, etc.
- What is an adverb?
- Give 5 examples of adverb
FORMS OF ADVERBS
There are various forms of adverbs such as :
- ADVERBS OF TIME : These are called indicating adverbs because they indicate or show time. They express when? Examples: when,since, late, after, today, soon, formerly,early etc.
- ADVERBS OF PLACE: They express where? Examples: where,here, there, forward, somewhere, every-where, out, near, etc.
- ADVERBS OF MANNER :They express how ? Examples: angrily, slowly,deeply, quickly,well,
- ADVERBS OF DEGREE:They express to what extent.Examples: Almost, only,quickly, very rather, etc.
- ADVERB OF FREQUENCY: They express how often? E.g daily, twice, rarely, often, sometimes, etc
1. List 3 types of adverbs.
2. Give 2 examples of each.
FEATURE OF ADVERBS
The most important feature of the adverb is that a majority of them are derived from adjectives by the application of the derivational suffix-ly to the adjectival stem when an adverb.
POSITION OF ADVERBS
Adverbs are generally put after the verb they go with E.g. He ran quickly. Adverbs however can also be used before verbs or at the end of sentence Eg.1: She suddenly opened the door.
She opened the door suddenly.
Suddenly, she opened the door.
Adverbs can occur at the initial, medial or final position in a sentence as above.
FUNCTION OF ADVERBS
An adverb can either function as an adverbial or as a modifier of other word classes such as; adjectives, verbs nouns phrases, prepositional phrases, determiners, as well as adverbs.
- Mention two functions of adverb.
- Adverbs can be put in the initial, medial, or final position in sentence True/False?
Sub-Topic 3: SPEECH WORK
Topic: Consonants /k/ and /g/
1. Describing the sound
2. Pronouncing the sound
3. Contrasting the sound
1.Describing the sound
These consonants /k/ and /g/ are plosive. /k/ is a voiceless velar plosive while /g/ is voiced velar plosive. There is a total obstruction to the flow of air out of the mouth and nose.
- ____ is a voiceless plosive
- ______ is a voiced plosive
PRONOUNCING THE SOUND
/g/- /gee/ as in
Goat, big, digger, trigger, sign, lagging etc
/g/ is silent in some words e.g gnat, gnome, gnaw, gnash, sign, reign
/k/ – /k/ as in
Car, cat, kettle, king, know, sack, backs, lack, snack, etc
/k/ is silent in words like knock, know etc.
1. Write five words that contain the consonant sound /g/
2. Mention 5 words that contain the consonant sound /k/
CONTRASTING THE SOUND
Choose the word that contains the consonant sound represented by the phonetic symbol given.
- /k/ a. know b. price c. case d. cease
- /p/ a. psalm b. psychology c. candle d. slept
- /g/ a. gnome b. game c. gnat d. sign
- /k/ a. kite b. cell c. knowledge d. circle
TOPIC: Letter Writing
Topic: Letter writing: Formal Letters
- Definition of formal letters
- Types of formal letters
- Features of formal letters
1. Definition of formal letters
Formal letters are letters written to offices. They are also called official letters
1. What is a formal letter?
2. What is another name for formal?
TYPES OF FORMAL LETTERS
- Application for employment
- Application for Admission to Educational institutions
- Petitions to a Government office
- Letters of complaint to the police
- Letters of inquiry to a company
- Letter commenting on Editorials of Newspapers
- Applications for suppliers to manufacturing companies
- Mention 3 types of formal letters
- Application for employment is a formal letter True/False
Features of formal letters
- Address of the writer
- Address of the addressee
- The letter heading
- The body of the letter
- The Conclusion
- Mention 4 features of a formal letters
- How does a formal letter end
- Definition of poetry
- Types of poetry
- Language of poetry
Definition of poetry
A poem is a piece of creative writing that is usually written in verse. Poetry is a collection of poems.
- What is a poem?
- What is poetry?
TYPES OF POEMS
These are epic, ode, dirge, sonnet, Ballard, elegy
Epic: A long poem with many exciting adventures (1) A long poem telling of achievements of hero.
Ode: A poem written to or about a person or thing.
Dirge: A poem of mourning
(Sonnet): A poem with 14 lines that Rhyme with each other in a fixed pattern.
Ballard: A long poem that tells a story
Elegy: A sad poem especially about someone who has diet
- Mention four types of poems
- What is an Ode?
