Lesson Note Government SS2 Second Term

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SECOND TERM

SUBJECT: GOVERNMENT    

CLASS: SS2

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEKS    TOPICS

  1. Colonialism- Both Positive and Negative Impacts.
  2. Nationalism- Meaning, Factors that Led to the Rise and Growth of Nationalist Movement in West Africa.
  3.  Nationalism- Factors that Increased Nationalist Demand after World War 11, Factors Responsible for Slow Nationalist Activities in French West Africa Colonies.
  4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria- The Nigerian council of 1914, The National Congress of British West Africa.
  5. Clifford Constitution of 1922- Features, Merits and Demerits; Richard’s Constitution of 1946-Features, Objectives, Achievement, Weakness and Criticism.
  6. The Macpherson Constitution of 1951- Features, Achievements and Weakness; London and Lagos Constitutional Conference of 1953 and 1954 Respectively.
  7. Littleton’s Constitution of 1954- Features, Achievements, Weakness.
  8. London Constitutional Conference of 1957 and Lagos Constitutional Conference of 1958.
  9. Independence Constitution of 1960- Features, Achievements and Weakness.
  10. Republican Constitution of 1963- Features, Merits and Demerits.
  11. The Second Republican Constitution of 1979- Historical Background, Features, Merits and Demerits;the Differences between 1963 and 1979 Constitution.
  12.  Revision and Examination.

REFERENCE

  • Essential Government by C.C. Dibie.
  • Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele.

WEEK ONE                        DATE: _____________

TOPIC: COLONIALISM IN AFRICA

CONTENT

  1. Positive Impact of Colonialism.
  2. Negative Impact of Colonialism.

POSITIVE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM

  • Military and Technical Aid: Some formal colonial territories especially the French territories, received military and technical aid from their former colonial masters.
  • Development of political parties: One of the positive impacts of colonialism was the development of Political Parties. These political parties facilitated the struggle for political independence.
  • Common Language: Colonialism promoted the development of common languages among colonial territories: English by those colonized by Britain and French by those colonized by

France.

  • Uniform Civil Service: The civil service was developed along with that of the British and the French system.
  • Common Legal System: There was the development of a common legal system among the colonial territory.
  • Development of Infrastructure: Facilities such as roads, railway and electricity were developed to ensure effective administration.
  • Emergence of New Elites: Colonialism led to the development of a new set of elites based on educational achievement and political exposure.
  • Exposure to Western Education: Colonialism provided access to new form of education which opened more opportunities for Africans.
  • Common Central Bank: With the exception of Guinea, the formal French territories in West Africa had a common Central bank issuing a common currency.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • How has education contributed to the achievement of independence in West Africa?
  • Mention five positive impact of colonialism in West Africa.

NEGATIVE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM

  • Economic Dependence and Exploitation: Africa was being exploited by capital produced by African labour. The colonial masters carried the wealth of West Africa to their home countries thereby impoverishing West Africa.
  • Means of Communication: The means of communication were not constructed for Africans. They were built to extract cotton, gold, palm produce, groundnut, cocoa etc.
  • Introduction of the Slave Trade, deportation and humiliation of African leaders.
  • Colonial education was met to train Africans to administer the local areas at the lowest rank and to staff the private capitalist firms owned by Europeans.
  • Erosion of the Power of Traditional Rulers: Traditional rulers were stripped of their real powers and turned into colonial puppets. The traditional rulers became responsible to the colonial government and district officer.
  • Production of Cash Crops: They concentrated their efforts in the areas of producing cash crops e.g. cocoa, cotton, , palm produce etc.
  • Colonialism Creates Problem of Unity: Colonial rule has divided the countries in West Africa into two major groups- the English speaking and French speaking countries. This is one of the problems facing ECOWAS.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Mention five negative impact of colonialism in West Africa.
  • List six countries colonized by France in Africa.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Examine the strength and weaknesses of indirect rule as a colonial policy.
  2. Highlight the effects of colonial rule on Colonies.
  3. Define colonialism.
  4. What are some of the positive impacts of colonialism?
  5. What are some of the negative impacts of colonialism?

