Civic Education Lesson Note For SS 1 Third Term – Edudelight.com
THIRD TERM SS ONE CIVIC EDUCATION
Revision of last term’s work
Definitions and types of political parties
Functions of political parties
- The press
- Activities of the press in ensuring democracy
- Freedom of the press reasons for and how to ensure the freedom of the press
- Importance of F.O.I.B. (freedom of Information bill)
2 Human Rights
Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (UDHR)
The definition of Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
Historical background of Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
Importance of Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
4 Human Rights (cont’d)
- the meaning of seven core freedoms of the UDHR
- The importance of fundamental human rights
- Responsibility of individual, groups and government in UDHR
The roles of Individuals in promoting UDHR.
The roles of groups in promoting UDHR.
The roles of government in UDHR e.g. establishment of agencies NAPTIP, Legal Aids Council
- Agencies responsible for protection of human rights
Establishment and formations of the agencies
The roles of agencies for protection of human rights
- Project Work
Locating and visiting government agencies concerned with UDHR
Browsing through the internet to locate world agencies for the protection of human rights, child rights.
Definition different cult groups and their symbols e.g black axe, buccaneer, eiye etc.
- Origin of Cultism
Reasons for establishing and joining cults
- Cultism (cont’d)
Consequences of cultism e.g. expulsion, violence, murder etc.
Preventive measures against cultism
Government effort in preventing cultism
- Law and Order respect for constituted authority
Definition of authority and types
Meaning of constituted authority
Differences between authority and constituted authority
- Types of constituted authority
Importance of constituted authority to the people
- Revision & Examination
Political parties are organized group of people with common beliefs, ideology and interests coming together with the aim of contesting and winning elections to assume political power and authority.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES
The following are functions of political parties in Nigeria
- They serve as a unifying factor in the nation as membership of each political parties is made up of the various ethnic groups in Nigeria.
- Selection and recruitment of leaders: political parties help in identifying, grooming and recruiting credible leaders for the nation.
- They promote interest in politics (encouraging political participation): through political activities like rallies, and campaign those who are not interested are wooed into it.
- They serve as link between the electorates and government: political parties usually reach people at the grass root thereby reducing
The cumbersome, the rulers and the ruled.
- They help in formulating national policies: when parties win elections the make policies based on their party’s
- Enumerates five precolonial political parties in Nigeria
- Explain three functions of political parties
The press is the combination of both the electronic and print media and the people that work therein. It is sometimes referred to as the mass media.
The Free Press
The free press is one that is free from any governmental influence and is allowed to constructively criticize government policies, corrupt government or public officials, societal ills with the aim of perpetrating good governance.
The activities of thing Press in ensuring democracy
The mass media performs the following;
- Provision of entertainment: the electronic media entertains the listeners through music, comedy, drama and sports etc. while the print media have cartoons, sport columns and so on.
- They enlighten the public: the mass media help in mobilizing the citizen support government programs for instance the before and during general elections and the mass media educate the masses on the importance of participating in the exercise. The 2011 general elections became a huge success partly due to the significant role of the mass media.
- They safeguard citizen’s rights: most privately owned media organizations helped in exposing and condemning human rights abuses especially during the military era.
- Provisions of information: this is the major function of the mass media as they provide the medium through which citizens get enough information on governmental activities and policies. They also give Nigerians the platform to air their views on government policies.
Freedom of the press – Reasons for and how to ensure press freedom.
- To guarantees fundamental rights: rights of citizens are protected as the press can expose all forms of human rights abuse.
- To educate the citizens about government activities in the society.
- Checking the deeds of those in authority.
- Exposing the corrupt practices of corporate and political class.
- Perpetrating good governance in the society.
- Exposing the ills of the society and recommend solutions to them.
The F.O.I Bill
A bill is a proposed law that has to be deliberated upon by parliament and to be passed into law when assented into law by executives. The F.O.I.Bill grants the press access to government information, data’s and the event as well as the competence to report the consumption of the citizens who should understand government activities.
Importance of the F.O.I.Bill
- It enhances the freedom of the print and electronic media: to write and express their opinion.
- It allows the press to freely disseminate information to the people in choice of candidate and political parties.
- It enforces the press such that it becomes more functional.
- It enhances transparency in government.
- It enhances accountability of people in government.
- It strengthens all other pillars of democracy.
1.What are the functions of the press in strengthening democracy?
- Explain the term “Press Freedom”
- State three importance of F.O.I.Bill.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights is a declaration of human rights is a declaration adopted by the united nations general assembly on the 10th of December 1948 in Palais de Charliot, Paris France. It has formed the basis of the constitution of almost every country of the world.
The declaration contained 30 articles. It was co – authored by john peter Humphrey of Canada, Rene Carson of France, Charles Malik of Lebanon, and Eleanor Roosevelt of USA etc.