The language of poetry: This refers to elements of poetry
1. Imagery: These are created in poetry by means of figures of speech.
2. Rhythm: Refers to the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables.
3. Sound: This is one of the elements that compose vocal utterance.
- Mention 2 element s of poetry
- What is sound in poetry?
TOPIC: Structure: conjunctions Features, Position and Functions of conjunctions.
1. Definition of conjunctions
2. Types of conjunctions
3. Features, positions and functions of conjunctions
Definition of conjunctions:
Conjunction comes from a Latin word meaning joined. A conjunction joins words, phrases or sentences together.
- What is conjunction
- Conjunction comes from a Latin word meaning _____
TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS
1. Coordinating conjunction
These are conjunctions that link words/phrases or clauses that are of equal status. They are called co-coordinators, there are three major co-coordinators viz: and, but, and, or.
EXAMPLES OF COORDINATING CONJUCTION
– Mary is a student and her mother is a nurse
– Argentina won the match but the opponents played better.
– You should pay for the items now or write a cheque covering the mount.
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
A subordinating conjunction is used to join words phrases or clauses of equal status that, is, one is dependent on the other. They are also known as subordinators.
Examples of subordinating conuctions
Before, since, because, yet, as, if, when, that, now, even, while, in order o, as soon as, unless, etc.
1. He worked hard because he was paid well.
2. They hard finished before we realized we hard made a mistake.
3. The students stood up as soon as the teacher entered.
4. They left the site while it was day.
5. Mrs. Ama arrived when her children where crying
1. Mention 2 types of conjunction
2. Give 2 examples of each
FEATURES OF CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions join words, phrases, clauses or sentences together. Words, phrases, clauses or sentences joined by a subordinator is dependent on the other.
Position of conjunctions
– Conjunctions occur between the items that the link
– The split between other words in the construction.
– They join words, phrases, clauses and sentences of equal status.
– A subordinator can come at the beginning of a sentence
FUNCTIONS OF CONJUNCTIONS
– They act as coordinators
– They act as subordinators
– They act as correctives
- Write 2 functions of conjunctions
- A subordinator can come at the beginning of the sentence. True/False
TOPIC: Emeka and the Ring
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 9.2.2 page 87-88.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 9.2.3, 9.2.4, and 9.3.5; pages 88-93.
Topic: Formal Letter: Guided Writing
15, Queen Street,
15th January, 2021.
The Educational Secretary,
APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION INTO JSS 1
I am applying for admission into the above mentioned school for my younger brother.
My name is Beloved, a student of Victory Academy, Oyo. I am in JSS 1A.
The privilege of my being a student of this great institution, gives me the impetus to apply for admission for my sibling. He successfully completed his Basic 6 in Greenfield Nursery Primary School last session. He will be 10 years old by September, 2021.
Grateful for your usual consideration.
1. A formal letter has——- addresses
2. Write an application for permission to your principal, telling her why you will be absent from school the first week of resumption.
TOPIC: Prose: Literary Terms
Sub – Topic
1. Definition of prose
2. Examples of literary terms
3. Definition of literary teams
What is a prose?
A prose is a written or spoken language that is not in verse form. In other words, a prose is a novel because it comprises a language without poetical measure.
1. What is a prose?
2. What differentiate a prose from poetry
EXAMPLES OF LITERARY TERMS
Literary terms include the following theme, plot, characterization, theme, plot, characterization, character, style, setting, etc.
- Theme: This is the main subject or idea in a book, film, discussion, etc.
- Plot: This refers to the events that form the main story of a book, film or plays are described.
- Characters: Are the people in a book, play or film
- Style: Is the way a literary work is written.
- Setting: This has to do with the place or time in which the events in a book or film happen.
1. What are literary terms?
2. Mention 4 literary terms
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: VOWEL /U/ AND /U:/
DESCRIBING THE SOUND
This is a short back vowel pronounced with rounded lips. To pronounce it, the back of the tongue is raised towards the roof of the mouth.
It is a long back vowel sound.
SPELLING THE SOUND
Take a look at how the sound occurs in spelling.
CONTRAST OF /U/ AND /U:/
Choose the correct answer.