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. In the absence of the existence of traditional rulers in Igbo communities, the British colonial administration appointed the — (a) Warrant chiefs (b) Eze (c) Paramount chiefs (d) Obas
  2. The introduction of indirect rule in Eastern Nigeria led to the Aba women riots of —(a) 1914 (b) 1935 (c) 1929 (d) 1910
  1. All the following are positive impact of colonialism except—- (a) Technical aid (b) development of political parties (c) exploitation (d) education
  2. The  indirect rule system succeeded in the Hausa Fulani society because the (a) people were peaceful (b) existing administration favored the system (c) society had only one religion (d) people were Christians.
  3. Which of the following was not a result of nationalist activities in West Africa? (a) Development (b) improvement (c) Arrest and trial of all nationalist leaders (d) elective principle

THEORY

  1. State four positive impacts of colonialism
  2. Highlight four negative impacts of colonialism

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 143-151

Essential Government Pages 155-165

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WEEK TWO                                                                                                                                         DATE: ______________

TOPIC: NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA                                            

CONTENT

  • Meaning.
  • Factors that led to the rise and growth of nationalist movement in West Africa.

MEANING

Nationalism may be defined as the efforts made by Africans to oppose or reject colonial rule. It is the love and pride in a country shown by its people or the desire by a racial group to form an independent country. It could also be seen as a sense of oneness that emerges from social groups trying to control their destiny, environment and to defend their group against competing groups.

EVALUATION QUESTION

  • What is nationalism?
  • Mention five names of nationalists in Nigeria.

FEATURES OF NATIONALISM BEFORE SECOND WORLD WAR

  • Western Education: Western education provided a common language with which West Africa used to fight colonialism.
  • World Depression: The First World War caused World economic depression which brought about untold hardships and agitation for self government.
  • Economic Exploitation: Monopoly of trade in West Africa by European firms or companies and its exploitation gave rise to the growth of nationalism.
  • Lack of Educational Facilities: The missionaries did not have enough money to finance the system. The essence of education was to enable the blacks to read and write not to produce man power.
  • High Cost of Living: The rise in prices of goods and services which resulted in high cost of living and fall in standard of living increased the agitation for self government.
  • Emergence of Political Parties: The demand for increased participation in the political process by parties helped the growth of nationalism.
  • Religion: The activities of Christian missionaries that disregarded Africa tradition and culture played a significant role in the rise of nationalism in West Africa.
  • Heavy Taxes: The heavy taxes imposed on Africans and the control of the money realized from such taxation helped to spark off nationalist activities in West Africa.
  • Racial Discrimination: The racial discrimination in the civil service practiced by the rulers gave rise to the growth of nationalism in West Africa.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • How did education contribute to nationalist movement?
  • What is racial discrimination?  

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the features of Nationalism before Second World War.
  2. Identify six nationalists that fought for independence in Nigeria.
  3. Discuss how World depression led to nationalist activities in West Africa.
  4. How did high cost of living contributed to the rise of nationalism?
  5. Discuss the strategies employed by nationalist movements in campaigning against colonialism in West Africa.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The term Nationalism refers to —- (a) Imperialism (b)the  struggle for independence (c) legitimacy (d) colonialism
  2. The policy of indignant was practiced in the colonies controlled by — (a) Britain (b) Portugal (c) France (d) Belgium
  1. The West Africa student union was formed in 1925 in — (a) Dakar (b) London (c) New York (d) Lagos
  2. The policy of Association was adopted by the — (a) French to replace their policy of Assimilation  (b) Herbert Macaulay (c) British to replace their policy of Indirect Rule (c) French for their home government (d) Britain
  3. The following were the factors that led to the rise of nationalism except —- (a) heavy taxes (b) provision of social amenities (c) religion (d) economic exploitation

THEORY

  1. How did the return of educated elites contributed to nationalist movement?
  2. Mention the names of the nationalists that fought for independence in West Africa.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 152-153

Essential Government Pages 165-167

WEEK: THREE

DATE: _______

TOPIC: NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA

CONTENT

  1. Internal Factors that Increased Nationalist Demand after World War 11.
  2. Factors that Led to the Rise and Growth of Nationalist Movement.

