English Language Lesson note for JSS2 Second term – Edudelight.com
SCHEME OF WORK
- Speech Work- revision of last term’s work. Grammar- Adjective. Compositions: My New Year Resolution. Reading and Comprehension Vocabulary Development- (The Office).Structure: Reported Speech. Literature in English – Introduction to prose, Features of prose
- Speech Work – Diphthongs Continue. Grammar – Tenses – present, past, future. Reading/Comprehension and Summary. Writing – Argumentative Essay. Introduction to Drama and Features
- Speech Work – Triphthongs, produce speech with tri thongs. Grammar – Adverbials – cause and reason, Purpose, Condition. Reading and Comprehension Argumentative Essay – Civilian government is far better than Military government. Literature in English – Element of Drama
- Speech Work/Listening and Speaking consonant – /h/; /w/ and /j/. Grammar – Punctuation mark (Full Stop). Read and comprehension –Vocabulary Development – The postal service. Writing – Formal Letter – (To the school Principal).Literature in English – Recommended text on drama
- Speech Work – Consonant/p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, e.g. pot, boy, tape, dog. Grammar- Punctuation Mark, (The Comma) Reading and Comprehension. Writing – Narrative Essay–My last Birthday. Literature in English Recommended text on drama
- Speech Work – Consonant Sound /k/ and /g/. Grammar –Types of Sentence (Functional) Questions, Statements, and Commands. Reading and Comprehension. Writing – Mining. Literature in English (use Recommended text)
- Speech Work/Listening and Speaking – contrasting Consonant /f/ and /v/, /s/ and /z/ e.g. fan, van. Grammar – Direct Speech. Reading and Comprehension. Writing – Oral Expository essay – The campaign Literature in English – use recommended text
- Speech Work – Intonation pattern- Are you in my class? Grammar – Adverbials. Reading and Comprehension. Writing: Summary writing from selected passages on Contemporary issues. Literature in English, Use recommended text
- Speech Work/ Listening and speaking – The Rising Tune in Yes/ No Question. Grammar: Indirect/Direct Speech. Reading and Comprehension. Writing –story writing. Literature in English – Use recommended text
TOPIC: THE TRIAL
In the narrative in this unit, you will find scattered pieces of description. Notice the use of expressive descriptive terms to convey meaning.
- Cold-blooded strictness
- Face, grey and drawn with suffering
Find out the meaning of the following words using your dictionary, and use them in sentences of your own.
Cold blooded, Lump, Detective, Shuffled, Constable, Sneer, Whiplash and Magistrate.
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 9.2.2 and 9.2.3; pages 99-100.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 9.2.4, 9.2.5 and 9.3.5; pages 100-109.
SPEECH WORK: Revision of last term’s work
An adjective is a word that qualifies, describes or tells us more about a noun. Adjectives are known as describing words. Adjective is one of the parts of speech in English language E.g. big house, white board,tall boy, heavybox, beautifulgirl, nice and gentle person, fat woman, two pencils, round, smooth, sharp tusk, useful advice etc
- Mr Ade is a nice and gentle person.
- He lives in a glass house.
In the above sentences the underlined words are adjectives. They describe or add meaning to the noun.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVE
Adjective of Quality:
These adjectives describe i.e they tell us “what sort” e.g.
- She is a virtuous lady.
- I have a black dog.
- That is a long journey.
Adjective of Quantity:
- It shows how much or how many. e.g.
- There are ten bottles on the table.
- She has much money.
- He has many friends at school.
It shows a person owns a property or thing.
- Timi is walking with his mother.
- Our army will defeat yours.
- These are his keys.
Adjective of Nationality
- It shows a person’s race.
- The Nigerian boxer won the fight.
- Some Japanese businessmen came yesterday.
- The Indian girl in my class had the highest score in English.
This shows distance or number of nouns, whether singular or plural
- This pen belongs to me.
- That castle on the mountain was built by Lord Hassier.
- These books on the table are mine.
- I warned those boys not to climb the tree.
- : They are used with nouns to ask question.
- What book are you reading now?
- Whose house is that?
- Which boy can answer this question?
Brighter Grammar book 1 pg 33 Exercise E questions 1,4,5,7, 8, 12
TOPIC: My New Year Resolution
CONTENT: Resolution is a firm decision or promise (to yourself) to do something. New Year resolution is the resolution made on the 1st of January. E.g.
I make a resolution to work harder this year.
I make a resolution to be more regular in church this year.
The students should be called out to give their New Year resolution.
SUB-TOPICS: i. Introduction to Prose
ii. Features of prose
What is a prose?
Prose is a written or spoken language that is not in verse form. It can also be defined as long, free written work done in sentences, paragraphs and chapters. In order words prose is a novel.
Features of Prose
1. Plot: This is the events that make up the story.
2. Characterizations: These are the people who are portrayed in a book, play or movie.
3. Style: This is whether the author uses short or long sentences; simple or complex sentences.
4. Settings: This refers to the location of the story, that is, where the incident takes place.
5. Theme: The theme refers to the central idea which runs through the story.
Recommended texts should read for proper teaching of the features of prose.