- Woo a. to b. third c. would d. toe
- Coup a. two b. corpse c. book d. could
- Cook a. pool b. through c. bush d. womb
- /U:/ a. foot b. full c. two d. look
- /U/ a. pool b. food c. hood d. you
TITLE: The Dancing Palm Tree
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 10.2.2 pages 98-99
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 10. 2.3, 10.2.4, and 10.3B; pages 98-102.
Content: 1. Features, Position and Functions of preposition.
SUB-TOPIC: FEATURES, POSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF PREPOSITION
Prepositions are words that show relationship between a noun and other words in a sentence.
Examples of prepositions are:
About, in, against, above, into, across, up, beyond, after, upon, below, between, at, on, along, behind, over, among, until, before, towards, off, for, with, round, to, once, upon, down, of, except, from. .e.t.c.
POSITION OF PREPOSITION IN SENTENCES
Many prepositions come before nouns or pronouns e.g.
The bell is near the table.
Please wait for me.
Rachel’s brother came from Lagos.
I came before you.
The players ran round the field. etc.
FUNCTIONS OF PREPOSITION IN SENTENCES
Preposition is generally used with a noun ( or pronoun) to make a phrase. For example.
At my house, in your school, with you. Here are some more examples.
Preposition noun (pronoun)
In your pocket
Over the wall
Through the window
Round the garden etc.
These phrases often do the work of an adverb,i.e. they tell how , when or where an action was done. It is called adverb phrases, e.g.The soldiers fought bravely (adverb of manner). The soldiers fought with great bravery (adverb phrase). He came yesterday (adverb of time). He came at four o’clock(adverb phrase). At other times they do the work of an adjective,that is, they tell more about a noun. These phrases are called adjective phrases. Here are some examples: A dirty boy opened the door (adjectives). A boy with a dirty face opened the door ( adjectival phrase). The children of the village go to this school. The picture on the wall shows the national theater. The boy with me is Zakari. The view through the open door window is very pretty.
- What is preposition?
- Mention examples of preposition?
- Mention the functions of preposition perform in sentences and give examples of each of them.
TOPIC: LETTER WRITING (GUIDED WRITING – EMPHASIS ON ARRANGEMENT OF IDEAS IN LOGICAL SEQUENCE)
Letter writing can be divided into two, formal letter and informal letter. Whatever type one is writing, the ideas therein must be logical and arranged in sequential order.
FORMAT OF AN INFORMAL LETTER
- The address of the writer by the top right side of the letter.
- The salutation: Dear Segun, Dear Uncle. Etc.
- The body of the letter which comprises the introduction, the main reason of writing the letter (subject matter) and the conclusion, which is the summary and rounding off of the letter.
- Complementary close: yours sincerely.
You have a friend who lives in another town or state. He or she has just written to inform you of his or her success in the 100 metres rule at the jus t concluded. Annual Inter-House Sports competition of his or her school where he or she came first, as a result he or she was given a prize. Write a reply to his or her letter congratulating him or her.
- State the difference between formal and informal letter.
- Mention the group of people the two letters can be written to.
TOPIC: MYTHS AND LEGENDS ( AFRICAN AND NON AFRICAN TALES)
Myths and legends refers to any highly imaginative concept or narrative and usually full of falsehood and incredibility
Myths: Myths are folktales that are religious and explain the universe and its inhabitants. Such stories are considered true both by the narrator and the audience and tell of the creation and regulation of the word.
Legend: Legends are folk history, and even when dealing with religious subject matter differ from myth in that, they tell about what has happened in the world after the period of its creation is over. They are believed by both narrator and audience and covered a variety of subject: saints, werewolves, ghosts, and other supernatural creatures: adventures of real heroes and heroine.
- What is legend and myths?
- Differentiate between legend and myths.
- Write a letter to your father telling him the new development in your school.
- Write ten sentences containing five adverb phrases and five adjective phrases.
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
Topic: Vowel Sounds
Sub-Topic: Vowel /ᴂ / and /ɜ:/
Vowel /ᴂ /
Describing the Sound:
This is a front vowel. To pronounce this vowel, the lips are slightly spread while the tip of the tongue touches the lower front teeth and the back of the tongue touches the upper back teeth. It is a short vowel.
Take a look at how the sound occurs in spelling.
A ai ua
Cat plait guarantee
Man plaid land
This is a central vowel. It is pronounced with the middle of the tongue raised while the lip position is neutral.