FACTORS THAT LED TO THE RISE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALIST MOVEMENT

EXTERNAL FACTORS

  • The Atlantic Charter: The publication at the end of the 2nd World war, declared the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live. The American government favored decolonization and this encouraged nationalist to demand for independence.
  • Anti-colonial Posture of U.N.O: The organization adopted a negative posture towards colonialism and imperialism. It assisted nations fighting for independence and this revive the spirit of nationalism in the people of West Africa.
  • British Labour Party: The labour party in Britain opposed the conservative party on their policy on colonialism. This influenced nationalism in Nigeria.
  • The Independence of Some Countries: India in 1947 and Ghana in 1957 got their independence and this increased the agitation of Nigerian nationalists.
  • Activities of Pan- African leaders/ Organizations: The impact of prominent individuals and black American leaders and other blacks in Diaspora like W.E.B.Du Bois George Padmore and organization like West Africa union students union, Negro world movement all preached against racial discrimination and liberation of black nations from all forms of colonialism. This massage inspired the spirit of nationalism.
  • Loss of British Prestige: European power defeated Britain and its psychological effect influenced colonialism. Britain’s prestige world wide was reduced.
  • The World War 11: It exposed the myth surrounding white supremacy. The whites were in no way superior to the blacks.
  • The Super Powers: The emergence of U.S.A and U.S.S.R as super powers after the Second World War gave courage to nationalist activities in Nigeria and West Africa.
  • The Colonial Posture of United Nations Organization.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What do you understand by Atlantic charter?
  • How did the Second World War expose the myth surrounding the existence of the Europeans?

 INTERNAL FACTORS THAT LED TO THE RISE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM

  • Racial discrimination: The way the Europeans treated Nigerians in the civil service added more flames to the growth of nationalism in West Africa after 1945.
  • The Introduction of the Elective Principle in 1922: This principle favoredonly Lagos and Calabar. Many Nigerians were disenfranchised as such it provoked the growth of nationalism in Nigeria.
  • The Return of Ex-service Men: The West African soldiers who participated in the Second World War came back with fresh ideals which they wish to put in practice to make their countries free like European nations.
  • Activities of Educated Elites: NnamdiAzikiwe, H.O.Davies, Herbert Macaulay, ObafemiAwolowo, Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta, etc. mobilized the masses for support during the struggle for independence.
  •  Establishment of political parties, newspapers, e.g. the West Africa pilot, Lagos daily news etc played vital role in the decolonization process.
  • Trade Unions: Like the railway workers union led by Michael Imodu became militant. They used strike actions to back their demand for better conditions of service. They equally supported nationalist leaders in the struggle against colonial rule.
  • Poor Prices: The poor prices at which the colonial rulers bought African produce contributed to the growth of nationalism in West Africa.
  • Christianity and Establishment of Schools: This made the nationalist to realize that after all men are created equal by God.

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SLOW NATIONALIST ACTIVITIES IN FRENCH WEST AFRICA COLONIES

CONTENT

  • Policy of Assimilation: The African elites enjoyed equal rights as there was no form of discrimination. They could not agitate or revolt since the system benefit them.
  • Indignant Policy: This policy threatened the liberty of Africans. They arrested and imprisoned without trial.
  • Absence of Political Parties: This made it difficult for the people to express their political views on governing activities.
  • Granting of Citizenship:  France unlike Britain granted Africans from all its colonies French citizens. They enjoyed all the privilege and social amenities enjoyed to their white counter parts. Therefore it was unnecessary to form nationalist movements.
  • Freedom of the Press: the government censored the press. There was no way of criticizing government policies.

EFFECTS OF NATIONALISM ON NIGERIA

  • The nationalist movement led to the formation of political parties and political education e.g. NNDP, NCNC, AG.
  • It led to the introduction of newspaper e.g. West Africans pilot, Lagos daily news etc.
  •  It led to the independence of Nigeria on 1st October 1960.
  • It made Nigeria to become aware of their political and fundamental rights.
  • Nationalist movement led to constitutional development and change in Nigeria.
  • It projected the image of Nigeria and West Africans to the outside World.
  • It forced the colonial ruler to modify their racial discrimination in the civil service.    

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Discuss the role of racial discrimination as a factor that helped the growth of nationalism.
  • Explain the role of elected principles in spreading nationalist feeling.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain how the Atlantic Charter contributed to the rise and growth of nationalism.
  2. What was the impact of the ex-service men to nationalist movement?
  3. Discuss 4 effects of nationalism in Nigeria.
  4. How did the policy of Assimilation contributed to slow nationalist movement in French West Africa colonies?
  5. (a) Define Electoral Commission. (b) State 6 features of an electoral commission.