- What is prose?
- List the features of prose and explain them.
ASPECT: Comprehension and summary.
TOPIC: Try Again
The poem in this unit is an example of narrative poetry. Like any prose narrative, it has characters, a setting, a plot, conflict and resolution of conflict.
Find the meaning of these words: monarch, despair, pondered, clue, cobweb, endeavour, slippery, sprawl, bravo, defied.
EVALUATION: Intensive English Book 2; Exercise 10.2.2, 10.2.3 pages 114-115.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Book 2; Exercise 10.3 and 10.4; pages 115-117.
ASPECT: Speech Work
TOPIC: Diphthongs Lesson note
What is Diphthong?
Diphthong is a Greek word which means “double sound”. The articulation of diphthongs involves a glide from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation.
/ei/ e.g. gate, cake, take, place, date, gauge etc.
/əᴜ/ e.g. home, go, owl, own, etc
/ai/ e.g. buy, five, rice, write, kite, fry, price etc.
/au/ e.g. how, cloud, out, house, blouse, browse etc.
/ ↄi / e.g. boy, joy, toy, oil, toil coin, boil etc .
/ iə / e.g. here, ear, idea, fear, beer ,rear etc.
/ eə / e.g. air, their, where, hair, fair etc
/ᴜә/ e.g. during, pure, sure, tour…
EVALUATION: Indicate the diphthong used in the following words
e.g. Eye – /ai/
i. coat –
ii. spy –
iii. point –
iv. tape –
v. tour –
Tenses are ways by which we can express ourselves based on time that the events take place. In other words, tenses show time of an action in a sentence. The verb plays very important role in tenses.
Present Simple Tense:
I. He comes here often.
II. They come here every weekend.
III. She dances everyday
Iv. Okocha passes the ball.
The Present Continuous Tense
This is used for actions that are taking place at the time we are talking.
i. Mr Adeyi is teaching us English Language.
- I am eating my dinner.
- We are going to the church.
The Present Perfect Tense.eg
- She has just gone out.
- We have left the place.
- I have lived here for ten years.
- She has taught English for five years.
The Simple Past Tense:
e.g. (1) I worked yesterday.
(2) Olu passed the last stage of the examination last year.
(3)He made his way home.
(4) She sang so beautifully.
The Past Continuous Tense:
e.g. (1) I was teaching the students yesterday when the principal sent for me.
(2) While the bus was moving, the woman jumped down.
(3) Ayo and I were reading for our examination this last week.
The Past Perfect Tense:
e.g. (1) The boy had died before help reached him.
(2) By the time I got to the office, Olu had left for the meeting.
(3) The suspect had escaped when the police raised the alarm.
(4) James had alighted by the time we got to the bus –stop.
The Past perfect Continuous tense:
E.g. (1) We had been praying since 1998 before God intervened in 2008
(2) The girl had been writing SSCE for five years before she passed it last year.
There are four major divisions of future tense, they are the Simple Future, the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect, and the Future Perfect Continuous. . The simple future
e.g. They will finish the work tomorrow.
He will arrive next Saturday.
The future continuous
e.g. i. He will be waiting for us.
ii. They will be arriving tomorrow.
The future perfect
e.g. I. She would have finished the work by Wednesday.
II. Sola would have cleaned the room before the guests arrive.
III. They would have eaten breakfast by the time he gets up.
The future perfect continuous. e.g.
- By next January, she will have been living here for a year.
- You will have been travelling a great deal by the time you return home.
- He will have been working for ten months by the time he takes his vacation.
EVALUATION: Choose the correct verb tense
- She ———— take a lot of tea then a. use to b. used to c. uses to d. is used to
- He told us that the sun——–from the east every day a. rise b. rises c. rose d. risen
- They are ———- punished for coming late a. been b. be c. being d. could
- It is high time we ———– for home a. are leaving b. lived c. left d. go
- The lady ———- herself when she failed to win a. hung b. hang c. hanged d. hanging
TOPIC: Argumentative Essay
CONTENT: Argumentative essays are compositions written in order to win the reader to the
writer’s side with convincing and reasonable points.
Examples of argumentative essay or composition are:
Raining season is better than dry season, Civilian government is far better than military government Etc.
FORMAT FOR WRITING AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Good day, Mr. Chairman, Panel of Judges, Accurate Time – Keeper, Ladies and Gentlemen, Co-debater and the Distinguished Listener. My name is ————–, I writing to support or oppose the motion which states that———.
With these convincing points I have raised, I hope I have been able to convince you that ———
1. Write the format for the introduction of an argumentative essay.
2. Write the concluding part of an argumentative composition.
SUB-TOPIC: Features of Drama
Drama is a play written for actors and actresses to perform on stage before an audience, on radio or television. It is basically a performing art and therefore depends on action for its effectiveness. It involves the originating of forms which relates to action, language, characters of a story and a play.
Features of Drama
– It is meant to be performed on stage for audiences to watch.
– it involves dialogue
– it involves the interaction of many people.