Take a look at how the sound occurs in spelling:
Pronounce the sounds that have /ᴂ / and /ɜ:/ in the following words :
Trap, sword, sang, swerve, land, early, plait, port, mad, courtesy, guarantee, heart.
- Pronounce the two sounds /ᴂ / and /ɜ: /.
- Give examples of words that have the two sounds.
TITLE: The Tortoise and the Clay Man
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 11.2.2 and; pages 105-108.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book1; Exercises 11. 2.3, 11.2.4, and 11.3.5; pages 108-113.
Sub-topic: Making sentences with adverbial.
- Copy out the sentences on page 76 of the brighter grammar book1 and underline all the prepositions.
- Put bracket () round each adjective phrase and show by an arrow the noun and pronoun it qualifies. Draw two lines under the noun or pronoun.
- Round each adverb phrase, draw a box and show by an arrow the verb it qualifies. Draw three lines under the verb.
SUB TOPIC: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Argumentative essay are composition written or presented in order to win the audience or reader to the writer or speaker’s side with convincing and reasonable points.
Examples of argumentative essay or composition are:
Boys are more useful to the parent than girls. Boarding school is better than day school. Etc.
FORMAT OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Good day, Mr.Chairman, the panel of judges, accurate time keeper, ladies and gentlemen, co-debater and the distinguished listener. My name is ————–, I am here or writing to support or oppose the motion that states that———.
With these convincing points, I have raised, I hope I have been able to convince you that ———
- Write the format of introduction of an argumentative composition.
- Write the concluding part of an argumentative composition.
- Write ten sentences containing adverb phrases and adjectives phrases. Five sentences each for both.
- Write an argumentative composition on ‘boys are more useful to their parents than girls’. Write to support or oppose the motion.
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: CONSONANT SOUNDS /S/ AND /Z
Consonant sounds /s/ and /z/ are alveolar and are realized when air is forced out through a narrow passage along the centre of the tongue.
/s/ This is a voiceless alveolar fricative consonant sound .It can be found in:advice, peace, price, fleece, save, say.
/Z/ This is a voiced alveolar fricative consonant sound we can have it in: advise, peas, prize, fleas, size, zip, zoo, zone.
TOPIC: MORE ON ADVERBIAL
Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives or another adverb in same sentence. Examples of adverbs are: quickly, slowly, beautifully, always, often, soon, there etc.
TYPES OF ADVERB
(1)Adverb of time: yesterday, today, later, soon, now etc.
They came here 5t,yesterday.
(2)Adverb of manner: boldly, correctly, accurately, clearly, majestically, slowly, quickly etc
He answers the question correctly.
(3)Adverb of place: here ,there, inside, outside, in, out etc.
She was here when I saw him.
(4) Adverb of condition :if, unless, until, in as much as, etc.
His father will pay his school fees if
(5)Adverb of purpose: so that, in order to, etc.
He slept early so that he could wake up early the following day.
Adverbial phrase is a group of words that are adverbs.It tells us more about verb.
(1)He went to church on Sunday.(adverb of time)
(2 ) She goes to school every Monday.
(3)I met him in the morning.
(4) We shall wait for him outside the gate.
(5)Let the boy sleeps inside the room.
( 1)Adverb tells us more about_______(A) noun ( B)pronoun (C)verb (D) nerve.
( 2)Adverb of time answers the question________.(A) how (B)where (C)when (D)why
(3 )He was talking clearly on phone. The adverb used in this sentence is adverb of___________.
(A) reason (B) purpose (C) manner (D)time.
(4)She did her assignment carefully .The word underlined is adverb of__________.
(A)time (B) manner (C) condition (D) result
(5)If you are serious with your studies ,you will pass excellently. The adverb here is __________.
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 12.2.2; pages 117-118.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 12. 2.3, 12.3.4; pages 28-34.
TOPIC: COMPOSITION: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Composition is the way we express our ideas in writing. It involves continuous writing and the points are well arranged in logical order and fully discussed. Every aspect of the topic must be discussed.
ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY :In this kind of composition, the writer discusses the point and tries to persuade the reader to agree to your points of view. The writer either supports or stands against the proposal. It usually starts with vocatives (greetings) such as ;Good morning The Chairman, Panel of Judges, Accurate Time- Keeper, Co-debaters ,Ladies and Gentlemen. After the vocatives you will go to the discussion of points proper one after the other. The is no room for foul language.
