JSS3 History Lesson Notes – Edudelight.com
EXTERNAL CONTACTS AND TRADE
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HISTORY SCHEME OF WORK JSS THREE FIRST TERM
EXTERNAL CONTACTS AND TRADE
Week 1 – 4: Origin and Organisation of Trans-Saharan Trade.
1. Origin and nature of Trans-Saharan Trade.
2. Commodities traded during Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Ostrich feathers
- Spices, etc.
3. Trade routes during Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Borno-Tripoli route
- Kanem Borno – Sudan route.
- Kano- Fezzan route.
4. Effects of Trans-Saharan Trade:
- Introduction of international trade.
- Introduction of the use of camels as a means of transportation.
- Introduction of slave trade across the Saharan.
- Introduction of Islam and Arabic language.
Encouraged interaction between North Africa and West Africa, etc.
Week 5 – 7: Origin and Organisation of Trans-Saharan Trade.
1. Nature of early European contacts with Nigeria.
2. Early Europeans that came to Nigeria:
- European Explorers (e.g Mungopark, H. Clapperton, Richard and John Lander (i.e. the Lander Brothers, etc.)
3. Nature of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade:
- Abolition of Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.
4. The Legitimate Trade (i.e the trade of Palm Oil).
Week 8 – 10: Revision
Week 11 – 12: Examination
MEANING AND ORIGIN OF TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
Trans Saharan trade was the trade that existed and flourished across the Sahara between the North African Arabs and west African traders from Mali, Songhai ,Ghana,etc
It is believed to have started between 5th and 7th centuries and was carried out between western and Northern parts of the African continent, it got to the peak between 14th and 16th centuries
NATURE OF TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
Trans Saharan trade was characterized with the following
- major commodities of trade
- people involved in the trade
- means of exchange
FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGED TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
Among the factors that promoted trans-Saharan trade were;;
- Emergence of centralized system of government
- Increase in demand for Gold
- introduction of camels to Africa
- The spread of Islam
COMMODITIES OF TRADE
The chief articles of trade that the north Africans exchanged with west African traders were salt, copper for making tools and ornaments, brass vessels, glass beads, cloth and brocade, dried figs and dates, cowries shells, books, horses, firearms and armour, and salt was the most important and most valuable commodity imported into the Sudan while cowries were obtained from the Indian ocean by Arab merchants and used as money by the Negroes of west Africa.
TRADE ROUTES OF THE TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
Trade Saharan trade routes were the long distance routes from West Africa to North Africa aided exchange of commodities among the traders in these locations;
The major routes were;
- Bornu Tripoli route
- Kanem Bornu Sudan route
- Kano Fezzan route
THE EFFECTS OF TRANS SAHARAN TRADE
- introduction of international trade
- introduction of islam and Arabic language
- establishment of educational institutions
- introduction of horses as means of transportation
- introduction of writing
- acceptance of oriental culture
- development of monetary system
- development of urban centres
- enrichment of sub-saharan African kingdoms
- Explain the nature of the trans-saharan trade
- list the effects of the trans Saharan trade
Explain the origin of European exploration in Nigeria
TOPIC; EARLY EUROPEAN CONTACTS WITH NIGERIA 9 EXPLORES AND TRADERS
ORIGIN OF EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF NIGERIA
Attempt to explore the Niger did not start until 1788 when the African association was founded .in that year ,John Ledyard made an attempt to find out the Niger but died on the way,
The next attempt made by Lucas and that of major Houghton a few year later equally failed ,the failures of the attempts made by these men did not discourage the association from sponsoring Mungo park who discovered the course of the Niger river in 1976,
The death of Mungo Park and his men at Bussa in 1805 did not mean the end of active efforts to explore the Niger,
clapper ton was another who could not do much in discovering the mouth of the Niger River until the landers brothers (Richard and John) started their exploration in1830 and later discovered where the Niger River entered the sea, the discovery of the mouth of the Niger opened the flood gate of European contacts with Nigeria
EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORERS
Before Mungo Park stated his expedition in 1795, the African Association had sponsored three expeditions to the Niger River,
The first was that of John ledyard on June 30th 1788,
The second was that of Simon Lucas same year, they both entered Africa through Tripoli where ledyard died while Lucas went as far as Mesurata from where he returned to England,
The third expedition was that of Major Daniel Houghton who entered Africa through Gambia in 1970, He passed through medina and later died, though he never saw the Niger, he sent a report to London that River Niger flows eastward before he died,
Mungo park was born on September 11,1771,in Scotland ,he was an explorer to Africa, a surgeon by profession,
Mungo Park was popular for his exploration of Niger River. This journey was in two phases;
Mungo Park worked with a body known as African association,
On September 1794, he was selected to continue the exploration task of one major Daniel Houghton who died in the course of exploring Niger River,
His journey actually started on 22 May 1795, when he left England through a vessel going to Gambia, he go to Gambia River on 21st June 1795, he continued his journey through a route in upper Senegal and got to a region called kaarta, it was such a difficult journey, he was imprisoned for four months by a local chief but escaped in July 1796 to continue his exploration of Niger river,
Eventually a little success was made, with his compass and horse, he got to Niger River at Segou, He confirmed that River Niger flowed Eastward. He went further to compare its width with River Thames,
Due to lack of resource to further, having travelled a bit farther, he turned back
Going back was not easy, he started the journey back home on July 29th, 1976 but fell sick for seven months on his ways, this delayed his journey, he documented his findings in his diary.