– It makes the audience partake fully or partially as a play is being acted.
– It could be written in verse or in prose. In other words, in terms of language, drama too makes use of words that are made fully meaningful by the actors and actresses.
- What is drama?
- Outline the features of drama.
ASPECT: Speech Work
Triphthong is a vowel sound that glides successively through three qualities. It changes its quality in the process of articulation. It is not very common, only few words in English contain the triphthong E.g. /aiә/ in the word “fire”, /aʊə/ in the word ” flower”.
- What is triphthong?
- Give examples of words that contain triphthong.
TOPIC: One-Eyed Sunday
Note the effective use of description in this narrative. The description covers the outside, physical appearance, as well as the personality and character of One-Eyed Sunday. Notice the effect of this reputation on the boys in the story.
This passage, therefore, shows you how to describe the people or objects you write about.
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises11.2.2 and 11.2.3; pages 119-121.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 11.2.4, 11.2.5 and 11.3.5; pages 121-129.
SUB-TOPIC: Adverbials of Cause, Reason, Purpose, Condition
Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or another adverb. Adverb tells more about the verb it modifies.
Adverb of cause or reason: it answers the question why? E. g because
- You failed the exam because you didn’t prepare.
- He missed the train because he woke up late.
- My mother did not buy me a Christmas dress because I did not do well in my examination.
- Esau lost his position because he sold his birth right.
Adverb of condition: if, unless, until, in as much as, etc.
- His father will pay his school fees if the boy is serious with his academics.
- I will not let you go unless you bless me.
- I will take you out in as much as you meet the target
- God promises to bless us if we keep his commandment.
Adverb of purpose: so that, in order to, etc.
- He slept early so that he could wake up early the following day.
- He drives his boat slowly in order to avoid hitting the rock.
- She shops in several stores in order to get the best buys.
- David’s father advised him to study hard so that he will have distinction.
- What is an adverb?
- Give two examples each of the following types of adverb.
- Adverb of purpose
- Adverb of condition
- Adverb of reason
TOPIC: Argumentative Essay
SUB-TOPIC: Civilian Government is Better than Military Government
Good day Mr. Chairman, Panel of Judges, Accurate Time-keeper, Co- Debaters, Ladies and Gentlemen. I am here this afternoon to speak for/support/propose the motion which says Civilian Government is better than military government. The reasons why I support the motion shall be extensively discussed in the paragraphs below.
Civilian government is otherwise known as democracy. According to the popular American President, Abraham Lincoln, it is the government of the people, by the people and for the people. The people in power are brought in by the electorates through election unlike the military where power is gotten through coup d’état and force.
Civilian government allows freedom of information. It makes use of constitution in the administration system whereas military uses decree.
Finally, although military government has some advantages over civilian government, yet with these few points of mine, I hope I have been able to convince you and not to confuse nor brain fool you that civilian government is better than military government. Thank you.
EVALUATION: Write a comprehensive argumentative essay in support or against the motion “Civilian Government is better than Military Government”.
TOPIC: Elements of Drama
Elements of drama imply those necessary parts, which constitute a drama piece. The elements of drama identified by Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, I his work, Poetics- are:
- Plot ii. Character iii. Thought IV. Diction v. Music vi. Spectacle
1. Plot: The plot is not just the story of a work. Rather, it is an ordered arrangement of events and incidents in a story. This means that events and incidents in a story are harmoniously related and follow sequentially from beginning, middle, and to the end. Plot involves conflicts and disagreements which are finally resolved at the end of the play. The plot of drama is usually divided into acts and scenes.
2. Character: a character is a person existing in a drama or story. We know a character by what they say or the actions they perform. We have two kinds of character.
a. The round character: the round character changes as the story progress. He can be said to mature or deteriorate as the story progresses.
b. The flat character: the flat character does not change in the play. They are often minor characters whose activities support the progress of the major or round character.
3. Diction/language: this includes orally spoken words and body language such as smiles, hand gestures and other practical ways communicating messages. Language can suggest mental state whether mad or normal, rich, gender, etc. Words can help to make the drama clearer to the audience.
4. Thought/Theme: Theme often concerns the lesson to be learnt in a work of art such as drama. This means that in all cases, there is something the playwright wishes to say. This viewpoint is the theme of the work. A theme of a work may be that stealing is bad or that lying is bad.
5. Music: this means the use of songs, dances and choruses as one of the constituents of the dramatic work. Almost all forms of literature use music in one form or the other. Example, the opera, in which music constitutes most parts of its presentation. Also, in traditional African drama, music and dance are essential features.
Music also refers to sound effects and tonal patterns of speech. Example, the pitch, rate, rhythm, volume, articulation etc.
- Stage: This means the acting space. The includes such things as scenery, lightings, sound and movement of actors.
- Audience: An audience is the group of persons watching or listening to a drama presentation. The audience and the actors are two basic elements in the theatre. The presence of the audienceis what makes
theatre unique from other forms of entertainment such as film and television.
- Spectacle: This is the visual aspect of a production. It includes: the design i.e. stage design. Also included in spectacle are costume, make up,lighting, scenery movement of actors etc.