WEEKEND ASSINGMENT

  1. The NNDP was founded by  (a) Ernest Ikoli (b) Herbert Macaulay (c) ObafemiAwolowo (d) NnamdiAzikiwe
  2.  The following were nationalist leaders except (a) Ernest Ikoli (b) NnamdiAzikiwe (c) Gen. AguiyiIronsi (d) SaniAbacha
  1. One of the following was responsible for slow nationalist movement in French West Africa colonies (a) Racial discrimination (b) Absence of political parties (c) Self government (d) heavy tax
  2. Ghana  got her independence in (a) 1943 (b) 1947 (c) 1957 (d) 1960
  3. NNDP stands for (a) Nigeria National Democratic Party (b) National Nigeria Development Party (c) New Nigeria National Party (d) National New Democratic Party

THEORY

  1. What is Nationalism?
  2. Explain 5 factors that led to the growth of nationalism.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 144-146

Essential Government Pages 156-158.

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WEEK FOUR

DATE: _______

TOPIC: CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CONTENT

  • The Nigeria Council of 1914
  • The National congress of British West Africa

THE NIGERIA COUNCIL OF 1914

The Council was created in 1914 after the amalgamation by Lord Luggard. It consisted of 24 official and 12 unofficial member of which were Europeans and the rest were Nigeria Traditional Rulers .The Council was an advisory body without any power of legislation. It was a medium for public opinion.

In 1922, sir hugs Clifford succeeded Lord Luggard as governor of Nigeria and he abolished the Nigerian council. He set up a Legislative Council for the Southern Nigeria. The North was to be governed by proclamation from the Governor.

EVALUATION QUESTION

Explain the composition of the Nigeria council of 1914

THE NATIONAL CONGRESS OF BRITISH WEST AFRICA (NCBWA)

The National Council of British West Africa was formed in 1920 by Joseph CaselyHayford of Gold Coast (Ghana and Dr. Akinwade Savage of Nigeria. The group had members from the four West Africa Colonies-Ghana, Gambia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. The Congress demanded more African participation in administration, Judiciary and other sensitive areas of government. They equally opposed discrimination and advocate for the use of elective principles. They also demanded for the development of education (university) and improved medical sectors.

EFFECTS OF THE NCBWA

  • Africans were elected into the legislative council
  • Introduction of elective principles in Nigeria 1922, Sierra Leone 1924, and then Gold Coast 1925.
  • Higher educational institutions were established in Nigeria, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone e.g. Fourah Bay college, Yuba college, Achimota college.
  • The NCBWA led to the development of newspapers in British West Africa e.g. Daily news of 1925 in Nigeria and the morning star in the gold coast.
  • The introduction of elective principle led to the springing up of political parties e.g. NNDP in Nigeria and NCSL IN Sierra Leone.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What were the aims of the NCBWA?
  • Did the NCBWA impact positively on West Africans?

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the names of the founder of the National Council of British West Africa.
  2. Highlight the features of the Nigeria Council of 1914.
  3. Explain the origin of colonialism in Nigeria.
  4. List and explain the characteristics of the civil service.
  5. State 6 functions of the Civil Service Commission.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. NCBWA was established by— (a) CaselyHayford  (b) NnamdiAzikiwe (c) ObafemiAwolowo (d) Ernest Ikoli
  2. All the following countries were members of NCBWA except — (a) Libya (b) Ghana (c) Gambia (d) Cameroon
  1. All the following were the effects of the NCBWA except —- (a) introduction of elective principles (b)unemployment (c) establishment of newspapers (d) establishment of schools
  2. One of the following was the aim of NCBW (a) Non participation in administration (b) Promotion of colonialism (c) To oppose discrimination (d) To promote slave trade
  3. The Nigeria council of 1914 was created by (a) Lord Lugard (b) CaselyHayford (c) Sir Clifford (d) Sir Lyttleton

THEORY

  1. Explain the effects of the NCBWA.
  2. Mention the names of people that formed the NCBWA in West Africa.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 152-156

