Lesson Notes on Home Economics JSS2 Second Term

Home Economics Note JSS2 Second Term – Edudelight.com

HOME ECONOMICS SCHEME OF WORK JSS2

WEEKS           TOPICS

1.                     Family Conflicts

2.                     Family Crisis

3.                     Hygiene and Puberty

4.                     Adolescence and Sexuality

5.                     Sexually Transmitted Infections

6 & 7.              Body Measurement and Basic Pattern Drafting

8 & 9.              Arrangement of fullness

10.                   Revision

11.                   Examination

REFERENCE BOOKS

  • HOME ECONOMICS FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY ELIZABETH U. ANYAKOHA.
  • HOME ECONOMICS NEW CONCEPT BOOK 2 BY POPOOLA O.O.

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: FAMILY CONFLICTS

CONTENT

  • MEANING OF FAMILY CONFLICTS
  • CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN THE FAMILY
  • WAYS OF RESOLVING CONFLICTS IN THE FAMILY

MEANING OF CONFLICTS

A conflict is referred to as a disagreement among a set of people. It can also mean a struggle between two or more people who disagree. Conflict could be verbal, physical or both. It can be between friends, between siblings or even between a husband and a wife.

FAMILY CONFLICT

A family conflict is a struggle / disagreement between two or more family members over issues.

CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN THE FAMILY

1.   Selfishness / Greediness:  A member may always want to have his or her way regardless of the family standard.

2.   Conflicts may arise when parents / parents show more love / attention to a child more than others.

3.   When a child disobeys his / her parent, conflict can arise.

4.   Transfer of aggression probably as a result of poverty or ill health can equally bring about conflict at home. 

5.   Personality / individual differences:  No two individual are alike, not even identical twins. Individual differences arise from heredity and environment. Some people may be slow and quiet, while others could be fast, noisy and outstanding. These different behavioural patterns can bring about conflicts in the family.

6.   Power struggles:  Conflicts can occur when people feel a need to be in control. power  is the ability to influence another person. This could be between a husband and a wife, a brother and a sister. This can equally bring conflict in the family.

EVALUATION

1.   What is conflict?

2.   State five causes of conflicts in a family.

RESULTS OF FAMILY CONFLICT

1.   Conflicts lead to frustration, anger, sorrow, pains, etc.

2.   Conflicts may lead to fighting, injury or death.

3.   Conflicts can break up relationships among friends and family members.

4.   In the heat of anger, it is easy to say the wrong thing and hurt another person’s feelings.

WAYS OF RESOLVING CONFLICTS IN THE FAMILY

1.   Becoming aware of the conflict or problem. Most conflict in the family are based on differences among people.

2.   Learn to understand the character of each member of the family.

3.   Make corrections in love and be patient.

4.   Settle conflicts through dialogue and not only punishments.

5.   People should learn to teach by practical example and not only in words.

6.   Give positive interpretations to one’s behaviour.

7.   Those involve should be ready to negotiate and compromise their believes.

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Define: (a) Conflict (b) Family conflict

2.   Explain two causes of family conflict.

3.   Outline four negative results of conflict.

4.   State three guidelines for conflict resolution. 

5.   What is family values?      

READING ASSIGNMENT

Family conflicts: Home Economics for JSS by Elizabeth Anyakoha. Pages 153 – 156.

  Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O. O. Pages107-110.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   The struggle between two or more people who disagree is called _____ A.  crisis B.  conflict  C. challenge D. fight

2.   For the welfare of the family, conflicts are best _____A.  resolved B.  suppressed       C.  overlooked D.  war.

3.   Unresolved conflict in a family can lead to ____ A. peace B.  negotiation C.  hostility D.  happiness

4.   _________ is one of the causes of conflict. A.  Greediness    B.  Love           C.  Peace          D. Unity

5.   Striving to be in control of others is referred to as ____ A.  personality differences B.  empowerment C.  situational  

      causes D.  power struggle 

THEORY       

1.   Explain two causes of conflict.

2.   Explain three ways by which conflict can be resolved at home.

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WEEK TWO

TOPIC : FAMILY CRISIS

CONTENT    

  • MEANING OF FAMILY CRISIS
  • TYPES OF FAMILY CRISIS
  • WAYS OF COPING WITH FAMILY CRISIS

FAMILY CRISIS

Family crisis is a situation that marks a period of change in the normal events of the family. It is a situation that mark a turning point, when thing cease to go on as usual in the family.