Spectacle helps to give information about the play and improves the beauty of the play. Spectacle includes acting style, movement of actors and the beauty of the stage.
- Script: this is the written text of the story of the play. The performance of the play is based on this written text.
- Acting: this is the imitation and impersonation of characters in a drama and speeches of the characters in the play.
- Sounds: these are the audible element in a drama. they helps to set the mood in a drama. They include the sound of wind, gunshots, music, and noise that occur in drama performance.
- List six major elements of drama.
2. Write short notes on the following:
a. plot b. diction c. theme d. character
ASPECT: Reading and Comprehension:
TOPIC: The Ambush
Page 132-133 of Intensive English Book 2.
A very important comprehension technique is reading between the lines or reading for implied meaning. Sometimes, the writer leaves some things unsaid and lets the reader put ‘two and two together”. For example, it is clear from the pieces of information given in the following passages that the superintendent plans to lay an ambush for smugglers. We will later see that this deduction is correct.
Dictionary work: Find the meaning of these words in the dictionary: superintendent, subordinates, wharf, contingent, contraband, agonizing, miserably, errand, crunching, bulky, silhouette, porters, cordon, pandemonium, subdued, stealth, agility.
Exercises 12.2.2, 12.2.3, 12.2.4 pages 133-134.
Exercises 12.2.5 and 12.3.3.
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: LISTENING & SPEAKING CONSONANTS / h/, /w /and /j/
/h/ this is a voiceless glottal fricative which is produced as the air stream passes through an open glottis to the mouth. The following words contain the sound.
/h/ hat, house, horse, hen, hospital, who, how behave, behind, hit, hide etc
NOTE :The sound is silent in the following words therefore it will not be pronounced.
Hour ,honour, heir, vehicle, exhibit, exhaust.
/w/ This is a semi- vowel consonant sound .It does not occur at the end of the word .The following words have the sound.
/w/ as in: win, way, wed, wet waist, waste, quick , question, quest, dwell, choir, queen, square dwell ,swim, etc
NOTE: This sound /w/ is silent in sword, therefore it should not be pronounced.
/j/ This sound is also a semi- vowel sound .It represents the letter ”y” both in writing and pronunciation. It is a voiced palatal consonant sound. The following words have the sound:
/j/ yet ,yam, yoke, yes, year, few, new, tune, beauty, suit, yellow, queue, human, use, you, ewe feud, fuse, view, hew etc
NOTE: Do not be confused by using / j / for/ d3/
Give five examples of words with each of these sounds
/w / / j/ and /h/
TOPIC : Punctuation
SUB-TOPIC: The Use of Full Stop.
Punctuation is the use of certain signs or marks to make a piece of writing easy to understand. E. g full stop, quotation mark, question mark, comma, colon, hyphen, exclamation mark, semi-colon etc.
FULL STOP: This is used at the end of the sentence and for abbreviation. E.g
1. We saw Felix at eight ‘o clock.
2. I see him every day.
3. They have done the word.
4. The birds sing .
O.A.U. Obafemi Awolowo University
U.N. United Nations
W.A.E.C. West African Examinations Council
N.E.C.O. National Examinations Council
D.L.H.S. Deeper Life High School
NOTE: The abbreviations may or may not have full stop.
TOPIC :THE AMBUSH
(Intensive English Book 2 PAGE 132-134. Answer the questions after the passage.
TOPIC : LETTER WRITING LESSON NOTE
SUB-TOPIC: FORMAL LETTER.
Formal letter is an official or business letter that is written to the people in important positions.eg Principal, Governor, Chairman, President , Commissioner of police etc.
FEATURES OF FORMAL LETTER
1. It has two addresses and one date.ie the address of the writer and the address of the addressee.
2. The salutation is Dear Sir/Madam,
3. It has a title or topic.
4. The content of the letter.
5. The conclusion
6. Subscript is Yours faithfully with signature and full name of the writer, surname first.
7. The language must be formal and contraction form of word is not allowed.
Sample of a formal letter (address)
10 kemi street,
3rd March 2021.
Blessed learners Academy,
15, Church Street,
NOTE: Do not use capital letter throughout when you are writing your address.
(a) What is a formal letter?
(b) List the features of the formal letter.
ASPECT: Literature –in- English:
Use recommended Text
ASPECT: Reading and Comprehension:
TOPIC: The Flying Tortoise
This narrative is a lively one, full of conversations or dialogues. Using technique of reading between the lines or implied meaning, you should explore why Tortoise got himself into trouble at the beginning by going before the king to claim that he was the wisest animal. Was he truly wise? By reading between the lines you can detect other characteristics of Tortoise- cleverness, bravery, boastfulness. Read between the lines to get the most out of your reading.
Dictionary work: pal, spin, courtiers, thud.
EVALUATION: Intensive English Textbook 2; Exercises 13.2.2, 13.2.3 and 13.2.4 pages 145 and 146.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English Textbook 2;Exercises 13.3.1, 13.3.2, 13.3.3 and 13.3.5 pages 145-154.