Guinness book of records describes it as the ‘’most translated book in the world‘’.
The ugly experience of the Nazi Germany made as a result of the loopholes in the four freedoms adopted by the allies of the Second World War necessitated the declaration the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which is more potent.
The principal drafter was john peter Humphrey of Canada. The United Nations commission on human rights chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt with it representatives from various countries across the globe oversaw the preparation of the declaration.
The united nation general assembly adopted the declaration on the 10th of December 1948 by a vote of 48 to 0 with 8 abstention.
Importance of UDHR
- It is a standard for countries to express the basic principle and ideas that the world holds for human rights.
- It compels governments to create national laws that protects fundamental human rights.
- It promotes rights as part of the foundation of religion, justice and peace in the world.
- It limits the behaviors of states
- It imposes on the state their duties to the citizens with respect to their duties.
- Describe the UDHR.
- Explain four importance of the UDHR
THE MEANING OF THE SEVEN CORE FREEDOMS OF UDHR
The seven core freedoms of the UDHR are those major rights that all members of the United Nations organization must entrench in their constitution and must be benefited by their citizens. The seven core freedoms are freedoms that cannot be taken away from any individual even in emergency situations.
The seven core freedoms are;
- The right to life
- Freedom from torture.
- Freedom from enslavement and forced labor
- Right to protection from imprisonment for debt.
- Freedom from retroactive laws.
- Right to recognition of persons before the law.
- Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Importance of fundamental human rights
- It helps in preventing oppressive government and thereby limiting the powers of the rules.
- It gives constitutional protection for those rights listed in it.
- It enables citizens to seek redress for violation of their tights in the law court.
- It encourages orderliness.
- Peace and harmony exists in a society where people enjoy their rights.
- The constitution is a reference point for the citizens to claim and enjoy their rights.
- It encourages us to defend and fight for what is right or proper.
- It accelerates development.
- It helps citizens to have the knowledge of his/her rights
- EXPlain the seven core freedoms of UDHR.
- State four importance of human rights.
Responsibilities of individuals in promoting the UDHR
- Respecting others rights like John Locke said ‘’man is free but everywhere in chain’’ you may enjoy your fundamental human right to the utmost, only without infringing on others rights
- Willingness to expose or report cases of human right abuse: individual and groups should endeavor to report cases of human rights abuse to the appropriate government agency.
- Setting up or joining other human rights groups: individuals should engage in human rights protection.
- Making effort to claim one’s right: individuals should endeavor to claim their right through appropriate channel to deter reoccurrence of such abuse.
- Financial support for human right abuse.
Responsibility of government in promoting the UDHR
- Inclusion of human rights in schools’ curriculum: the introduction of human rights and ways of seeking redress when they are violated should be taught in primary and post primary schools. Students will be able to know how they can seek redress when their rights are abused.
- The enactment of laws that establish human rights agencies: the legal aid council and national human rights commission are establishments of government to fight human right abuses.
- State three roles of individuals in promoting the UDHR.
- Explain three roles of government in promoting the UDHR.
Cultism is the devotion to the doctrines or practices of a cult, it is belonging to a cult.
The secret cult is an exclusive group of people that is often united by blood covenant. It is common in tertiary institutions such as colleges of education, polytechnics and universities.
According to Adewale Rotimi (2005) a secret cult is a group of people whose activities are carried out in exclusive location and at an unusual time without been exposed to the initiated.
Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary describes it as small group of people who have extreme religious beliefs and who are not part of any established religion.
Different cult groups and symbols
- Pirates Confraternity: (National Association of Seadogs or Seadoff) formed in 1952 at University of Ibadan by Proffesors Wole Soyinka, Olumuyiwa Awe, Ralph Opara, Pius Oleigbe, Olu Agunloye, Daig Imokuede and Tunji Tubi.
The aims of forming this group are;
- To elevate social life in the University where orderliness and discipline could be instiled in the mind of the youths
- To defend humanistic ideas.
- To fight neo – colonialism.
- To fight tribalism and elitism.
THE SYMBOL OF PIRATES CONFRATERNITY
- Buccaneer Association of Nigeria or Sea lords: it was found in 1972 Bolaji Carew, Tunde Jawando, Kunle Adigun all of whom where formerly in pirates but became uncomfortable with them consequentially they formed Buccaneers. Members are also known as fine boys, lords, ban boys.
Symbol of Bucanner Association of Nigeria.
- Supreme Eye Confraternity: this was formed in 1966 at the University of Ibadan. Its founders were Adegoke Adeniyi, Dele Nwakpele, Bode Falase, Tunde Aluko, Kayode Oke, Bode Sowunmi etc.