Crisis is a change in the normal way of life of the family. Crisis can also be referred to as challenges.

TYPES OF CRISIS IN THE HOME

1.   Arrival of a new baby:  This could result to crisis whereby the older ones or the father feel neglected by the mother.

2.   Burglary:  A lot of property may be lost to bandits and this may lead to undue stress which may result to crisis.

3.   Joblessness:  Lack of a job in the family leading to begging or maladjusted behaviour may equally result to crisis

4.   Death:  The loss of a loved one may lead to family crisis.

5.   Personality clash:  Family members differ in their likes and dislikes. They differ in their ways of reaction to issues. This can bring crisis when the clash is very serious.

6.   Different standards and rules:  A situation where both parents set their personal standard and rules without considering the other will bring crisis.

7.   Problems at school:  Failure in examination, examination malpractices, suspension, expulsion, etc. can also result in crisis.

8.   Divorce:  When there is break up of a marriage or separation of family members, it can result in family crisis which may have negative effects on the children.

EVALUATION

1.   Define family crisis.

2.   State four types of crises in the home.

WAYS OF COPING WITH FAMILY CRISIS

–           Make savings so as to have enough for period of lack

–           Monitor the social lives of children when they are outside the home

–           Love children equally

–           Prepare the heart of younger ones towards period of change such a s the arrival of a new baby

–           Inculcate acceptable social habit in younger children when they are very young.

–           Parents should agree on how to help the children

–           When it is necessary and possible family can always seek help from outside

–           Communication- family members should share feelings and problems with one another.

–           It might be necessary to find a new school for the child.

EVALUATION

1.   Mention three causes of family crisis.

2.   State two ways one can cope with crisis.

General Ways of Managing Family Crisis

1.   Cooperation- Family members should cooperate to share the good and crisis time together.

2.   Communication- When family members communicate properly, they can find solutions to their problems.

3.   Family should try to continue to do some of the things they have always done, in spite of the crisis.

4.   The family should be adaptable to changes which may come with crisis.

5.   When necessary, family can seek help from outside             

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Define family crisis.

2.   Explain three types of crisis in the home.

3    State any three general ways of coping with a family crisis.

4    Outline any two ways in which the arrival of a new baby can become a crisis.

5. Is there any relationship between family conflict and family crisis? If yes, explain.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Family Crisis:  Home Economics for JSS by Anyakoha.  Pages 157 – 162.

                        Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O.O. Pages111-117.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   A situation that marks a turning-point when things cease to go on as usual in a family is called _______

A.  crisis           B.  conflict       C.  decision      D.  disunity.

2.   _____ is one of the family crises.

A. Joblessness  B.  Conflict      C.  Monitor      D.  Peace.

3.   Crisis can also be referred to ________

A.  conflict       B.  demand       C.  challenges   D.  disunity

4.   __________ is a situation that affect family lifestyle

A.  Crisis          B.  Conflict      C.  Value          D.  Resolution

5.   Disagreement among the family members is referred to as ________

A.  crisis           B.  worth          C.  conflict       D.  violation 

THEORY       

1.   Explain two types of family crisis.

2.   Explain three ways one can cope with the family crisis.

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: PUBERTY AND HYGIENE

CONTENT    

  • MEANING OF PUBERTY
  • SIGNS OF PUBERTY IN MALES AND FEMALES
  • MENSTRUATION, MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND HYGIENE

GOOD GROOMING

Good grooming is the act of taken care of one self from hair to toe.  It involves the care of one’s parts of the body, taking the right food, putting on right clothes at any time and maintaining good posture.

PUBERTY

It is the short span of time that marks the beginning of sexual maturation in both boys and girls.  This maturation period differs between boys and girls.  Boys generally reach puberty at about fourteen years while girls reach it earlier at about twelve. There are individual differences. Therefore these periods cannot be the same for everybody.

SIGNS OF PUBERTY IN BOYS

1.   Sex organs develop – that is production of sperm or spermatozoa by sex gland called testicles.

2.   Hairs grow at the pubic region, arm pit, around the jaw, etc.

3.   Enlargement / development of muscles.

4.   Voice breaks and it becomes deeper.

5.   Rapid growth in height and size.

6.   Shoulder and chest grow bigger.

SIGNS OF PUBERTY GIRLS

1.   Hairs grow at pubic region and armpit.

2.   Enlargement of the hips.

3.   Skin may change and pimples may appear on the face.

4.   The breasts develop and nipples grow larger.

5.   Commencement of menstruation.

6.   Rapid growth in height and size.

EVALUATION

1.   Define puberty.

2.   State three signs of puberty both in boys and girls.

MENSTRUATION

This is the monthly flow of blood from the womb through the vagina in every woman of child bearing age.  This period of monthly flow is called menstrual period.