Essential Government Pages 167-170

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WEEK FIVE

DATE: _______

TOPIC: THE CLIFFORD’S CONSTITUTION OF 1922

CONTENT

  1. Features.
  2. Merits and Demerits.

FEATURES OF CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION

  • Secretary of State for Colonies: This was a Cabinet minister in Britain and the Secretary of State for Colonies. All the colonial Governors report him.
  • Head of State: This was Governor HughClifford. He represented the Queen of England.
  • The Executive Council: It was an all European Council. No Nigerian was a member
  • The Legislative Council: Membership was 46, 27 were officials, 19 were unofficial members. 10 out of the 19 were Nigerians. Out of the 10, 4 were elected, 3 from Lagos, 1 from Calabar. The remaining 6 were appointed by the governor to represent other parts of the country. The Northern Protectorate was not part of this council.
  • Proclamation: The North was governed by proclamation from the Governor.
  • Elective Principle: For the first time elections were to be conducted into the Legislative Council
  • Political Activities: There was political activities and formation of political parties especially in Lagos and Calabar e.g. The NNDP of Herbert Macaulay.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What is elective principle?
  • Explain the legislative composition of the Clifford Constitution

MERITS OF CLIFFORD’S CONSTITUTION

  • The constitution allowed political activities and formation of political parties in Lagos and Calabar e.g. NNDP.
  • Newspapers were established to boost political activities.
  • The introduction of elective principle allowed Nigerians to elect representatives for the first time into the legislative council.
  • The constitution established a new Legislative Council for the colony and Protectorate of southern Nigeria except the Northern Protectorate.
  • The constitution gave inspiration to nationalist activities in the country and this prepared the ground for self government.
  • It served as the first ever constitution in Nigeria.

DEMERITS OF CLIFFORD’S CONSTITUTION

  • The constitution disenfranchised majority of Nigerians. The four unofficial members elected into the legislative council were elected by Adult Male Suffrage with residential qualification of one year and a gross income of E100 per annum.
  • Only Europeans dominated the Legislative Council.
  • The executive council was also dominated by the Europeans.
  • The elective principle applied only in the legislative council. The franchise was not extended to the executive council.
  • The unofficial members elected into the legislative council were illiterates.
  • The governor had veto power over issues in the executive and legislative council.
  • Clifford’s Constitution brought about sectionalism, it was a constitution for the South only, and the North was excluded.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Why was the Clifford Constitution accused of sectionalism?
  2. How the Clifford Constitution did disenfranchised Nigerians?

RICHARD’S CONSTITUTION OF 1946

CONTENT

During the Second World War (1939-44), Sir Bourdillon was governor of Nigeria. When he retired in 1944, he had almost concluded the constitution where he proposed regionalism. His successor Sir Arthur Richard used his proposals to draft his constitution. He presented it to the legislative council of Nigeria on March 6, 1946; it became a constitution on August 2, 1946 and came into force on January 1, 1947. The new constitution was meant for the unity of Nigeria and encourages greater participation of Nigerians in their own affairs.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF RICHARD’S CONSTITUTION

  • To create regional council for the three regions of north, west, and east i.e. regionalism.
  • To promote the unity of Nigeria.
  • To allow greater participate of Nigeria in their own affairs.
  • The legislative council was introduced in order to accommodate every section of the Nigerian.
  • To divide the country three administrative units of north, east, and west.
  • To create constitutional and political links between the native authorities and the legislative council.

FEATURES OF RICHARD’S CONSTITUTION

  • The Executive Council: The central executive council had Richard as the president of the council and was dominated by Europeans.
  • The Legislative Council: The government was the president and was based in Lagos. The council allowed a wider representation of Nigerian interest. It had 44 members made up of 28 majority non-officials and 16 minority officials. The composition was
  • The North had 9-non official members
  • The West had 6-non official members
  • 4 non- official members were nominated to represent commercial banking and mining.
  • 4 non- official members were elected directly from Lagos and Calabar.
  • 16 official members, 13 of whom were ex-official and 3 nominated.
  • The qualification to vote was restricted to male adults who resided in the area for 12 months with a gross income of E50 per annum.
  • House of Assembly or Regional House of Assembly: Assembly members were to be elected by the native authorities while the regional assembly members were to elect members of the Central Legislative council (through electoral colleges).
  • The elective principle: The constitution still retained the elective principle with limited franchise of 3 representatives from Lagos and 1 from Calabar.
  • Legislature: It brought the North and South together under one legislature
  • Dual Membership: Members of the Central Legislative Council were also members of the Regional Council.
  • Nigerians were in the minority in the Nigeria or central Executive Council.
  • Regionalism: Regions were created out of the former three provinces -Eastern, Western and Northern regions.