Second and final journey
The second expedition to Niger River was initiated by the British Government in 1803
Mungo Park was to lead a team of explores back to Niger River,
The journey started on 31st January 1805 and did not get to Niger until August same year, it was quite turbulent as many of his fellow explorers died before getting to Niger. Only five survived,
There were many attacks by local people particularly the Moors who did not believe park was on an intellectual journey, park and his colleagues killed many of the local chiefs too.
Despite the disaster that befell his colleagues, he determined to continue the journey to see where the Niger entered into the sea,
unfortunately, his boat hit a rock at Bussa, he got drowned, This happened in 1806 when he was 35years old, his remains were believed to be buried near river Niger in Jebba, kwara state.
A monument was erected in his honour at Jebba, kwara state.
Other explorers to Nigeria are;
- HUGH CLAPPERTON
- RICHARD LANDER
- JOHN LANDER
- GEORGE TAUBMAN GOLIDIE
- JOHN HOLT
Mention the early Europeans that came to Nigeria
MENTION TWO EUROPEANS MISSIONARIES IN NIGERIA
HISTORY SCHEME OF WORK JSS THREE SECOND TERM
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Week 1 – 4 : British colonization of Nigeria Territories
1. British contact with Nigeria:
- As explorer
- As traders
- As missionaries
2. How the British conquered Nigerian Territories:
- Signing of treaties
- Waging of wars.
3. British system of colonialism:
- Direct rule
- Indirect rule.
Week 5 – 7: The Evolution of the Nigeria State.
1. The Berlin Treaty:
- Major reasons for the treaty.
- Major features of the treaty
2. The roles of the Royal Niger Company in Nigeria Territories.
3. Colonial concept and administration of Nigeria territories.
Week 8 – 10: The Amalgamation of Nigeria
1. Meaning of Amalgamation
2. Reasons for the Amalgamation of Nigerian Territories.
3. Key personalities and their roles in the Amalgamation of the Nigeria Territories:
- Taubman Goldie.
- Lord Laggards
- The European Missionaries
- Nigerian Traditional Rulers etc.
Week 11 – 12: Revision and Examination
BRITISH COLONIZATION OF NIGERIA TERRITORIES
Before the conquest of Nigerian territories which gradually started in the mid 19th century, the British merchants had related with the natives on the basis of trade, they bought their spies and wares
Eventually, the slave trade started and many Nigerians were captured and shipped to Britain and other countries,
MAJOR STRATEGIES USED IN CONQUERING NIGERIA TERRITORIES
- signing of treaties; a treaty is a signed agreement between nations to obey and comply with a matter(s) mutually decided, a treaty has also been defined as a written agreement between two or more countries or nations, formally approved and signed by their leaders
Among such treaties signed by the British with the territories were;
- Lagos treaty of cession; this was a treaty between great Britain and Oba Dosunmu of Lagos ,this was signed on August 6th 1861.
- Treaty of peace, friendship and commerce of 1886; this was the kiriji/Ekiti parapo peace Treaty. It was signed in 1886 between the British and the warring factions ( kiriji and Ekiti parapo),it was to end the war and bring peace.
- British Treaty with Itsekiri 1884; This was the first treaty of protection between the British and the Itsekiri,it was signed on July 16th ,1884.
- British treaty with the Itsekiri in1894; This was the second treaty of protection between the British and the Itsekiri, it was signed on August 2nd 1894
2. Waging of wars; another methods used by the British was the waging of wars against communities that resisted their move to occupy their territories, examples;
- Bombardment of Lagos by the British in 1851.
- The 1982 war against the Ijebu kingdom 1892.