This period takes place after every 25-30 days.  This number of days is called menstrual circle.  Both menstrual cycle and periods differs from one person to another.

During menstruation, the blood that flows always produce very bad odour if one fails to keep the body clean.

MENSTRUAL HYGIENE

This is the act of keeping ones body clean during menstruation.  The following are hygiene practices during menstruation.

1.   Bath at least twice daily especially during menstruation.

2.   Always change the pads after which you have a local bath of the vulva area to prevent bad odour.

3.   Dispose the sanitary pad adequately.

4.   Always use correct sanitary pads during your menstruation period.

5.   Wash and change pants and under wears regularly.

6.   Wear clean clothes.

7.   Wash hands after each change of pad.

EVALUATION

1.   What is menstruation?

2.   State three ways of maintaining menstrual hygiene.

BODY ODOUR

Body odour is unpleasant smell that comes from the body.  A clean body is expected to be odourless; therefore bad odour could be as a result of improper care or not taken care of the body.

CAUSES OF BODY ODOUR

1.   Improper care during menstruation.

2.   Accumulation of dirt in the body.

3.   Putting on dirty clothes always.

4.   Irregular bathing can also caused bad odour.

5.   Using poor body care products.

6.   Stale perspiration.

PREVENTION OF BODY ODOUR

1.   Wearing clean clothes always.

2.   Using good body care products helps to prevent body odour.

3.   Always observe good hygiene during menstruation.

4.   Have regular bathing especially after exercise and during menstruation.

5.   Change your under wear every day.

6.   Use good perfumes and deodorants sparingly. Avoid heavy make-up.

EVALUATION

1.   What is body odour?

2.   State three causes of body odour.

IMPORTANCE OF PERSONAL HYGIENE

1.   It helps to remove body odour.

2.   It results in better health.

3.   It gives more attractive appearance.

4.   It gives an individual the confidence needed to be in the company of mates.

5.   It also helps an individual to cope with such temporary physical conditions such as oily skin, increased perspiration, etc.

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Explain body odour.

2.   Explain the necessary hygiene to be observed during menstruation.

3.   Who is a homemaker?

4.   What is conflict?

5.   State three importance of personal hygiene.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Puberty and Hygiene:   Home Economics for JSSS 1-3 by Anyakoha Elizabeth. Pages134-136.

Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O.O. Pages 170-174.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   The monthly flow of blood through the vagina in every woman of child-bearing age is called ______

A.  menstruation           B.  menstrual period      C.  menstrual circle       D.  maturation.

2.   The menstrual circle ________

A.  differs with persons B.  is not common        C.  is the same for all    D.  never exist

3.   The period of monthly flow is called _________

A.  blood flow              B.  menstrual period      C.  menstrual circle       D.  menstruation.

4.   The unpleasant smell that comes from the body is called body__________

A.  perfume                  B.  complexion             C.  odour                      D.  gas.

5.   Breast development in girls is __________

A.  a sign of size           B.  a sign of illness       C.  a sign of class          D.  a sign of puberty.

THEORY       

1.   What is body odour?

2.   List three causes of body odour.

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WEEK FOUR

TOPIC : ADOLESCENCE AND SEXUALITY

CONTENT

  • MEANING OF ADOLESCENCE
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENCE
  • SPECIAL NEEDS AND CHALLENGES
  • MEANING AND EXPRESSION OF SEXUALITY

ADOLESCENCE

Adolescence is the period in every person’s life that lies between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood. It is a period of life when you prepare to be an adult. An adolescent is a boy or girl that is passing through the adolescent period.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENCE

The adolescent boys or girls generally:

1.   Feel hungry easily. This is because they are growing fast and therefore need extra food.

2.   They try to gain independence from they parents.

3.   They may bother about their appearance.

4.   Adolescents could start being attracted to the opposite sex.

5.   The boy or girl has an outlook of adulthood and not that of a child.

6.   They could show concern about their future.

7.   Adolescents have emotional changes, being anxious, moody or irritable.

8.   Some may be aggressive and not submissive

SPECIAL NEEDS AND CHALLENGES OF ADOLESCENT

1.   Adjustment: They have problem adjusting to their physical changes. At this time, they are often uncomfortable, and anxious.

