Agricultural Science Lesson note for JSS1 (Basic Third Term

Secondary Learning Note Agricultural Science JSS1


WEEK 1                     Factor of  production ; Land

      “     2                     Labour

      “     3                     Capital

      “     4                     Farm Management

      “     5                     Farm Manager

      “     6                     Mid – Term Test

      “     7                     Field Trip

      “     8                     Functions of Farm Manager

      “     9                     Problems of Farm Manager

      “     10                   Revision

      “     11                   Revision

      “     12                   Examination




Definition:  Land refers to where productive activities such as growing of crops, rearing of animals and establishment of farmstead, etc, are carried out.

Features of Land

(i)         Land is one of the factors of production.

(ii)        Land is the gift of nature or a natural resource.

(iii)       It is immobile and a fixed factor.

(iv)       It is subject to the law of diminishing returns.

(v)        Land also includes soil, mineral, water and vegetation.

(vi)       The reward for land is rent collected from tenants.

(vii)      Availability is subject to the Land Use Act in Nigeria.

(viii)     It can be used as a collateral for loans.

(ix)       It is limited in supply especially in highly populated areas.

(x)        Its suitability influences output.

(xi)       Its quality can be improved by various methods.

(xii)      Its value is determined by its location.

(xiii)     Land can appreciate or depreciated.

Importance of Land in an Agricultural Enterprise

(i)         Land is used for the cultivation of food crops such as maize, rice, cowpea, etc.

(ii)        It is also used for the cultivation of cash crops, e.g., cocoa, rubber, oil palm, etc.

(iii)       It is used for the rearing of animals.

(iv)       It is used for forest development.

(v)        It is used for fish pond development.

(vi)       It is used for wildlife conservation

(vii)      Land is used as collateral for securing loans from banks. 


1What is land?

2.State five features of land

3.The reward of land is ……                                                                                                                                                                                                 




Definition:  Labour includes all forms of productive human efforts put into or utilized in production. It also refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production.

Features of Labour

(i)         Labour is also one of the factors of production

(ii)        Human efforts can be intellectual or mental, manual or physical, provided it is directed towards the production of goods and services.

(iii)       Labour is mobile and has feelings and cannot be used anyhow.

(iv)       Labour exists in three kinds; these are:

  • Skilled Labour (White Collar Jobs): highly educated and technical to provide the expertise for farm operations.
  • Semi-skilled Labour: Averagely educated to perform simple farm operations.
  • Unskilled Labour: (Brown Collar Jobs) These are illiterates that provide

(v)        The unit of labour is man-hours or man-days.

(vi)       The reward for labour is wages and salaries.

(vii)      It converts natural resources into usable products.

(viii)     It is a variable asset.

(ix)       Its size and quality influence production or output.

(x)        Its output can be improved by training.

Forms of Labour available to the farmer include:

Family Labour

  • This refers to the labour provided by the man, his wife and children, i.e, the farmer’s family).
  • It involves the head of the family as the operator/manager.
  • He organizes the family labour by himself.
  • He assigns job to each member of the family.
  • This is the major source of labour available to the farmer and it is very cheap.

  • Personal Labour:  This is the labour provided by the owner of the farm.
  • Communal Labour: This is the kind of labour provided by neighbours and the community.

  • Hired or Paid Labour
  • This is the kind of labour that is paid either daily or they receive salary at the end of the month.
  • It is common where a farmer has large farm size.
  • Hired labour is engage either in a permanent or time-rated basis.
  • The farmer pays for each labour.
  • It is not readily available; hence, expensive.

 Importance of Labour in Agricultural Enterprise

  • It uses other factors for production.
  • Intellectual labour ensures high agricultural production.
  • Skilled labour provides the expertise required for major farm operation.
  • Labour ensures the success of any agricultural enterprise.
  • It provides the services required to achieve the various stages of agricultural production.

Question,1.What is labour?

               2.State five features of labour.

               3.What is skilled labour,



Definition:  Capital includes all man-made productive assets which are used in production. In other words, these are assets made by man to enable him to produce goods and services.

Features of Capital

(ii)        Examples of capital include, hoe, cutlass, tractor, farm building, cash in hand, plough, etc.

(i)         Capital is also a factor of production.

(iii)       It can depreciate or appreciate.

(iv)       Sources of capital include personal savings, banks, government agencies, cooperative societies, etc.

(v)        The reward for capital is interest.

(vi)       It is a stock of assets used in production.

(vii)      It is used to purchase farm inputs, e.g., seeds, agro-chemicals used as working capital.

(viii)     It is used to acquire other factors, e.g., land and labour.

(ix)       It is obtained in form of loans or subsidies.

(x)        Capital is grouped into two classes:

(a)        Fixed Capital: These are capital or assets purchased for continuous use in production. In other words, these are items or materials which are not uses up during production. Examples of fixed capital include: farm building, motor vehicles, farm tools and implements, land furniture and fittings, incubators, ploughs, harrows, tractors, milking machines, feeders, drinkers, hoes, irrigation equipment, etc.

(b)       Working or Variable Capital:  These are capital or assets which are used up during the process of production. Examples include: water, feeds, drugs, cash in hand, vaccines, litters, fertilizers, seeds, chemicals, etc.