- War against the Benin Empire of 1896-1897
- Anglo-Aro war of 1901-1902
- Series of war in the North
BRITISH SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Direct Rule; direct rule has been defined as a system in which a central government rules an area which had its own parliament of law making organization in the past, it is a system of government in which colonial government rules its territories using a central authority, The British government adopted this system for Lagos colony in 1861 meaning that Lagos crown colony was under the direct administration of the British government
Features of direct rule;
- It required more British officials in governance
- Native laws and customs were not utilized by British
- It required more funds for administration,
Indirect rule can be defined as a system in which a foreign power controls its territories by using intermediaries like traditional rulers and institutions,
Indirect rule as Lord Lugard puts it is ‘The rule through the native chiefs who were defined powers and functions recognized by the government with defined powers and functions recognized by the government and by law and does not depend upon the caprice of an Executive officer.
It was introduced by Lord Lugard first in the Northern Nigeria between 1900 and 1913 it was later introduced to Western and eastern provinces in 1914 and 1927 respectively
REASONS FOR ADOPTING INDIRECT RULE BY THE BRITISH
- Shortage of British personnel
- financial problem
- multi ethnic nature of Nigeria
- The successful implementation in the North
FEATURES OF INDIRECT RULE IN NIGERIA
- It made use of traditional rulers
- It used modified native laws and customs
- It had Governors and a Governor General
- There was a legislative council
- There was an executive council
The British officials worked closely with the native rulers as supervisors and advisers
Native police and courts were used. Existing traditional system was maintained.
- Mention the strategies used by the British to conquer Nigerian territories
- State the challenges faced by the British in exploring Nigeria
- Mention at least treaties signed by Nigerian traditional rulers with the British
Explain the meaning of ‘AMALGAMATION’
Meaning of Amalgamation
Amalgamation can be defined as the uniting two or more different communities under a single administrative and political authority to case governance.
The definition is applicable to what the British did in Nigeria in 1914, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were brought together as a single nation.
Before the 1914 amalgamations, there was an amalgamation of the colony of lagos created in 1861 with Niger coast protectorate to form the colony and southern protectorate in 19893.
This was the first amalgamation that took place in Nigeria.
The major reasons for the amalgamation of Nigerian territories are following;
- To reduce cost of administration
- To raise more funds for the colony
- To ease administration
- To unite the colony
- To accelerate growth and development of Nigeria
- To achieve Lugards personal ambition
- To Gain full control of the territories
PROCESS OF AMALGAMATION
The Amalgamation process started long before the event took place on January 1914, the process is summarized below.
- Arrival of Lord Lugard to Northern territory in 1895; this was significant and crucial to the 1914 amalgation, lugard,on arrival to the North used military forces to conquer sokoto the seat of the caliphate in 1903.
- This was the last Northern territory to be captured by the British ,meaning that the entire Northern territory was eventually under their control,
- This was a major achievement that acted as a starting point for future amalgamation of Nigeria being nursed by Lugard and other British officials
- The establishment of Northern protectorate; This was created in 1900 and had sir Fredrick Lugard as it first high commissioner,
- Division of Nigeria into three separate region; the next step was division of the british colony into three separate units, they were; The Lagos colony, The Niger coast protectorate, The Northern protectorate.
The first Amalgamation
The three separate units were reduced to two,The Lagos colony was merged with Niger coast protectorate to create colony and protectorate of southern Nigeria with its capital in lagos, with this ,only two protectorates existed ,the southern and Northern protectorates which were governed by lugard as a British colony.
The plan to merge the two protectorates
The idea of merging the two protectorates began with sir Frederick Lugard, he shared this idea with the then secretary of state for the colonies, Mr lewis veron Harcourt, His argument was based on ease governance of two sides, the colony secretary bought this idea and the process of achieving this started.
preliminary field work for the amalgamation
Lugard was manded to conduct a detailed field work of the country to see the possibility of uniting different regions of Nigeria, This was necessary before a proposal for amalgamation could be submitted to the queen
submission of amalgamation proposal
On May 9th 1913,the proposal was submitted to the colonial office in London stating the unification of the two protectorates into a single administrative units after a thorough field work had been carried out by lord lugard.
Approval by the Queen;
On January 1st 1914, the two protectorates were amalgamated and sir Fredrick Lugard became the first Governor- General of the country.
PERSONALITIES INVOLVED IN THE AMALGAMATION OF NIGERIA TERRITORIES ARE;
- GOLDIE TAUBMAN,
- LORD LUGARD
- TRADITIONAL RULERS
- State the meaning of Amalgamation
- state the major personalities involved in the amalgamation of Nigerian territories
- Explain two reasons for the amalgamation of Nigeria territories
JSS3 History Lesson Notes – Edudelight.com