Some of its aims were to make positive impact of the social political mind, social cultural, physical and mental development of members.
Members are referred to as flyers, air force.
Symbol of supreme Eiye confratenity
- Supreme Vikings Confraternity: formed in 1982 by three young men who pulled out of Buccaneer at University of Port Harcourt. Members are called Aromates, adventures, vultures.
Symbol of Supreme Vikings Confratenity.
- Black Axe Confraternity (Black men movement in Africa): it was formed to fight operation against Black men (students). In the university of
Benin in 1976 with the following aim.
- Promoting black consciousness
- Fighting for Africans’ dignity and freedom for neo – colonialism.
Members are referred to as axe man.
Other cult groups include the Trojan Horse, Red Devils, Black Beret, the Amazons, the black Cats, Temple of Eden, the yea Black movement etc.
Symbol of Black Axe confraternity
History of cultism on Nigerian campuses
The aim was quite good and progressive contrary to what obtains among cultists in Nigerian schools today.
They set high academic and moral standards for their members. Among the founders were Proffesor Wole Soyinka the first democratically elected president ‘’Captain’’ with the name captain blood (Rotimi Adewale,2005). Others were Proffesor Muyiwa Awe, Ralph Opara, Pius Oleigbe, Daid Imokuede,
Later on black eye, Vikings, Mafia, Black Beret, daughters of jezebel. Most of these groups that emerged after Pirates were known for violence and killings on Nigerian campuses.
Reasons why youths join cults
The following are some reasons why youth join;
- Search for powers: people seeking powers to make life difficult for fellow student around them. Some also join cults as a place of refuge from intimidation and oppression from their colleagues.
- Support from school leaders: students who find themselves on campuses where lecturers and officials are cult members tend to join cults so as to be more comfortable and get good marks from such lecturers. School leadership also recruits students into cult so that they could help in fighting other groups that will not allow them carry out their policies in the institution.
- To secure protection: students especially female join refuge from intimidation and oppression from their colleagues.
- For popularity reasons: they believe that membership will give them greatness, honor and prestige in school community makes some disappointment in life tend to reduce psychological effects such problems by cult groups.
- To get attention; Neglected children from homes intend to join cult in order to get love, comfort and receive direction in life. Unfortunately they get disappointed as their woes increase.
- To get financial assistance: many students from poor homes falls prey easily to cultists who throw baits of financial assistance to them.
7Majority of the people who join new-age cults are between 18 – 24 years old at the time of first contact i.e. the immediate post-high school period. Though persons as young as 14 years have become victims because of various reasons which include:
8. Some young students in cults have experienced very unstable or non-existent family relationship, but they do not constitute the norm.
9. Many students have experienced varying degrees of communication problems with their parents.
10. A number of students have known the pains and deprivation of a single-parent home and perhaps for this
reason, some have strongly identified with older students who provide a parental image.
11. Some young people who have problem backgrounds and have experienced varying degrees of “failure.” Those people that come from broken homes or have a history of emotional problems and unresolved personal conflicts.
12. More than anything else, the young people pursuing cults today are involved in search for identity and a quest for spiritual reality that provides clear-cut answers to questions.
13. The chief target of the cults are the children of affluence, these ones may be suffering from identity confusion or identity crisis and they want to be identified with re-known group and so, they are easily carried away by the activities of the cult.
• HOW TO ERADICATE CULTISM IN THE CAMPUSES
Cultism is a social crime and the activities of cultists are sometimes laden with blood. Through the cultist’s activities, many lives have been lost, many people maimed and many students have been rusticated. There is the urgent need to put an end to it. Some people have openly declared that cultism is as worst as armed robbery. So, in order to curb cultism, there should be:
1. A definite legislation that will give a death sentence to anybody found guilty of cult activities in the campuses.
2. Moral education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country.
3. Cultism and its consequences should be treated in the General Studies courses in all tertiary institutions in the Nigeria.
4. Parents should take time to understand their children, give enough time to listen to them at home and satisfy their emotional, psychological and physical needs.
5. Parents should watch the friends their wards are keeping in the institutions. Take time to watch any misbehavior put up by their wards and correct immediately.
6. Aggressive evangelism of wagging war against cultism in all tertiary institutions should be allowed by all religious groups in the country
- Explain the term “Cultism”
- Explain five causes of cultism in our campus today
Consequences of cultism in schools
- Breakdown of law and order: cultism brings chaos and fighting as violence erupts whenever cult member attacked themselves for whatever reason. This disturbs the peace of the students.
- Fall in standard of education: lecturers award unmerited marks to cultists/students for the fear of been attacked.
- Condones bullying and abuse of people rights: cult members bully and offend non – cult members as well as infringe on others rights.
- Expulsion from school: cultists when discovered by school authority are rusticated.