EXAMPLES OF TOPICS OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
(1)Boarding school is better than day school.
(2)Military system of government is better than Civilian government.
(3) Raining season is better than dry season.
ELEMENTS OF COMPOSITION
ASPECT: LITERATURE- IN- ENGLISH
Use recommended text.
TITLE: WHY TORTOISE HAS A ROUGH SHELL
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 13.2.2; pages 125-127.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 13. 2.3, 13.2.4, and 13.3.3; pages 128-131
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: VOWELS( Diphthongs)
Diphthongs are vowel sounds that are pronounced as a result of movement of tongue from one vowel to the other. These are the sounds:
/ei/ as in gate, cake, take, place, date, gauge etc.
/əʊ/ as in home, go, owl, own, etc
/ai/ as in buy, five, rice, write, kite, fry, price etc.
/aʊ/ as in how, cloud, out, house, blouse, browse etc.
/Ͻi/ as in boy, joy, toy, oil, toil coin, boil etc .
/ea/ as in here, ear, idea, fear, beer ,rear etc.
/ iə / as in air, their, where, hair, fair etc
/ʊə/ as in during, pure etc
TOPIC: MORE ON ADVERBS
COMPARISON BETWEEN ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are words that go with noun. They tell us more about noun or another adjectives.
Adverbs tell us more about verbs.
(1)The boy is a quick runner.(adjective)
(2)The boy ran quickly (adverb)
(3)The fat woman is a slow walker (adjective)
(4)The fat woman walked slowly (adverb)
(5) This is a fast train.(adjective)
(6)The new train moves very fast.(adverb )
MORE ON TENSES
(1)PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE: These are actions that are still in progress. They are yet to be completed at the time of expression.
I am reading now .
The students in the other class are learning.
We are eating our lunch.
(2)PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: This is an action that has just been completed.
I have eaten my food.
She has done her assignment.
They have prepared for the examination.
My pocket money has finished.
(3)PAST PERFECT TENSE This is the action that has been completed in the past before another action in the past.
Akin had seen me before he saw you.
They had settled the first case before his lawyer died.
We had left the programme before the rain started.
(4)PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE: This is the action that was going on in the past.
They were sleeping when the thief came.
I was reading my book when you called me on phone.
My mother was preparing to travel when I got home.
(5) FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE This tense is futuristic. It is the action that will be going on in the future.
I shall be preparing for my examination by this time of next week.
My sister will be writing her professional examination by next month.
Complete the following sentences with the right option.
(1)The boy _______done his work.(A) have ( B) had (C) has (D)will
(2) The students________ reading when the teacher came in.(A) are ( B)was (C)were (D)will
(3)The examination ________finished before the lazy student came into the hall.
(A) have (B) had (C) has (D)will
(4)By this time of next week ,I will be_______ to London. (A)travel ( B)travelled
(5)If they will come early they will meet me at home. The adverb used in the sentence
- Reason(B)condition (C) result ( C)time
(1)Write five sentences in present perfect tense.
(2))Write five sentences in future continuous tense.
Argumentative Essay –Arrangement of ideas in logical sequence
Speech work Vowels /ei/
Structure Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions
Comprehension Coming Home
VOWEL /ei /
This is a diphthong. The articulation of /ei/ starts with a sound whose quality is like that of /e/ and ends with another sound which has the quality of /i/. The lips are ‘spread’ for the production of /ei/. The common spelling symbols are shown below:
‘a’ e.g. face, lame, bane, mate.
‘ai’ e.g. rain, main, lain, gain.
‘ay’ e.g. pay, way, ray, may.
‘ei’ e.g. eight
‘ey’ e.g. they
‘ea’ e.g. break.
Learners of English often pronounce /ei/ as /e/. This is an error in pronunciation which you should always avoid.
Now, pronounce the following pairs of words which show the contrast between /e/ and /ei/ clearly.
Indicate the vowel used in each of the following words. Enclose the vowel symbols in slanting lines.
Look at the words listed below and identify those that contain vowel /ei/.
TOPIC:MAKING SENTENCES WITH ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITION
Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs or the entire clause or sentence. The position of the adverb in a sentence depends on what the speaker wants to emphasize. Examples of adverbs are: now, tomorrow, today, often, never, always, there, here, joyfully, smartly and beautifully.