2.   Peer pressure: They always want to go along with their peers in area of dressing and expression of sexuality.

3.   Physical needs: These arise as a result of the physical changes in them. For instance, they need new clothes to replace out grown ones, brassiere as their breasts develop, etc.

4.   Independence: They often want to do things their own way. They dislike being directed by an elder.

5.   Status problem: They want to behave like adults yet they are not fully adults. For instance girls may try putting on make-ups, boys may try to smoke.

6.   Need for Achievement:  Adolescents want to excel. When they fail, they become unhappy.

7.   Parental understanding and support:  Parents should understand what their adolescent children are passing through. They should also provide for their needs and be more tolerate.

EVALUATION

1.   State three characteristics of adolescence.

2.   State three special needs and challenges of adolescent.

MEANING AND EXPRESSION OF SEXUALITY

Sexuality refers to having interest in or engaging in reproductive act between a male and a female.

Sexuality is expressed by both male and female through:

1.   Exchange of gifts between the opposite sexes. Such gifts may be as snacks, some express words of love.

2.   Some go to the extent of touching others with their lips (kisses).

3.   Being attracted to one another or falling in love with an opposite sex.

4.   Caresses: boys especially love and enjoy touching or holding the opposite sex while moving or discussing. Some girls enjoy doing same.

Sexuality Related information can be obtained through:

–           Reading of novel

–           Watching film of interest

–           Watching videos

–           Engaging in or listening to discussion among peers, parents, radios etc.

–           Reading newspapers and magazines

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Explain some of the challenges that adolescent can face.

2.   Explain two ways sexuality can be expressed.

3.   Explain three responsibilities of a good homemaker.

4.   Narrate two qualities of a good homemaker.

5.   Mention three ways of resolving conflicts in the family. 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Adolescence and sexuality:       Essentials of Home Economics by Ngozi and others. Pages 5-8.

Home Economics by Anyakoha. Pages 134 -136.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   Adolescence period is a period of __________

A.  multiplication          B.  becoming an adult   C.  full maturation        D.  grown-up

2.   The following  are the characteristics of adolescents except ________

A.  bother about their appearance           B.  attracted to opposite sex       C.  concern about their future

D.  bother about living.

3.   Sexuality related information can be obtained through the following ways except _________

A.  siblings       B.  sleeping and resting             C.  reading novels        D.  parent

4.   ____________ is not an adolescent challenges.

A.  Sleeping      B.  Peer pressure           C.  Status problem        D.  Independence

5.   An adolescent is ________ passing through adolescence period.

A.  man or woman        B.  boy or girl   C.  old or young            D.  girl.

THEORY       

1.   List three areas where sexuality related information can be obtained.

2.   Explain two characteristics in adolescent boys and girls.

Edudelight.com Note

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

CONTENT

  • TYPES AND CAUSES
  • MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT
  • CONSEQUENCES OF SELF MEDICATION

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Sexually Transmitted Diseases are illnesses/infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. They are passed from one infected person to uninfected person through sexual intercourse and the uninfected becomes infected.

TYPES AND CAUSES OF STDs

There are many types of STDs. The following are some of them:

1.   Gonorrhea:  This is caused by the bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoea. It is spread through sexual contact from an infected person to another

Signs and Symptoms

a)  Itching and discharge from the penis and vagina.

b)  Painful urination.

c)  Infertility

d)  Lower abdominal pain.

e)  For a pregnant woman, the child’s eyes may be affected during birth

Treatment

Use of antibiotics

2.   Syphilis: It is caused by the bacterium called Treponema palladium. It is also spread through sexual intercourse with an infected person.

Signs and Symptoms

a)  Sores on the sex organs.

b)  Fever, rashes, aches and hair loss.

c)  Swollen testes.

d)  At later stages, it affects the heart, eyes and brain.

e)  It can lead to insanity and death.

f)  It can also lead to still birth for a pregnant woman.

Treatment

Treatment is with antibiotics.  

EVALUATION

1.   What are sexually transmitted diseases?

2.   Mention two types of STDs.

3.   HIV /AIDS: This is caused by a virus called Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV).  It is one of the most frightening of all STDs.

HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) – This leads to AIDS.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – This is a condition that occurs after HIV might

has weakened the body immune system.

‘Acquired’ – Acquired means not heredity, but acquired through a specific behaviour and  passes from one person to another.

‘Immune Deficiency’ – because it weakens the immune system of the body.

‘Syndrome’ – because it is characterized by the combination of many signs and symptoms.

HOW HIV/AIDS CAN BE TRANSMITTED

1.   Sexual intercourse with infected person.

2.   Transfusion of infected blood.

3.   Use of contaminated needles, blades, syringes and other piercing instruments.

4.   From an infected mother to her child during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS

1.   Persistent cough.

2.   Skin diseases.

3.   Loss of weight.

4.   Loss of memory

5.   Mouth sore, fever, diarrhoea

6.   Death

EVALUATION

1.   What is the full meaning of HIV/AIDS.

2.   Mention two ways through which HIV/AIDS can be spread.

PREVENTIONS OF HIV/AIDS

1.   Always use sterilized skin piercing instrument such as blade or needle.

2.   Always use well screened blood (STDS free blood).

3.   Abstain from sexual intercourse.

4.   Have one faithful uninfected partner.

5.   Do not share sharp objects with other people.

6.   Women with HIV should seek advice before getting pregnant.

HOW HIV IS NOT SPREAD

1.   By sharing food, touching, hugging, carrying or sitting with close to someone with HIV/AIDS.

2.   By sharing toilets.

3.   From mosquitoes, bedbugs or any other insects or animals.

4.   By sharing combs, towels or clothes with infected persons.  

MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT OF INFECTED PEOPLE

1.   They must be given prompt treatment.

2.   They must eat good and highly nourishing food.

3.   Their rooms, clothes and utensils must be sterilized often.

4.   They should avoid alcohol.

5.   They should be loved and cared for by friends and relatives.

EVALUATION

1.   State the meaning of the following: a) STD b) HIV and c) AIDS.

2.  State two ways preventing STDs.

SELF MEDICATION

Self- medication is the act of using drugs that are not prescribed by medical experts / personnel. It is a process by which an individual prescribes drugs for oneself or when a person who is not professionally qualified prescribes a drug for a sick person.

CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-MEDICATION

1.   Damages to some organs in the body.

2.   One may become vulnerable to infections and complications.

3.   Self-medication may lead to mental or physical distress which may result to one being useless or dropout from

      school.

4.   There may be serious side-effect of a given drug.

5.   Complications of the illness/disease.

6.   Waste of money.

7.   Premature death.

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Define the following:  a)  STDs        b)  HIV and      c)  AIDS

2.   Explain two consequences of self-medication.

3.   State five causes of conflict in a family.

4.   State three guidelines for conflict resolution.

5.   List three different types of kitchen layout.

READING ASSIGNMENT

STD, HIV/AIDS:  Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O.O.Pages 178-184.

Home Economics for JJS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 139-142

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   Sexually transmitted disease is an illness spread from one person to another through ___________

A.  hand-shake             B.  dancing       C.  sexual contact         D.  sharing clothing

2.   One of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease.

A.  Gonorrhea               B.  Malaria       C.  HIV            D.  Syphilis

3.   Human Immune Deficiency Virus causes _______

A.  AIDS                      B.  syphilis       C.  gonorrhea    D.  malnutrition.

4.   One of the following has no known cure at the moment

A.  HIV/AID                B.  Gonorrhea   C.  Syphilis      D.  Malaria

5.   The process where a person prescribes a drug for self is called self ______________

A.  protection               B.  injection      C.  medication D.  drug abuse.

THEORY       

1.   State two ways through which HIV/AIDS spread from one person to another.

2.   Outline three ways of preventing HIV/AIDS infection.

Edudelight.com Note

WEEK SIX

TOPIC : BODY MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PATTERN DRAFTING

CONTENT

  • Tools for taking body measurements
  • Guidelines for taking body measurement
  • Basic body measurement
  • Patterns and types

BODY MEASUREMENTS

Accurate body measurements are needed to make garments. Wrong measurements will result in ill-fitting garments.