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: CONSONANT SOUNDS ( /P/, /b/, / t/, /d/)
/p/: This is a voiceless bilabial plosive sound. It is found in the following words: pen, peg, pay, put, post, pest, pan, poor, pure, ape, paper, pepper, pill, peel, post. etc.
NOTE : /p/ is silent in psalm, empty, pneumonia, cupboard etc therefore it should not be pronounced.
Also when “p” and “h” follow each other in a word as phone, physics, photo etc it is pronounced as / f/
/b/: This sound is described as a voiced bilabial plosive sound. These are some of the words with the sound:
/b/ book, bed, boat, breeze, breed, broad, buy, boy, bank, bark, bush, bread etc.
NOTE: The /b/ is silent in words like: dumb, comb, tomb, womb, lamb, the last”b” in bomb is also silent. The silent sound should not be pronounced.
Contrasting Sounds /p/ and / b/
/p/ / b/
/t/: This is a voiceless alveolar plosive sound. The sound is in the following words:
/t/ tap, take, tail, top, task, ten, looked, tone, let, tab, test, best, net, next, ant, coat, goat etc.
NOTE: When “ed” follows voiceless sound like /k/ / p/ as cooked, looked, booked, slapped, developed, tapped etc. It represents “t”.
/d/: This is a voiced alveolar plosive sound. These are some of the words with the sound:
/d/ rod, pad, code, drip, drain, hide, draw, dry, dress, drive, tread, deer, road, build, board etc.
NOTE: The sound is silent in handsome, handkerchief.
Contrasting Sounds /t/ and / d/
EVALUATION: List five words that have each of these sounds
- /t /
ASSIGNMENT: Pick out the word that contains the sound represented below.
- /p/ (a) phone (b) physics (c) pest (d) psalm.
- /b/ (a) tomb (b) womb (c) bomb (d) comb.
- / t/ (a) begged (b) walked (c) then (d) think
- /d/ (a) dumb (b) lamb (c) handsome (d) handkerchief
- / t/ (a) next (b) then ( c) thin (d) church
TOPIC: PUNCTUATION MARKS LESSON NOTE
The comma is used where a pause (break) is necessary. Also, it is used for separating items on the list. E.g. As he was coming to school this morning, he came across his old friend.
When you are coming to school tomorrow, bring the following materials: notebook, pencil, ruler and biro. Also we can use it for separating words of direct speech. E.g.
- Tony said, I can do it.
SUB-TOPIC: NARRATIVE ESSAY
Narrative essay is the essay in which you tell the story of past events.ie when you give account of the past. The story should be true to life. In most cases, past tense verb is predominantly used. Examples of narrative essay topics:
(a) My First Day in School
(b) How I Spent My last Holiday.
(c) The Day I will never Forget In my Life.
(d) My Last Birthday. Etc.
EVALUATION: What is a narrative essay?
LITERATURE –IN-ENGLISH: Read Recommended Text.
ASPECT: Speech Work
TOPIC: Consonants /k/ and /g/.
To produce /k/, the back of the tongues makes contact with the velum. This contact results in a total blockage of the flow of air. The air pressure which builds up is suddenly released with an explosive sound. The glottis is open so that the vocal cords do not vibrate as /k/ is produced. This consonant, which is a voiceless sound, has many spelling symbols as shown below:
“k” as in king, ken, keep, kit
“c” as in coat, case, across, car
“cc” as in account, accuse, accost, accord
“ch” as in chemistry, chemical, school, ache
“q” as in liquor, queen, quick, marque
“ck” as in back, sack, lack, peck
‘’x’’ as in six, anxious, axe, axis
The “k” is usually not pronounced when it is used before “n”. Examples: know, knock, knew, knee, knot, etc
/g/: This consonant is the voiced counterpart of /k/. This means that the process of production of /g/is similar to that of /k/ except that the vocal cords vibrate as/g/ is produced. /g/ is therefore a voiced velar plosive which is spelt “g” and “gh” as in “give” and “ghost” respectively. The “g” is not pronounced before “n” at the beginning or end of words such as “gnaw”, “gnash”, gnat, gnarled, gnomic, gnu, sign, reign, malign, foreign, benign” and before “m” at the end of words such as “paradigm” and “diaphragm”. Pronounce the following words with /g/ at the beginning and end of the words:
Now, pronounce the following pairs of words and take note of the contrast between /k/ and /g/.
/k/ /g/ /k/ /g/
cane gain pick pig
call gall peck peg
could good lack lag
cold gold duck dug
kilt guilt leak league
- Describe these two sounds /k/ and /g/.
- Give 5 examples on each of the sounds.
TOPIC: Types of Sentences
A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a finite verb and expresses a complete thought. A sentence must begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark.
Each sentence in English provides some type of information. For example, a sentence can be a statement, a question, or a command. Hence, the following types of sentences can be identified:
- Declarative Sentence
- Imperative Sentence
- Interrogative Sentence
Most statements are in the declarative form. That is, they only tell us facts. An important feature of declarative sentences is that they have a subject that comes before the verb. Examples:
- Our dog eats any old thing.