Adverbs as Modifiers of Verbs
- Johnson came here.
- Roseline ate her food hurriedly.
- The teacher taught us yesterday.
- I take my drug regularly.
The words in italics above are adverbs and each of them modifies the verb in their respective sentences.
Adverbs as Modifiers of adjectives.
- The man is relatively young.
- The story is very interesting.
Here, relatively modifies the adjective ‘young’, while very modifies the adjective ‘interesting’.
Adverbs as Modifiers of another Adverb:
- He walked very slowly.
- They performed averagely well.
Adverb as Modifiers of Clauses:
- He passed the examination; meanwhile he is already in a university.
- Finally, he passed the examination.
Careful investigations have revealed the fact that nothing exists alone. So, prepositions are functional words which express the relationship between two entities in a sentence. Prepositions are words that are used to connect nominal elements of a sentence and specify a particular relationship between them.
Examples are the following: in, under, between, by, with, on, below, etc. These are used in the sentences below:
- The money is in his pocket.
- The car is under the shade.
- The fruits are shared between the two girls.
Besides, the relationship that these prepositions express may be pointing to place, time, instrument and cause.
- There is water in the bottle. (place)
- The bottle is on the table. (place)
- The teacher bit Johnson with care. (instrument)
Types of Prepositions
There are two types viz:
- Simple prepositions: These are simple-word prepositions such as in, at, beside, on, behind, into, against, outside, from, for, of, through, above, over, across, etc.
Some of these are used in sentences below:
- He came from London.
- The book is on the table.
- The boy walked across the road.
- Complex prepositions: A complex preposition is made up of a simple preposition followed by a noun and then followed by another simple preposition. Examples: in compliance with, in view of, in addition to, by means of, as a result of, with regard to, etc. Some other kinds of complex prepositions are made up of an adverb or a conjunction followed by a simple preposition e.g. but for, except for, due to, because of, according to, as regards etc.
Conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, clauses, and sentences together. Examples: and, but, until, because, after, when, either… or, neither… nor, both, although, despite.
Types of Conjunctions
Conjunctions could be categorized into three: coordinating, subordinating and correlative.
Coordinating conjunctions: These are used to join or connect words, phrases or clauses that belong to the same grammatical class. Coordinators do join two or more nouns, verbs, or adjectives or clauses that have the same status. Examples: but, for, or, and etc.
- Johnson and Fredrick are friends.
- I went there and got what I wanted.
- He worked hard but could not win the competition.
- Come inside but don’t sit down.
- I want to see the programme director or his assistant.
Subordinating conjunctions: These are used to introduce subordinate or dependent clauses and connect them to the main clauses to form complex sentences. Examples: because, that, what, how, which, whose, if, wherever, etc.
- You can go wherever you want to go.
- I will give you the money, if you work for it.
- I what to have what you wish to give me.
- A thief entered the house because nobody was in.
- They were talking when I entered.
Correlative conjunctions: The correlative conjunctions usually have two parts.
Either Ade or Jumoke must come.
You can take either meat or fish.
Neither Ade nor Jumoke is here.
The baby neither ate nor slept.
NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO
The baby can not only talk but also sing.
He did not only pass his examination but also won an award.
Both the boy and his mother came.
I saw both the man and his wife.
EVALUATION: Identify the grammatical names of the underlined word in the following sentences.
- The children played happily.
- He will sit between you and me.
- This letter was written by him.
- The woodcutter looked at the gold axe but refused to take it.
- I was caned because I came late.
ASSIGNMENT: Make adverbs from the following adjectives and use each adverb to make sentence.
TOPIC: COMING HOME
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS1; Ex.14.2.2; pages 135-137.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS1; Ex.14.2.3, 14.3.4; page 137,141.
CONTENT: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
It is an essay which requires the candidate or the writer to present a subject or an issue that has two sides with a view to persuading or convincing the reader to see the issue from the angle the writer has seen it and so agree with the point of view being presented. In essence, it involves argument. The topic may demand that the writer or the candidate does one of the following things:
- The writer may be required to prove a particular point.
- He may be required to present a view point.
- He may be required to strike a balance between the two sides of an argument or issue.
To write a good argumentative essay, the following points are necessary:
- One must have a very clear idea of the topic or issue.
- One must have jotted down a lot of points that one will use to prove one’s point in persuading and convincing the reader.