MERITS OF RICHARD’S CONSTITUTION

  • The constitution brought the North and South together and this laid the foundation for national unity.
  • Nigeria’s formed the majority in the legislature though in an unofficial capacity. Members were in majority for the first time.
  • The constitution introduced bi-cameral legislature in the North, thus it introduced bi-cameralism in Nigeria.
  • Regionalism was introduced in Nigeria and this was a good achievement of Richard’s constitution.
  • The constitution laid the foundation for Federalism and Federal Constitution in Nigerian political structure.
  • The North and South were integrated together for the first time since 1923 for registration and unity purposes.

DEMERITS OF RICHARD’S CONSTITUTION

  • The executive council was still dominated by European just as in Clifford’s Constitution.
  • The constitution divided the country into three unequal parts by making the northern region larger than western and eastern regions put together.
  • The three regions created along the three major ethnic groups fanned the members of tribalism and sectionalism in Nigeria.
  • The E50 and the male adult suffrage disenfranchised many Nigeria.
  • The constitution introduced regionalism into Nigeria politics and it has been a problem till today.
  • By giving veto power to the governor, the constitution made mockery of the non official majority of Nigeria in the legislative council.
  • The constitution limited franchise to Lagos and Calabar while other bigger towns were disenfranchised.
  • Nationalists rejected the constitution because Nigerians were not consulted during the drafting.
  • The constitution gave the government power over the legislative and executive councils thereby making him autocratic and dictatorial.
  • The nationalists referred the traditional chiefs who were unofficial members as puppets of the colonial government because the constitution re- enforced the system of Indirect rule.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Explain the merits of Richard’s constitution.
  • Explain the demerits of Richard’s constitution.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the composition of the legislative council of the Clifford’s Constitution.
  2. Why was the Clifford’s constitution criticized?
  3. Explain the composition of the legislative council of the Richard’s Constitution.
  4. Explain the achievements of the Richards constitution.
  5. (a) Define Public Corporation (b) Give 5 reasons for setting up Public Corporation.
  6. Differentiate between Civil Service and Public Corporation.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Clifford’s constitution was established in —- (a) 1916 (b) 1922 (c) 1914 (d) 1960
  2. Regionalism was introduced into Nigeria’s politics by the — (a) Macpherson’s Constitution  (b) Clifford’s Constitution (c) Richard’s Constitution (d) Littleton’s Constitution
  3. All the following are the features of Clifford’s constitution except —- (a) Regionalism (b) elective principles (c) Formation of political parties (d) establishment of newspapers
  1. Disenfranchisement means —- (a) right to vote and be voted for (b) to be disqualified from voting (c) right to form government (d) right to form a political party
  2. ——– is regarded as Nigeria’s first constitution (a) Macpherson’s Constitution (b) Richard’s Constitution (c) Clifford’s Constitution (d) Littleton’s Constitution

THEORY

  1. Explain the features of the Clifford’s Constitution.
  2. Mention the aims and objective of the Macpherson’s Constitution.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 156-158

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WEEK SIX

DATE: _______

TOPIC:  CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CONTENT

  • The McPherson Constitution of 1951 – Features, Achievements and Weakness.
  • London and Lagos Constitutional Conference of 1953 and 1954 respectively.

THE MCPHERSON CONSTITUTION OF 1951

The weakness of the Richard’s Constitution and the imperial powers due to anti- colonial activities, and the de- mystification of white superiority lead to the introduction of a new constitution. Sir John Macpherson became Governor of Nigeria in 1948. He reviewed the 1946 Constitution to avoid the mistake of Richard’s constitution. Constitutional conferences held in many parts of the country led to the formation of the Macpherson’s Constitution of 1951.