- Our dog won’t just eat any old thing.
- The dog has already been fed.
- The dog hasn’t been fed yet.
Most questions are in the interrogative, that is, they ask questions. An important feature of an interrogative sentence is that they normally have a subject that comes after an auxiliary verb. Examples are:
- Does your dog eat any old thing?
- Has the dog already been fed?
- Hasn’t the dog been fed yet?
Many commands are in the imperative, that is, they give order. Commands in the imperative have no words that act as a subject, though the subject is understood to be you. Examples are:
- Eat up quickly. We have to go!
- Leave me alone.
- On your marks, get set…go!
- Mention the types of sentences and explain.
- Give examples of each of the type of sentences.
TOPIC: A Suitor for Mati
A play is language action. It belongs to the field of drama or dramatic literature. A play has:
- a cast – of actors
- costumes – clothes the characters wear
- stage – the platform on which the play is acted
- props – stage property or equipment used to make the setting realistic e.g. trees, houses, etc.
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercise 14.2.2; pages 157-159.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 14.2.3 and 14.3.4; pages 159-165.
ASPECT: Writing lesson note
A guide to writing composition on “Mining”.
What is mining?
What are the processes involved in mining?
What are the stages of mining? That is, mining operations.
What are the names of people who mined called?
What is coal mining?
What is metal mining?
What is ocean metal mining?
What are non-metalliferous minerals?
And lastly, write about mining safety.
Reading of recommended textbooks.
Vocabulary Building: Exercise on page 170 and dictionary work on page 171.
Reading of recommended text and summarizing it.
Write two examples on types of sentences.
From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that contains the SOUND represented by the given phonetic symbol.
1. /g/ (a) gnaw (b) beggar (c) camouflage (d) tough
2. /g/ (a) gnat (b) fridge (c) sing (d) girl
3. /k/ (a) chance (b) echo (c) lunch (d) chest
4. /k/ (a) knew (b) kneel (c) curve (d) knight
5. Which of these sounds is voiced, /k/ or /g/?
ASPECT: Speech work
TOPIC: Contrasting /f/ and /v/; /s/ and /z/
The production of /f/ involves the front upper teeth and the lower lips. Because of the partial obstruction caused by the contact between the upper teeth and the lower lip, there is a continuous frictional noise as the airstream passes. There is no vibration of the vocal cord because the glottis is wide open during the production of /f/. This consonant is, therefore, a voiceless sound which has the following spelling symbols:
“f” as in feet
“ph” as in Physics
“gh” as in laugh
Pronounce the following words with /f/ at the initial and final positions:
/v/: The contact between the lower lip and the upper front teeth causes a partial obstruction to the flow of air. There are some frictional noises as the airstream escapes and the vocal cords vibrate. /v/ is therefore a voiced consonant sound spelt “v” except in ‘Stephen’
Pronounce the following words where /v/ occurs at the initial and final positions:
Now pronounce the following pairs of words and pay attention to the contrast between /f/ and /v/:
/f/ /v/ /f/ /v/
fine vine serf serve
fast vast safe save
fan van staff starve
few view belief believe
/s/ and /z/:
/s/ and /z/ are produced In ALMOST the same way (the BLADE of the TONGUE touching the alveolar (or teeth) RIDGE FIRMLY for /s/ and GENTLY for /z/.
/s/ is VOICELESS, while /z/ is VOICED.
/s/ and /z/ are both ALVEOLAR FRICATIVES (‘alveolar’ because the blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge are involved in their production).
EVALUATION: Pronounce each pair of the above listed words to show clearly the distinctions between them.
- Pronounce these sounds: /s/, /z/, /f/ and /v/
- Give examples of words that have the sounds listed above.
TOPIC: Direct Speech lesson note
Direct speech gives the actual words that the speaker used. It is common in novels and other writing where the actual words of a speaker are quoted.
Monica said, ‘There‘s nothing we can do about it.’
The reporting verb may come before the words that were actually spoken, or after them, or at a natural pause inside the reported sentence.
Monica said, ‘There is a nothing we can do about it.’
‘There is nothing we can do about it,’ Monica said.
‘It’s no good,’ Monica said, ‘we’ll just have to ask for help.’
Explain direct speech and give examples of it.
TOPIC: The Temper
This is a poem that uses some of the devices of language in action. It is an example of dramatic verse or dramatic poetry. The words used are action words: jostling, bustling, clattering, banging. The speaker is surprised at the wind’s behaviour and talks to whoever will listen about the antics of the wind.
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercise 15.2.2; pages 169-171.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 15.2.3 and 15.3.4; pages 171-177.
TOPIC: Oral Expository Essay: “The Campaign”.
The teacher should discuss this orally with the students. He should allow them to be the ones doing the reasoning and just being a guide.
The evaluation should be based on the level of reasoning of the students on topic at hand.
Reading of literature texts recommended.
Write five sentences on direct speech.
The teacher should make them to read a particular chapter in the recommended text and summarize.
From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that contains the SOUND represented by the given phonetic symbol.