Importance of Capital in Agricultural Enterprise

  • Working capital is used in the day–to-day running of the farm enterprise.
  • Working capital is used for paying wages.
  • Working capital is used for the purchase of farm inputs, maintenance services on the farm, and feeding of livestock, etc.
  • Fixed capital in form of immovable houses and farmsteads provide shelter for farm operations.
  • Fixed capital in form of machinery provides farm power for farm operations.
  • Fixed capital is used to generate more funds and the success of farm enterprises usually depends on the maximum use of these capital assets.
  • Working capital helps to facilitate farm expansion or increase in farm size.
  • Capital is used to establish farm enterprise.

Questions1,What is capital.

                2.State two types of capital.

                3.State five features of capital.

WEEK 4-5.


Management refers to the person or group of persons who co-ordinate, organize and control the use of other factors of production. In other words, the person(s) who combine other factors of production (land, labour and capital) to produce goods and services is called the entrepreneur or management. Management determines when to produce, what to produce, type of production, supervises work, recruits workers, determine what to sell in order to make profit. The profitability of the farm depends on the management.      

Features of Management

(i)         It involves the management skills of an individual or group of persons.

(ii)        Management influences the organization of other production factors.

(iii)       It 7co-ordinates and controls other factors of production.

(iv)       It is involved in decision making.

(v)        It determines the level of pay or wages.

(vi)       Management reward is profit.

(vii)      The quality of management influences the output.

(viii)     The cost of management is determined by its quality.

In agriculture, the farm manager is usually regarded as the entrepreneur whose duties include the organization, administration, production and marketing of produce from the farm. The reward for management is profit.

Questions1.What is management?

                2,List five features of management,



The functions of a farm manager can be grouped into five major headings:  (a) Organisation (b) Administration (c) Production (d) Marketing and (e) Evaluation.

(a)        Organisation

(i)         The farm manager secures suitable land for farming.

(ii)        He determines what to produce.

(iii)       He determines the scale of production.

(iv)       He procures loan or capital for farming.

(v)        recruits or employs labour or workers for the farm.

(vi)       He decides on which enterprise(s) to undertake, given the available resources, e.g. fish farming, rice production, etc.

(b)       Administration

(i)         A farm manager supervises the work on the farm.

(ii)        He arranges work roasters.

(iii)       He directs staff on day-to-day activities.

(iv)       He makes arrangement for staff welfare.

(v)        He rewards or disciplines staff according to their performance.

(vi)       He organizes the training of manpower in the farm.

(vii)      He maintains good labour relations to avoid the disruption of farm activities.

(viii)     He acquaints himself with government agricultural policies with respect to opportunities and constraints they pose on the farm.

(c)        Production

(i)         A farm manager is responsible for the purchase and use of farm inputs.

(ii)        He ensures the health of animals/crops on the farm.

(iii)       He makes arrangement for general security of the farm.

(iv)       He ensures the adequate supply of feeds.

(v)        He adheres to modern farming techniques.

(vi)       He avoids waste by efficient use and maintenance of farm resources.

(vii)      He combines resources to yield optimum profit.

(viii)     He sets production targets and wage level.

(d)       Marketing

(i)         The farm manager determines the quantity of produce to sell.

(ii)        He determines the best marketing channel to use to make maximum profits.

(iii)       He determines when to sell to make maximum profit.

(iv)       He determines at what price to sell.

(v)        He may also be responsible for the processing of farm produce.

(vi)       He monitors marketing trends in order to decide on commodities to produce in his farm.

(vii)      He arranges for storage and warehousing of unsold produce.

(e)        Evaluation

(i)         He keeps the general records of the farm.

(ii)        He supervises accounts and book-keeping of all operations on the farm.

(iii)       He analyses farm operations with respect to targets and objectives.

(iv)       He assesses the staffing conditions.

(v)        He develops new strategies for further improvement of farm operations.

Question1State five functions of a  farm manager.

              2.Explain the following ;1.Organisation, 2.Administration,


Problems of a Farm Manager

 Problems which a farm manager may face during the course of discharging his duties include:

(1) Inadequate Information:  He may lack information on where to buy farm inputs, or acquire information on new innovations, current prices of farm produce, etc.

(2)  Problems of Marketing:  He may not know how and where to sell he produce, at what time to sell and at which price to sell to make maximum profit.

(3)  Inadequate Farm Input:  Farm input like seeds, feed, fertilizers, chemicals, etc, may be inadequate, scarce and expensive to get.

(4)  Financial Problems:  He may not have enough capital. Banks may not provide loans and produce may not sell at the right price to make more money to reinvest in the business.

(5)  Inadequate Personnel:  He may not get the right management team to work on the farm. They may be too expensive to employ for the farm.

(6)  Government Policies:  Bad government policies like importation of food which are also produced by the farm manager may led to losses, discouragement and may even result in the folding up of the business.

(7)  Transport Problems:  He may not have a vehicle to do the running around, to deliver farm input and to take farm produce to the market.

(8)  Administration Problems:  He may lack the technical know-how, good human relationship with staff, and the condition of his health may affect the performance of his duties. 


1State and explain five problems of a farm manager.

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