Lesson note on History for Junior Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
HISTORY SCHEME OF WORK JSS THREE SECOND TERM
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Week 1 – 4 : British colonization of Nigeria Territories
1. British contact with Nigeria:
- As explorer
- As traders
- As missionaries
2. How the British conquered Nigerian Territories:
- Signing of treaties
- Waging of wars.
3. British system of colonialism:
- Direct rule
- Indirect rule.
Week 5 – 7: The Evolution of the Nigeria State.
1. The Berlin Treaty:
- Major reasons for the treaty.
- Major features of the treaty
2. The roles of the Royal Niger Company in Nigeria Territories.
3. Colonial concept and administration of Nigeria territories.
Week 8 – 10: The Amalgamation of Nigeria
1. Meaning of Amalgamation
2. Reasons for the Amalgamation of Nigerian Territories.
3. Key personalities and their roles in the Amalgamation of the Nigeria Territories:
- Taubman Goldie.
- Lord Laggards
- The European Missionaries
- Nigerian Traditional Rulers etc.
Week 11 – 12: Revision and Examination
BRITISH COLONIZATION OF NIGERIA TERRITORIES
Before the conquest of Nigerian territories which gradually started in the mid 19th century, the British merchants had related with the natives on the basis of trade, they bought their spies and wares
Eventually, the slave trade started and many Nigerians were captured and shipped to Britain and other countries,
MAJOR STRATEGIES USED IN CONQUERING NIGERIA TERRITORIES
- signing of treaties; a treaty is a signed agreement between nations to obey and comply with a matter(s) mutually decided, a treaty has also been defined as a written agreement between two or more countries or nations, formally approved and signed by their leaders
Among such treaties signed by the British with the territories were;
- Lagos treaty of cession; this was a treaty between great Britain and Oba Dosunmu of Lagos ,this was signed on August 6th 1861.
- Treaty of peace, friendship and commerce of 1886; this was the kiriji/Ekiti parapo peace Treaty. It was signed in 1886 between the British and the warring factions ( kiriji and Ekiti parapo),it was to end the war and bring peace.
- British Treaty with Itsekiri 1884; This was the first treaty of protection between the British and the Itsekiri,it was signed on July 16th ,1884.
- British treaty with the Itsekiri in1894; This was the second treaty of protection between the British and the Itsekiri, it was signed on August 2nd 1894
2. Waging of wars; another methods used by the British was the waging of wars against communities that resisted their move to occupy their territories, examples;
- Bombardment of Lagos by the British in 1851.
- The 1982 war against the Ijebu kingdom 1892.
- War against the Benin Empire of 1896-1897
- Anglo-Aro war of 1901-1902
- Series of war in the North
BRITISH SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Direct Rule; direct rule has been defined as a system in which a central government rules an area which had its own parliament of law making organization in the past, it is a system of government in which colonial government rules its territories using a central authority, The British government adopted this system for Lagos colony in 1861 meaning that Lagos crown colony was under the direct administration of the British government
Features of direct rule;
- It required more British officials in governance
- Native laws and customs were not utilized by British
- It required more funds for administration,
Indirect rule can be defined as a system in which a foreign power controls its territories by using intermediaries like traditional rulers and institutions,
Indirect rule as Lord Lugard puts it is ‘The rule through the native chiefs who were defined powers and functions recognized by the government with defined powers and functions recognized by the government and by law and does not depend upon the caprice of an Executive officer.
It was introduced by Lord Lugard first in the Northern Nigeria between 1900 and 1913 it was later introduced to Western and eastern provinces in 1914 and 1927 respectively
REASONS FOR ADOPTING INDIRECT RULE BY THE BRITISH
- Shortage of British personnel
- financial problem
- multi ethnic nature of Nigeria
- The successful implementation in the North
FEATURES OF INDIRECT RULE IN NIGERIA
- It made use of traditional rulers
- It used modified native laws and customs
- It had Governors and a Governor General
- There was a legislative council
- There was an executive council
The British officials worked closely with the native rulers as supervisors and advisers
Native police and courts were used. Existing traditional system was maintained.
- Mention the strategies used by the British to conquer Nigerian territories
- State the challenges faced by the British in exploring Nigeria
- Mention at least treaties signed by Nigerian traditional rulers with the British
Explain the meaning of ‘AMALGAMATION’
Meaning of Amalgamation
Amalgamation can be defined as the uniting two or more different communities under a single administrative and political authority to case governance.
The definition is applicable to what the British did in Nigeria in 1914, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were brought together as a single nation.
Before the 1914 amalgamations, there was an amalgamation of the colony of lagos created in 1861 with Niger coast protectorate to form the colony and southern protectorate in 19893.
This was the first amalgamation that took place in Nigeria.
The major reasons for the amalgamation of Nigerian territories are following;
- To reduce cost of administration
- To raise more funds for the colony
- To ease administration
- To unite the colony
- To accelerate growth and development of Nigeria
- To achieve Lugards personal ambition
- To Gain full control of the territories
PROCESS OF AMALGAMATION
The Amalgamation process started long before the event took place on January 1914, the process is summarized below.
- Arrival of Lord Lugard to Northern territory in 1895; this was significant and crucial to the 1914 amalgation, lugard,on arrival to the North used military forces to conquer sokoto the seat of the caliphate in 1903.
- This was the last Northern territory to be captured by the British ,meaning that the entire Northern territory was eventually under their control,
- This was a major achievement that acted as a starting point for future amalgamation of Nigeria being nursed by Lugard and other British officials
- The establishment of Northern protectorate; This was created in 1900 and had sir Fredrick Lugard as it first high commissioner,
- Division of Nigeria into three separate region; the next step was division of the british colony into three separate units, they were; The Lagos colony, The Niger coast protectorate, The Northern protectorate.
The first Amalgamation
The three separate units were reduced to two,The Lagos colony was merged with Niger coast protectorate to create colony and protectorate of southern Nigeria with its capital in lagos, with this ,only two protectorates existed ,the southern and Northern protectorates which were governed by lugard as a British colony.
The plan to merge the two protectorates
The idea of merging the two protectorates began with sir Frederick Lugard, he shared this idea with the then secretary of state for the colonies, Mr lewis veron Harcourt, His argument was based on ease governance of two sides, the colony secretary bought this idea and the process of achieving this started.
preliminary field work for the amalgamation
Lugard was manded to conduct a detailed field work of the country to see the possibility of uniting different regions of Nigeria, This was necessary before a proposal for amalgamation could be submitted to the queen
submission of amalgamation proposal
On May 9th 1913,the proposal was submitted to the colonial office in London stating the unification of the two protectorates into a single administrative units after a thorough field work had been carried out by lord lugard.
Approval by the Queen;
On January 1st 1914, the two protectorates were amalgamated and sir Fredrick Lugard became the first Governor- General of the country.
PERSONALITIES INVOLVED IN THE AMALGAMATION OF NIGERIA TERRITORIES ARE;
- GOLDIE TAUBMAN,
- LORD LUGARD
- TRADITIONAL RULERS
- State the meaning of Amalgamation
- state the major personalities involved in the amalgamation of Nigerian territories,
- Explain two reasons for the amalgamation of Nigeria territories,