- The points or ideas one has must be well arranged.
- Clarity, in term of expression, is another vital point to note in argumentative essays.
- The essay must also be error-free in terms of mechanical accuracy.
- What are the features of argumentative essays?
- State five vital points writer must bear in mind in composition of argumentative essay.
ASSIGNMENT: Your school has been invited to participate in a debate on the topic “Male Children are more beneficial to their parents than their Female Counterparts”. Write out your speech for or against the motion.
WEEK-END ASSIGNMENT: From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
- They A. there B. their C. day D. den
- Bathe A. ball B. bath C. rape D.mat
- Eight A. seize B. waist C. get D. says
From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that contains the sound represented by the given phonetic symbol.
- /ei/ A. aisle B. eat C. wait D. dirt.
- /a/ A. pack B. perk C. cart D. pork
ASPECT TOPIC: PERIOD
Speech work vowels /ai/ 1
Structure More on Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions 2
Composition (Refer to the previous week)
Comprehension The Wanderer 3
Literature Figure of Speech 4
ASPECT: Speech work
TOPIC: Vowels: /ai/
The articulation of /ai/ starts with a sound which has the quality of /a/ but the quality changes with the gradual glide towards /I/. If you pronounce the word ‘high’, the opening of the mouth gets smaller with the closing movement of the jaw following the glide towards /i/. In writing, the /ai/ is represented with the following spelling symbols:
‘I’ e.g. time
‘ie’ e.g. lie
‘ye’ e.g. dye
‘igh’ e.g. high
‘eigh’ e.g. height
‘uy’ e.g. buy
The following pairs of words are used to show the contrast between /ai/ and /i/ on the one hand and between /ai/ and /a/ on the other:
EVALUATION: Indicate the vowel used in each of the following words. Enclose the vowel symbols in slanting lines.
- Eye ii. Spy iii. Mine iv. Bite v. write
vi. Cat vii. Kite viii. Kit ix. Might x. may
ASSIGNMENT: Look at the words listed below and identify those that contain vowel/ai/.
- Tyrant ii. Libel iii. Tie iv. Cite v. site
vi. raise vii. Split viii. Lice ix. Price x. liver
TOPIC: Parts of speech
SUB-TOPIC: Adverbs, Conjunctions and Prepositions
CONTENT: ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS AND PREPOSITIONS
The words that go with verbs are called adverbs. Some tell how an action is done, e.g
The old man walked slowly along a street.
The woodcutter sat sorrowfully by the side of the river.
These adverbs are called adverbs of manner.
Notice1-Adverbs are often formed by adding ‘ly’ to an adjective, e.g.
The boy is a quick runner. (adjective)
The boy runs quickly.(adverb)
The bird sang a merry song.(adjective)
The bird sang merrily.(adverb)
But there are some adverbs that are not formed like this,
This is a fast train.(adjective)
It goes very fast.(adverb)
Note 2:- Adverbs are generally put after the verb they go with; adjectives are generally put before the noun they go with.
An adverb goes with a verb to tell how, when or where an action takes place.
Preposition comes from a Latin word meaning placed before. ‘Pre’ means ‘before’ and ‘position’ means ‘place’. So, a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show what one person or thing has to do with another person or thing is called a preposition e.g. to, by, at, in, from, with, for etc.
The noun or pronoun before which a preposition stands is known as its object. Here are some more examples:
Preposition Noun (or pronoun)
In your pocket
Over the wall
Through the window
Towards the door
These phrases often do the work of an adverb, i.e. they tell how, when or where an action was done. We call them adverb phrases, e.g.
The soldier fought with great bravery.
She sat in the corner.
At other times they do the work of an adjective, that is, they tell more about a noun. These phrases are called adjective phrases. Here are some examples;
A boy with a dirty face opened the door.
The picture on the wall shows the National Theatre.
Sometimes the same phrase may be an adverb phrase or an adjective phrase. It depends on the work it is doing.
- The view through the open window is very pretty.
- The bird flew through the open window.
Note: After a preposition the pronoun in the phrase is always in the objective case, e.g
- He came with them.
- He will sit between you and John.
Conjunctions are words that join together words, phrases or sentences. Conjunction comes from a Latin word meaning joined e.g. and, but, or, unless, because, until, although etc.
- The woodcutter looked at the gold axe but refused to take it.
- We you have the gold axe or will you have the silver axe?