FEATURES OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION

  • The central legislative council: It was renamed the House of Representatives. The president was the Governor and it had 6 ex- official members. 136 representative members were through the regional houses and 6 special members were nominated by the Governor. The North sent 68 members while the West and East had 34 members which made up the 136 representatives.
  • The Central Executive Council: This was known as the council of ministers. The Governor was the president and there were6 official members, 12 ministers of which 4 represented each region. They were in charge of government departments and appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the regional legislature.
  • The Regional Legislature: The Northern and Western regions each had a bi-cameral House of Assembly and Chiefs. The Eastern region had only the power to make laws on certain issues like local matters, native courts, health, etc.
  • Regional Executive Council: Each region had an executive council. The Lieutenant Governor was the president and it had 5 official members and 9 ministers. They advised the governor but he could accept or reject their advice.
  • The colony of Lagos was part of the Western region.
  • The three provinces were renamed, Western, Eastern and Northern regions.
  • The three chief commissioners for each province were renamed Lieutenant governors.

MERITS OF MCPHERSON’S CONSTITUTION

  • Nigerians took part in the making of the constitution through constitutional conferences.
  • A new central law making body called the House of Representatives was introduced.
  • The regions were given more powers and made autonomous.
  • The constitution played great role in the realization of self-government. The motion for self-government was moved in the House of Representatives and discussed at the 1953’s London constitutional conferences.
  • The constitution allowed for increase in elected majorities in both central and regional legislatures.
  • The constitution encouraged the true spirit of federalism by dividing powers between the central and the regions and granting consideration autonomy to the region.

DEMERITS OF MCPHERSON CONSTITUTION

  • The constitution did not make provision for the post of the prime minister and premier.
  • The constitution did not grant real ministerial responsibilities to ministers. They only acted as spokes men of the ministries in the legislature.
  • The constitution vested too many powers on the governor.
  • Powers given to the regions to make laws were limited as their laws have to be approved first before they could be allowed to operate.
  • No single party had a majority control of the House of Representatives and as such the council of ministers was not sure of their policies.
  • The constitution failed to grant political independence to Nigeria as demanded by the Nationalists.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Mention 5 features of the Macpherson’s Constitution.
  • What were the weaknesses of the Macpherson’s Constitution?

THE CONTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE OF 1953

The need for a new constitution arose as a result of the defects of the McPherson Constitution which led to its breakdown. The secretary of state for the colonies, Oliver Littleton confirmed the change of Macpherson’s Constitution when he announced on May 21, 1953 on the floor of the British House of Commons that her majesty had decided that the Nigerian Constitution would have to be redrawn so as to provide for greater autonomy.

The conference which sat between July 30 and August 22, 1953, reached the following agreements

  • That a federal system of government should be established.
  • That the regional Lieutenant-governor of Nigeria be called governors, while the governor of Nigeria should be called Governor-General.
  • That legislative power should be shared between the federal, state and the federating units.
  • That Lagos should be separated from the Western region and made a neutral federal territory.
  •  That a conference to be held in Lagos in 1954 should ratify a separate regional administration in the Cameroons if the people of the territory expressed their desires through a referendum.
  • That her majesty’s government would grant self-government to those regions which desired it in 1956.

LAGOS CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE OF 1954

On January 19, 1954, the Constitutional Conference re-converged in Lagos to discuss some issues that were not attended to at the previous constitutional conference. The following agreements were reached

  • Financial resources were to be allocated to the federal and regional government based on the principle of derivation.
  • The commission recommended that autonomy should be granted the southern Cameroon.
  • That the judiciary should be regionalized.
  • That the police force should be regionalized.
  • That though southern Cameroons should remain part of Nigeria federation as a quasi-federal territory, it should have a legislature of its own.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What were the recommendations made at the London conference of 1953?
  • Highlight the decisions reached at the Lagos constitutional conference of 1954?