TOOLS FOR TAKING BODY MEASUREMENTS

1.   Tape measure: for measuring parts of the body.

2.   Pencil/pen:  for writing down the measurements.

3.   Paper:  for recording the measurements.

4.   A string:  to be tied around the natural waistline.

GUIDELINES FOR TAKING BODY MEASUREMENTS

1.   Take measurements over close-fitting garments or under garment. Wear flat shoes.

2.   For accurate measurements, let a friend take your body measurements for you.

3.   Record each measurement as soon as it is made.

4.   Use a tape measure that does not stretch.

5.   Measure accurately. Avoid adding to or taking from the actual body measurements.

6.   Stand erect when taking body measurements.

EVALUATION

1.   List four tools for taking body measurements.

2.   State three guidelines for taking body measurements.

BASIC BODY MEASUREMENT

The basic body measurements required for making a dress are:

1.   BODICE

a)  Bust/chest- measurement around the fullest part of the bust/chest.

b)  Bust point- it is taken from the waist to under bust. It is used to determine the angle and position of bust darts.

c)  Front width- measure from one underarm to the other across the chest, approximately 4cm below neck base.

d)  Front length-measure from the neck end of the shoulder to the string tie around the waist.

e)  Back width- measure across the back from one under arm to the other.

f)  Back length- measure from nape to the centre waist.

g)  Shoulder- measure from the side of the neck to the shoulder bone.

2.   SLEEVE

a)  Arm length (short sleeve) – measure with arm bent from end of shoulder to point of elbow.

            ,,          (long sleeve) – measure with arm bent from end of shoulder to wrist bone.

b)  Upper arm circumference- measure around the widest part of the upper arm (short sleeve).

c)  Wrist circumference- measure around the wrist below wrist bone (long sleeve).

3.   SKIRT

a)  Waist- measure around the natural waist line.

b)  Hip- measures the widest part of the body below the waist. The measurement is usually between 18cm and 23cm below waist line depending on the figure type.

c)  Front length- measure from centre front from waist to the ground.

d)  Back length- measure from waist tape at centre back to the ground.

e)  Side length- measure from waist tape at the side to the ground.

EVALUATION

1.   What is body measurement?

2.    List and explain three measurements for a skirt.

PATTERNS

Patterns for clothing construction are shapes of garment parts, cut out with paper.

USES OF PATTERN IN GARMENT CONSTRUCTION

1.   Patterns are used to direct or guide the cutting of fabric.

2.   They prevent serious mistakes in garment making.

3.   They prevent waste of time in garment making.

4.   They prevent waste of fabric.

5.   They make sewing easy.

6.   They reduce trial and error in sewing.

TYPES OF PATTERNS

1.   COMMERCIAL PATTERNS:  These are patterns that are designed and made by experts to fit standard figure types using specific body measurements. They are available in different sizes. They are sold in special pattern envelopes.

Advantages of Commercial Pattern

a)  They are easy to use because they are sold with instructions on how to use.

b)  They provide quick service as the users will not have to waste time calculating how to draft.

c)  They have instruction sheets which show how to cut and make up the garment.

d)  They save time and reduce mistake in garment making.

Disadvantages of Commercial Pattern

a)  It is not easily available.

b)  They are very expensive.

c)  They are light and can tear easily.

d)  They often require alteration or adjustment to fit the user’s size.

2.   DRAFTED PATTERN:  It is also called as self- made pattern, because it is made to fit a particular person. A person’s body measurements are first taken, then the pattern is drafted to fit his/her size.

Advantages of Drafted Pattern

a)  It is cheaper than commercial pattern

b)  It can be adapted to any type of style.

c)  It may not require adjustment if properly made.

d)  It can be made to fit a person perfectly.

e)  It does not require alteration.

Disadvantage of Drafted Pattern

a)  It is only useful for a single person whose body measurement was used.

b)  Pattern drafting requires special skill.

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   Differentiate between drafted and commercial patterns.

2.   List five guidelines for taking body measurements.

3.   State four uses of patterns in garment construction.

4.   List and explain two methods of garment repair.

5.   State five general guidelines in maintaining household linen.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Body Measurement and Pattern drafting:  Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha. Pages 236-238.

