Note on History – Edudelight.com
EXTERNAL CONTACTS AND TRADE
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HISTORY SCHEME OF WORK JSS THREE FIRST TERM
EXTERNAL CONTACTS AND TRADE
Week 1 – 4: Origin and Organisation of Trans-Saharan Trade.
1. Origin and nature of Trans-Saharan Trade.
2. Commodities traded during Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Ostrich feathers
- Spices, etc.
3. Trade routes during Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Borno-Tripoli route
- Kanem Borno – Sudan route.
- Kano- Fezzan route.
4. Effects of Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Introduction of international trade.
- Introduction of the use of camels as a means of transportation.
- Introduction of slave trade across the Saharan.
- Introduction of Islam and Arabic language.
Encouraged interaction between North Africa and West Africa, etc.
Week 5 – 7: Origin and Organisation of Trans-Saharan Trade.
1. Nature of early European contacts with Nigeria.
2. Early Europeans that came to Nigeria:
- European Explorers (e.g Mungopark, H. Clapperton, Richard and John Lander (i.e. the Lander Brothers, etc.)
3. Nature of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade:
- Abolition of Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.
4. The Legitimate Trade (i.e the trade of Palm Oil).
Week 8 – 10: Revision
Week 11 – 12: Examination
MEANING AND ORIGIN OF TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
Trans Saharan trade was the trade that existed and flourished across the Sahara between the North African Arabs and west African traders from Mali, Songhai ,Ghana,etc
It is believed to have started between 5th and 7th centuries and was carried out between western and Northern parts of the African continent, it got to the peak between 14th and 16th centuries
NATURE OF TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
Trans Saharan trade was characterized with the following
- major commodities of trade
- people involved in the trade
- means of exchange
FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGED TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
Among the factors that promoted trans-Saharan trade were;;
- Emergence of centralized system of government
- Increase in demand for Gold
- introduction of camels to Africa
- The spread of Islam
COMMODITIES OF TRADE
The chief articles of trade that the north Africans exchanged with west African traders were salt, copper for making tools and ornaments, brass vessels, glass beads, cloth and brocade, dried figs and dates, cowries shells, books, horses, firearms and armour, and salt was the most important and most valuable commodity imported into the Sudan while cowries were obtained from the Indian ocean by Arab merchants and used as money by the Negroes of west Africa.
TRADE ROUTES OF THE TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
Trade Saharan trade routes were the long distance routes from West Africa to North Africa aided exchange of commodities among the traders in these locations;
The major routes were;
- Bornu Tripoli route
- Kanem Bornu Sudan route
- Kano Fezzan route
THE EFFECTS OF TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
- introduction of international trade
- introduction of islam and Arabic language
- establishment of educational institutions
- introduction of horses as means of transportation
- introduction of writing
- acceptance of oriental culture
- development of monetary system
- development of urban centres
- enrichment of sub-saharan African kingdoms
- Explain the nature of the trans-saharan trade
- list the effects of the trans Saharan trade
Explain the origin of European exploration in Nigeria
TOPIC; EARLY EUROPEAN CONTACTS WITH NIGERIA 9 EXPLORES AND TRADERS
ORIGIN OF EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF NIGERIA
Attempt to explore the Niger did not start until 1788 when the African association was founded .in that year ,John Ledyard made an attempt to find out the Niger but died on the way,
The next attempt made by Lucas and that of major Houghton a few year later equally failed ,the failures of the attempts made by these men did not discourage the association from sponsoring Mungo park who discovered the course of the Niger river in 1976,
The death of Mungo Park and his men at Bussa in 1805 did not mean the end of active efforts to explore the Niger,
clapper ton was another who could not do much in discovering the mouth of the Niger River until the landers brothers (Richard and John) started their exploration in1830 and later discovered where the Niger River entered the sea, the discovery of the mouth of the Niger opened the flood gate of European contacts with Nigeria
EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORERS
Before Mungo Park stated his expedition in 1795, the African Association had sponsored three expeditions to the Niger River,
The first was that of John ledyard on June 30th 1788,
The second was that of Simon Lucas same year, they both entered Africa through Tripoli where ledyard died while Lucas went as far as Mesurata from where he returned to England,
The third expedition was that of Major Daniel Houghton who entered Africa through Gambia in 1970, He passed through medina and later died, though he never saw the Niger, he sent a report to London that River Niger flows eastward before he died,
Mungo park was born on September 11,1771,in Scotland ,he was an explorer to Africa, a surgeon by profession,
Mungo Park was popular for his exploration of Niger River. This journey was in two phases;
Mungo Park worked with a body known as African association,
On September 1794, he was selected to continue the exploration task of one major Daniel Houghton who died in the course of exploring Niger River,
His journey actually started on 22 May 1795, when he left England through a vessel going to Gambia, he go to Gambia River on 21st June 1795, he continued his journey through a route in upper Senegal and got to a region called kaarta, it was such a difficult journey, he was imprisoned for four months by a local chief but escaped in July 1796 to continue his exploration of Niger river,
Eventually a little success was made, with his compass and horse, he got to Niger River at Segou, He confirmed that River Niger flowed Eastward. He went further to compare its width with River Thames,
Due to lack of resource to further, having travelled a bit farther, he turned back
Going back was not easy, he started the journey back home on July 29th, 1976 but fell sick for seven months on his ways, this delayed his journey, he documented his findings in his diary.
Second and final journey
The second expedition to Niger River was initiated by the British Government in 1803
Mungo Park was to lead a team of explores back to Niger River,
The journey started on 31st January 1805 and did not get to Niger until August same year, it was quite turbulent as many of his fellow explorers died before getting to Niger. Only five survived,
There were many attacks by local people particularly the Moors who did not believe park was on an intellectual journey, park and his colleagues killed many of the local chiefs too.
Despite the disaster that befell his colleagues, he determined to continue the journey to see where the Niger entered into the sea,
unfortunately, his boat hit a rock at Bussa, he got drowned, This happened in 1806 when he was 35years old, his remains were believed to be buried near river Niger in Jebba, kwara state.
A monument was erected in his honour at Jebba, kwara state.
Other explorers to Nigeria are;
- HUGH CLAPPERTON
- RICHARD LANDER
- JOHN LANDER
- GEORGE TAUBMAN GOLIDIE
- JOHN HOLT
Mention the early Europeans that came to Nigeria
MENTION TWO EUROPEANS MISSIONARIES IN NIGERIA