- Problem of indiscipline: lecturers and some member of the authority for the fear of being attacked cannot discipline cult members as a result encourage all sorts of lawlessness and indiscipline in our schools.
Preventive measures against cultism
- More enlightenment campaigns on the evils of cultism.
- Upbringing of any children in their youthful age should be done properly by parents.
- Introduction of cultism, its ills etc. should be introduced into secondary schools curriculum in subjects like civic education.
- School authorities must establish effective and viable outfits to identify cult members and their activities within the campuses.
- Orientation and warning about the problems and consequences and the need to dissociate from such groups.
Government efforts in preventing cultism
- Government must provide adequate funding and modern educational facilities, recreational activities and sporting equipment.
- Government must identify, expose and punish any member of the society giving financial support to the cult this will serve as a difference to other members of the society having similar ideas.
- NGOs, religious bodies and parents should work hand in hand to terminate cultism in higher institutions.
- State three consequences of cultism
- Briefly explain three preventive measures against cultism
LAW AND ORDER
RESPECT FOR CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY
Authority is the use of power that is considered to be lawful and rightful. It is the tight to give orders and enforce obedience from people. It is the type of leadership established for smooth running of the functioning of the society.
Authority includes an organization with the power to make decision of have a particular area of responsibility in the society. Another type of authority is the official permission an individual or group has to do something.
These groups may be schools, clubs and associations and so on. Simply put, constituted authority can be defined as individuals, group of established constitution of government which the constitution of a society organizes and empowers to direct, manage and control activities.
Constituted authority include parent, guardians, teachers, principal, legislature, judiciary etc.
- Explain constituted authority
- Outline four roles of constituted authority
Types of Constituted Authority
The following are some authority;
- Traditional Authority: this form of authority has its capacity from traditions, customs and beliefs. It protects the customs and traditions.
These set of rulers is usually are headed by a king or a queen.
Britain and Saudi Arabia are examples of modern states with traditional constituted authority while Yoruba and Hausa/Fulani pre – colonial political system were also traditional in nature.
However there are two types of monarchical traditional authority namely absolute and constitutional monarchy.
- Absolute Monarchy: these exercise absolute monarchy in the state he is the law and sovereign power. Saudi Arabia is an example of absolute monarchy.
Constitutional monarchy: it is the converse of absolute monarchy whose power are provided for and limited by constitutional provisions. In essence the power of such monarch is regulated by constitution. Britain is a country with constitutional monarchy.
Functions of traditional constituted authority
- Educating people about government policies: traditional rulers help government to educate their people on the need to cooperate with government in carrying out specific programs.
- Protecting local traditions and customs: they ensure traditional festivals, beliefs are well preserved jealously as custodians of the same.
- Maintenance of law and order: they enjoin their subjects to be law abiding and organize youths into vigilante groups to ensure adequate security in the night.
- Intermediary between government and people: they encourage people to be committed to the success of government policies and present their people’s needs to government’s regulatory.
- Religious constituted Authority: this spiritual lords leads religious groups and organization. They include pastors, imams and shrine priests. They are either elected or nominated.
- They attend to spiritual needs of their members
- They help to educate members about government policies.
- Maintenance of peace and order.
- They act as intermediary between God and man.
Government constituted Authority
This are leaders that are constitutionally vested with power. Some of them are elected e.g. The president, governor, senator, local govt. chairman and councilors.
Functions of Government constituted Authority
- Maintenance of law and order.
- Provision of basic amenities for the populace.
- Protection of citizen rights.
- Protection of the constitution
- Promotion of national unity.
Organizational constituted Authority
- These leaders run private business organizations, Non – governmental organizations (NGO), political parties, pressure groups etc.
Functions of Organizational constituted Authority
- They help make decisions and policies for their organizations.
- They implement and execute policies on behalf of their organization.
- They protect the interest of members.
Importance of constituted Authority
- They helps in giving direction for smooth and peaceful running of an organization and institutions of government in general.
- They help to provide employment to its teeming citizens’ thereby increasing standard of living and consequently reduce crime rate in the society.
- Constitutional authority at all levels helps ensure the enthronement of orderliness in the society by making sure that standard rules and regulations are followed or adhered to.
- Some constituted authorities like our parents, guardians act as agents of socialization and custodians of culture. Particularly they instill right values, norms and culture of the society into younger upcoming generations.
- People in power or position of authority ensure that adequate security is provided for lives and properties. These are provided for by placing necessary mechanism as well as security agencies.
- Constituted authorities makes people to have a purpose of living. Otherwise the absence of constitutional authority at any level would have led to anarchy or state of lawlessness
- State and discuss the various types of constituted authority with at least two roles each performed
- Discuss two obligations of the people to the constituted authority