1. /v/ (a) fairy (b) wicked (c) ferry (d) vary
2. /z/ (a) paparazzi (b) sugar (c) seizure (d) president
3. /f/ (a) of (b) Stephen (c) off (d) vest
4. /s/ (a) mission (b) listen (c) kill (d) zeal
5. These sounds /v/ and /z/ are voiceless, True or False?
ASPECT: SPEECH WORK
TOPIC: INTONATION PATTERN
Intonation is the ‘melody’ of speech. It is the changing pitch of the voice. It is to a certain extent controlled by stress, for important changes of pitch occur only on stressed syllables.
Intonation may indicate doubt, certainty, disbelief, interest or indifferent. If for instance, a speaker answers “yes” in reply to a question, different shades of meaning can be inferred from the speaker’s intonation. This reply, when given in a falling tune, means a strong affirmation which shows that there is no doubt in the speaker’s mind. But when the same reply is given in a rising tune, it suggests some reservation in the speaker’s mind. In English language, intonation has special functions which include: grammatical and attitudinal meaning.
Types of Intonation
There are two major forms of intonation in English language. These are:
- Falling Tune ( falling intonation )
- Rising Tune (rising intonation )
The falling tune is usually used in declarative sentences, commands, exclamations and wh-questions (questions which demand some information). In other words, when you make a statement (that is, a sentence which says that something is so), the first stressed syllable in the sentence is high, the next one lower, and so on. On the last stressed syllable, the voice falls while you are saying it. That is falling tone.
- The books on the table are mine.
- Joy works hard in school.
- Emeka has given the book to her.
- She was in a beautiful dress on Sunday.
- Stop making a noise.
- Keep the books on my table.
- Stand under the tree.
- Don’t disobey your teachers.
- Why are you very late?
- When will you be able to tell me?
- Who is the best person to ask?
- How can I find out the answer?
- What a good result!
- What a pleasant surprise!
- How pretty she is!
Bottom of Form
Adverbs are words that modify
- a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)
- an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
- another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:
- That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:
- When this class is over, we’re going to the movies.
When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):
- He went to the movies.
- She works on holidays.
- They lived in Canada during the war.
And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):
- She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
- The senator ran to catch the bus.
But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:
- He calls his mother as often as possible.
Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that “the students showed a really wonderful attitude” and that “the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude” and that “my professor is really tall, but not “He ran real fast.”
Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.
- Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.
- The student who reads fastest will finish first.
Examples with Adverbials in the Various Forms
The following are examples with some adverbs in the various forms:
- She spoke well.
- He behaved badly.
- I went far.
- He sang beautifully.
- The pig ran fast.
- She spoke better.
- She behaved worse.
- You went farther.
- She sang more beautifully.
- The goat ran faster.
- Chukwu spoke best.
- Jane behaved worse.
- David went farthest.
- I sang most beautifully.
- The dog ran fastest.
EVALUATION: For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the adverb which corresponds to the adjective given in brackets. For example:
The letter was ________ legible. (scarce)
The letter was scarcely legible.
He did the work as _________ as possible. (careful)
He did the work as carefully as possible.
1. I was __________ impressed by their courage. (due)
2. The children chattered _____________. (noisy)
3 The sun shone _____________ behind the clouds. (pale)
4. They have settled in ______________. (comfortable)
5. He _______________ maintained his point of view. (dogmatic)
6. Everything is proceeding ___________. (normal)
7. Please drive ____________. (slow)
8. She worked _____________ until nine o’clock. (steady)
9. The cost of fuel has risen ______________. (dramatic)
10. He _____________ scrambled up the slope. (agile)
11. Everything was explained clearly and ____________. (simple)
12. The train whistle blew ____________ at the crossing. (shrill)
13. ____________ , it stopped raining before we had to leave. (lucky)
14. She was signalling ______________. (frantic)
15. That was ____________ unexpected. (whole)
16. We arrived _____________. (punctual)
17. England is a ____________ populated country. (dense)
18. They are ___________ dependent on coal for fuel. (sole)
19. The material was produced _______________. (synthetic)
20. They ___________ agreed to the proposal. (ready)
TOPIC: The Treatment of Nigerian Journalist
The attitude of the writer to his subject matter is reflected in the tone of writing. The tone of a piece of writing can be serious or casual, sad or humorous. The words the writer chooses and the repetition of them indicates the writer’s tone.
In this passage, the writer is complaining about the treatment given to modern day journalism. Reading between the lines will make reader to detect the clues that indicate the writer’s tone.
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 16.2.2 and 16.2.3; pages 180-181.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 16.2.4, 16.2.5 and 16.3.5; pages 181-189.
ASPECT: Speech work
TOPIC: RISING TUNE
The rising tune is like the falling tune until you get to the end, when your voice rises on or after the last stressed syllable. We use this tune for questions answered with “yes” or “no” (that is, polar questions).
- Have you finished your assignment?
- Is Joy coming with us?
- Did you all come to school on time?
- Are we finishing early today?
- Did you eat last night?
- Will Monday be good for it?