Home Economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola. O.O. Pages 137-142.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   The use of one of the following prevents serious mistakes in dress making

A.  Styles         B.  Patterns       C.  Seams         D.  Fashion.

2.   Body measurement should be taken over _________

A.  tight-fitting garment            B.  loose gown C.  high-heeled shoes    D.  loose-fitting garment

3.   Which of the following is not a tool for taking body measurement?

A.  Tape measure         B.  Pencil         C.  French curve           D.  String.

4.   Which of the following are used as guides in garment construction?

A.  Thread        B.  Brown paper           C.  pencil         D.  Patterns

5.   Measurement for bodice include the following except ____ A.  bust   B.  hip  C.  shoulder      D.  front width.

THEORY       

1.   State three guidelines for taking body measurement.

2.   State two disadvantages of commercial patterns.

Edudelight.com Note

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC : BODY MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PATTERN DRAFTING

CONTENT

  • Pattern markings and symbols
  • Tools for pattern drafting and their uses
  • Drafting basic pattern

PATTERN MARKINGS AND SYMBOLS

These are made on commercial patterns to show the dress-maker how to use the pattern in making garments. They include the following:

Marking/symbolDiagram
1.  Straight grain of fabric: It is an arrow head symbol, indicating that the pattern piece should be placed on the grain i.e. parallel to the selvedge.      
2.   Place on fold material: A bracketed grain line, meaning that pattern edge should be placed on the fold of the fabric.               
3.   Darts: It is indicated by two broken lines for stitching. To make the dart, the material is folded along the centre                                                     
4.   Notches: They are indicated with V-shaped symbols along the cutting line. They show matching points on the pattern          
5.   Stitching Line: This is indicated with broken lines around the pattern area 6.   Cutting Line: It is the outlines of a pattern. 7.   Seam allowance: It is the space between stitching line and the cutting line. 

EVALUATION

1.   What are pattern markings and symbols?

2.   List and explain three pattern markings.

EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS FOR PATTERN DRAFTING

TOOLS                                                                       USES

1.   Brown paper/cardboard paper        Patterns are made on paper

2.   Tape measure                                       for measurement

3.   Long ruler                                       for drawing lines

4.   Sharpened pencil                                  for drawing lines and writing on the brown paper

5.   An eraser                                           for cleaning wrong lines and drawing

6.   Pins                                                           for holding two or pieces of drafted patterns

7.   French curve                                          for shaping curved areas

8.   A table                                                     for drawing and cutting of patterns

DRAFTING BASIC PATTERN

The basic or foundation patterns often drafted are referred to as blocks. They are drafted to the exact size of the body without seam allowance. They can then be adapted or modified to any desired style. Therefore they are not intended to be used as patterns for cutting out fabric without being adapted.

The block is made up of:

1.   BODICE:  The front bodice

                        The back bodice

2.   SKIRT/TROUSER:           The front skirt/trouser

                                                 The back skirt/trouser

3.   SLEEVES:

EVALUATION

1.   Mention three tools for pattern drafting and their uses

2.   Define the word ‘Block’ as used in pattern drafting.

CONSTRUCTION OF BLOCK PATTERNS TO BE DONE IN THE PRACTICAL CLASS

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   State two advantages of a commercial pattern.

2.   State one disadvantage of commercial pattern.

3.   State two advantages of drafted pattern.

4.   Write the classification of sewing equipment and tools with two examples each.

5.   Differentiate between stitches and seams.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Basic Pattern Drafting:  Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 238-244.

Home economics New Concept book 2 by Popoola O.O. pages143-150.  

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

Construct Bodice block and skirt block.

Edudelight.com Note

WEEK EIGHT AND NINE

TOPIC : ARRANGEMENT OF FULLNESS

CONTENT

  • Meaning of arrangement of fullness
  • Types of fullness in garments

ARRANGEMENT OF FULLNESS

Fullness in clothing construction means the provision of extra allowance in the garment. One of the first things to be done in making up a garment is to arrange the fullness.  Fullness can be introduced in a garment by the following processes: gathers, darts, tucks and pleats.

GATHERS

Gathers are small, soft folds made in garments. Gathering is one of the easiest and best ways of controlling fullness. It may be worked by hand or machine. Gathers are commonly used in:

  • Children’s clothes
  • Making lightweight skirts, etc.

The effectiveness of gathers depends on the following:

  1. Choosing fine and soft material to gather e.g. cottons, silks rayon and fine woolens.
  2. Having the right quantity of material to gather up.
  3. Setting in the gathers very evenly.

METHOD

1.   Allow up to twice the width of the material for gathering as required for finished width.

2.   Thread the needle and hold the fabric in place.

3.   Start with a back stitch and make the first row of running stitch above the stitching lines.

4.   Make a second roll of running stitches below the stitching line.  The first gathering stitches will be the same as the second gathering stitches.