EVALUATION: Join the following sentences by using the conjunctions, and, unless, because, but, or.
- I have a pencil. I have a pen.
- I have a blue bag. She has a red bag.
- We won’t leave your house. We are paid.
- Ibeji screamed. Ibeji was wounded.
- She sent for them. They did not come.
ASSIGNMENT: Use the following prepositions in sentences: on, to, by, of, in, from, after, for, under, with.
TOPIC: THE WANDERER
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS1; Exercise 15.2.2; pages 146
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS1; Exercise 15.2.3, 15.3.5; pages 146-149.
TOPIC: Figures of Speech
SUB-TOPIC: Simile and Metaphor
CONTENT: SIMILE AND METAPHOR
Simile means a figure of speech in which something is compared with another and said to be like it. Consequently, the use of “like, and “as is common with simile.
i. Alaba’s shirt is as white as snow.
Ii He swims like a fish.
Iii That person behaves like a mad man.
iv. On our entering the premises, it was as quiet as a grave yard.
v. The old man fights like a lion.
A metaphor is a figure of speech which compares two things that posses similar features by saying that one thing is another. In other words, it is a direct comparison between two things without the use of “like, and “as.
- Ade was a lion in the fighting. (He was as brave as lion)
- My elder sister is the pillar of our family. (She alone bears the problems of the family).
- Jemima is the apple of her father’s eyes. (She is greatly loved by her father.)
- The player is the shinning light in the team.(He is the source of inspiration to other members of the team).
- Ayisatu was a pig during her secondary school days. (She was extremely dirty).
In simple sentences, give three examples of simile and three examples of metaphor.
READING ASSIGNMENT:Asabe, Scenes 1-5.
From the words lettered A-D, choose the words that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
- Libel (b) typical (c) year (d) weird
- Favourite (b) kin (c) write (d) keen
- Quay (b) stripe (c) strip (d) happy
(a)rice (b) bad (c) here (d) bit
(a)eat (b) wait (c) dirt (d) aisle
COMPOSITION: Speech Writing
Speech Writing is, in most cases, in a form of end-of-a-year speech, prize-giving day speech or other forms of speech-making occasions whereby one is required to deliver a speech. Speech writing demands the skill of writing almost as one speaks.
Useful Hints on how to write a good speech
(1)Content: The content depends on the topic you are given but your points must be relevant to the topic on which you are writing your speech.
(2)Organization: In speech writing, you should imagine that you have an audience listening to you. Therefore you are expected to start your speech with the usual vocatives: Chairman, Member of Staff, Ladies and Gentlemen…..your audience depends on the question you are answering: your question will definitely give you an idea who your audience is.
(3)Expression: Speech Writing demands a good command of language. Use simple sentences because it is important that you should, make your audience follow your line of thought. Don’t use slangs and colloquial expressions. Speech making is meant for oral delivery, therefore, you can make use of words like don’t, didn’t, doesn’t etc. In addressing your audience, you can use words like, you, our, we, you and I.
Model Speech Writing:
As the President of Red Cross Society, write a speech you will deliver at the official launching of the branch of the society in your school.
Hononourable Commissioner for Health, Lagos State,
President of Lagos State Chapter of the Nigerian Red Cross Society,
Our respected Principal, Chairman and members of the Parents-Teachers Association,
Ladies and gentle and Gentlemen.
On behalf of my colleagues, I welcome you all to this occasion of the launching of our school’s Branch of the Red Cross Society. Today marks a…………………………………………..
TOPIC: Introduction to Prose:
Prose: A long, free written work done in sentences, paragraphs and chapters
Forms of Prose work.
Fiction and Non-Fiction
Fiction: A prose work that is created from the power of imagination of the writer
The Non Fiction: A prose which presents the real life experience of a character or characters. Non-fiction is classified into biography and autobiography.
Types of Prose Work
Novels: A long prose of over ten thousand words
Novelette: A prose work of less than ten thousand words but more than one thousand words.
Novella: A prose work relating to historical event.
Novella: short novel, a fictional prose work that is longer than a short story but shorter than a novel
Skimming is most useful when you read with a definite question in mind and have an intention to find answers to the question. Practice skimming with the passage.
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 16.2.2 pages 152-154
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 1; Exercises 16. 2.3 and 16.3.4; pages 154,155 and 159-160.