The rising tune is sometimes used to achieve a special effect or to convey a speaker’s attitude. When a special effect is intended, the rise in pitch may be gradual. The following sentences illustrate a few situations where the gradual rise in pitch is useful.
- Utterances showing Indifference
- You can do what you want.
- If you want to.
- I think that’s right.
- Listing Items
- One, two, three and four.
- We need some rice, beans, fish and meat.
- She wore a cap, shirt, bangles and a pair of trousers.
CONTRAST BETWEEN RISING AND FALLING TUNES
The following examples illustrate the contrast between rising and falling tunes
- Can you tell me the way to the market? (Rising Tune)
- You can tell me the way to the market. (Falling Tune)
- Is this the way to the market? ( Rising Tune)
- Which is the way to the market? (Falling Tune)
EVALUATION: Oral English for Schools and Colleges by Sam Onuigbo; Exercises 6.4.1 a (1-15); page 99.
TOPIC: DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct speech means the exact speech or sentence of a particular speaker. This means that if a person says something, we say or write exactly the same words he used. It also means that we are quoting the speaker.
- The boy likes me much.
Direct speech-He said, ‘The boy likes me much’.
- How many of us are invited?
Direct speech – He asked, ‘How many of us are invited?’
- Go out immediately.
Direct Speech – He ordered me, ‘Go out immediately.’
Please note that direct speeches are always in quotation marks.
This is also called reported speech. It means what the speaker says is reported.
- The boy likes me much. Indirect Speech- He said that the boy liked him much.
- How many of us are invited? Indirect Speech – He asked them how many of them were invited.
- Go out immediately. Indirect Speech – He ordered me to go out at once.
- Can you swim for ten hours non-stop? Indirect Speech – He asked me if I could swim for ten hours nonstop.
Changing of Sentences from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech
Rules of Indirect Speech
- After mentioning the speaker (subject) and the verb, the reported speech is introduced with the conjunction ‘that’ where appropriate.
- All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense, e.g. says to said, has to had, is to was, can to could, may to might, shall to should, will to would; but the verb must not be changed if it expresses a permanent truth or customary fact, e.g. He said that the world is round.
All pronouns must be changed to the third person, e.g. I to he/she; me to him/her, we to they, our to their.
- All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness e.g. now to then, here to there, this to that, these to those, yesterday to the previous day, tomorrow to the next day, last week to the previous week and next year to the following year.
Note very carefully how the rules are applied in the following examples:
- Direct Speech: Akin said, ‘I can do it now’.
Indirect Speech: Akin said that he could do it then.
- Direct Speech: Ladi remarked, ‘My team wins this year.’
Indirect Speech: Ladi remarked that his team won that year.
- Direct Speech: She said, The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
Indirect Speech: She said that the sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
- A command can be reported with one of the following verbs: told, commanded, ordered or instructed; e.g.
(a) Direct Speech: The tutor said “stop talking”.
(b) Indirect Speech: One of the following:
- The tutor told the student to stop talking.
- The tutor commanded the student to stop talking.
- The tutor ordered the student to stop talking.
- The tutor instructed the student to stop talking.
- A question can be reported with the use of one of the following: asked of, asked if, asked whether, inquired whether or requested to know;e.g.
- Direct Speech: The man asked, “Can you come tomorrow?”
- Indirect Speech: One of the following:
- The man asked if I could come the next day.
- The man asked whether I could come the next day.
- The man inquired whether I could come the next day.
A. Turn the following sentences to reported speech:
- The boy said, “I will do it tomorrow”.
- The student said, “My tutor has a round table.”
- He asked, “What is your name?”
- The tutor said, “go out.”
- She asked, “Have you paid your fees?”
B. Turn the following sentences to direct speech:
- Olu asked of where I went the previous day.
- The tutor ordered her to stand up.
- She begged the tutor to allow her to stay in the class.
- Bako promised to see me that day.
- The tutor instructed us to do the work the next day.
TOPIC: Mass Media
Skimming and scanning are useful reading techniques that allow you to read quickly by picking out main points. As you skim and scan through this passage, you’ll discover and provide answers to these questions;
- What have parents become concerned about recently?
- When does propaganda perform a useful function?
- How do the mass media influence public opinion?
- Do the viewers and listeners always change their opinions after listening to political broadcasts?
EVALUATION: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercise 17.2.1; pages 191-193.
ASSIGNMENT: Intensive English for JSS2; Exercises 17.2.2, 17.2.3 and 17.3.4; pages 193-199.
TOPIC: STORY WRITING
Write a story which ends with the words: I wish I had told the truth at the beginning.
You may use these guidelines to write an imaginary story or a story you have been told by someone else.
- Write the title in capital letter and do not underline it.
- Explain what you did wrong in paragraph 1.
- Explain how people got to know the wrong you did in paragraph 2.
- Explain one consequence you suffered because of the wrong you did in paragraph 3.
- Explain the reasons why you currently regret not telling the truth at the beginning in paragraphs 4 and 5.
Reading of the recommended text. (Students should be made to read the recommended text while the teacher explains).