5.   Pull both lines of gathering stitches up together to the required length and fasten off.

6.   The gathered material ready for sewing.

SHIRRING

This is produced with several rows of gatherings. It may be decorated with smocking or other embroidery

patterns.

EVALUATION

1.  What is fullness in clothing construction?

2.  State two uses of gathers.

DARTS

Darts are small tapered folds of fabric. They are stitched on the wrong side of a garment section. Darts can be

Straight, curved or double pointed.

Darts are used to:

  • Control fullness
  • Turn fabric into shapes to fit the human figure
  • Give a good fitting and shape to the finished garment.

How to make a dart

1.   Mark pattern lines for darts with a tailors chalk or tailor’s tack.

2.   Fold the material from the wrong side along the pattern lines.

3.   Pin and tack the dart on the pattern lines.

4.   Stitch from the broad end towards the narrow point bringing the stitching right to the fold.

5.   Knot the end of threads together at the narrow point.

6.   Press the dart to one side of the stitching.  If the material is too fat to lie really flat, cut the fold.

7.   Open the turnings.

8.   Neaten the edges with blanket stitches.

TUCKS

Tucks are small stitches folds in garments.  They may be of different widths. The fold is formed on the right side of the garment. They take up three times the finished width of material.  They may be worked on straight grains or in any direction of the material. 

Tucks are useful in the following ways:

            –  For decoration e.g. pin tucks in front bodice.

            –  They can be used to introduce shape on a blouse.

            –  To reduce or control fullness

            –  To provide extra width

METHODS

1.   Fold along required line and stitch very close to fold.

2.   Stitch down to secure a strong finish.

3.   Turn tucks to the direction desired according to the finished effect required and press.

PLEATS

A pleat is a fold of material designed to give extra width in garments.  It is very popular because it is smart and liked by people.  It is usually done on medium weight fabrics. Pleats are used mainly on tailored skirts, dress skirts and shorts giving fullness in wear. There are many kinds of pleats such as the knife pleat, box pleat, inverted pleats and

accordion pleats.  Pleats are formed by three layers of materials.

Types of pleat

a)  Knife Pleat:  One single pleat is called a knife pleat. For knife pleats, the several pleats are facing the same direction. The width of the pleats may be wide or narrow depending on the style.

b)  Box Pleats:  This is made when two knife pleats turn away from each other; the folds of the pleats meet on the wrong side.

c)  Inverted Pleats:  This is made when two knife pleats turn towards each other and the folds meet on the right side.

METHOD OF WORKING PLEATS

1.   Working from the right side, fold the material on the fold line.  Pin and tack fold separately.

2.   Place the fold against the next line marked on the right side and pin it down flat.

3.   Baste (i.e. to sew with long stitches) through the centre of the pleats.

4.   Press the pleats thoroughly.

EVALUATION

1.   State three uses of tucks on garments.

2.   Define darts.

SMOCKING

Smocking is a decorative form of reducing fullness. It provides for elasticity and ease of movement. The allowance of fabric required is usually four times the finished width of smocking. Smocking is very nice on babies’ dresses.

EASING

This is the arrangement of slightly amount of fullness so that no gather or pleat shows where the fullness is set in. Easing is used at the head of a plain sleeve.

GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS

1.   State three uses of darts.

2.   List and explain types of darts.

3.   Explain the process of making gathers

4.   List and explain types of stitches.

5.   State five reasons for wearing clothes.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Arrangement of Fullness:  Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 290-292

                                        Home Economics New Concept book 3 by Popoola. Pages 155-160.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.   The extra allowance provided in a garment is called _____ A.  filling B.  free size      C.  extra large   D.  fullness

2.   Which of the following is not used to create or control fullness in garments? A.  Darts B. Tucks C. Bias D.  Pleats

3.   The tapered folds of fabric stitched on the wrong side of a garment is called ____ A.  fullness B. dart C. ease

      D.  tuck

4.   Which of the following is made up of small soft folds? A.  Gathers    B.  Binding       C.  Shirring       D.  Dart

5.   _________ is produced with several rows of gatherings.A.  Shirring  B.  Bias            C.  Dart            D. Pleats

THEORY       

1.   List and explain types of pleats.

2.   State two uses of tucks.

WEEK TEN AND ELEVEN

REVISION AND EXAMINATION

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