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State 5 features of the Macpherson’s Constitution.
  2. Highlight 4 achievements made by Macpherson’s Constitution.
  3. Why was Macpherson’s Constitution criticized?
  4. Highlight 6 reasons for setting up Public Corporation.
  5. State 5 problems of Local Government.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Macpherson’s Constitution was established in (a) 1934 (b) 1951 (c) 1953 (d) 1945
  2. Under Macpherson’sConstitution, the eastern regions had —- house/houses (a)one (b) two (c) three (d) five
  1. All but one of the  following where the changes made by the Macpherson’s Constitution  (a) renaming of the central legislature (b) the western and northern regions were made to have two houses (c) introduction of elective principle (d) the colony of Lagos was part of the Western region
  2. The following were the recommendations made by at the London Constitutional Conference except (a) Introduction of federalism (b) that Lagos should be separated from Western region (c) elective principle (d) that self government should be granted to the regions that desires it
  3. The Governor-General of the 1951’s Constitution was (a) Sir Clifford (b) Sir Richard (c) Sir Lyttleton (d) Sir Macpherson

THEORY

  1. Explain the features of the McPherson constitution.
  2. What led to the collapse of the McPherson constitution?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 159-160

Essential Government Pages 1

Government Elesson Note – Edudelight.com

WEEK SEVEN

DATE: _______

TOPIC: LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION OF 1954

CONTENT

  1. Features.
  2. Important Provision of the Constitution.
  3. Achievements and Weakness.

FEATURES OF LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION

The resultant defects of MacPherson’s constitution gave rise to two constitutional conferences in 1953 and 1954, the first in London and the other in Lagos. Far reaching conclusions were agreed on concerning the structuring of Nigeria federation, the status of Lagos as a Natural Federal Unit.

In October 1954 Lyttleton’s Constitution came into effect and the main features and important changes made by it were as follows;

  • It was the first federal constitution adopted by Nigeria.
  • The lieutenant governors of the various regions became known as Governors.
  • The governor was known as Governor-General of the federation of Nigeria.
  • Establishment of the office of the speakers and Deputy speaker of the regional legislatures except the North.
  • Regionalization of the public service, marketing boards and the judiciary.
  • Establishment of the office of the regional premier.
  • Regional legislatures were given law making powers.
  • Reduction in numbers of both officials and appointed members in both central and regional legislatures and the executive council.
  • No provision was made for the office of the prime minister.
  • Division of powers between the central and the regions.
  • Revision of revenue sharing formula.
  • Southern Cameroon granted both administrative and legislative provision.

IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION

  • Federal House of Representative: A central legislative body of 184 directly elected on the basis of single member constituency with the north providing 92, the east and west 42 each. Southern had 6 and Lagos had 2.

  • Federal Council of Ministers: It was composed of the Governor General, 3 official members, 3 ministers from each region, 1 from Southern Cameroon. The Governor General picked the ministers from the Federal House of Representatives on the advice of the regional executive.
  • Regional Executive Councils: The Governor appointed the leaders of the party with the majority as the regions premiers. Regional Governors presided over the regional executive meetings, with ministers appointed on the advice of the premiers.
  • Regional Legislatures: It retained bi-cameral feature for the Northern and Western Assemblies and unicameral legislature for the east.
  • Division of Powers: The constitution divided powers between the central and the regional government of the federation exclusive power list granted the central government control over- mining, railways, custom, foreign relations etc. Concurrent list was for the federal and regional governments. Residual list was meant for the regions.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What were the important provisions made by the Lyttleton constitution?
  2. Explain the composition of the federal house of representative under the Lyttleton’s constitution.

DEFECTS OR WEAKNESS OR DEMERITS OF LYTTLETON’S CONSTITUTION

  • It made no provision for the office of the prime minister, still imposing the Governor-General as President of Council of Ministers.
  • It did not provide for a second chamber at the Federal Legislative House.
  • None of the leaders of the major political parties was in the council of ministers, which means those appointed into it would continue to take instruction from the regions. Where their party leaders were stationed.
  • It did not address the imbalance created by Richard’s Constitution, which made the north twice as the size of the whole south. The effect of this structure is still a political problem stalking the country still date.
  • It did not provide for uniform electoral system for the country.
  • The constitution still vested veto power on the Governor General and the regional Governors.
  • It regionalized the public service thereby making the regions stronger than the central.

ACHIEVEMENTS OR MERITS OF LYTTLETON’S CONSTITUTION

  • It introduced federal structure in Nigeria.
  • It established the offices of the speaker and deputy speaker.
  • It introduced direct election into federal and regional legislatures.
  • Ministers were made heads of departments.
  • It created posts of permanent secretaries and parliamentary secretaries at the federal and regional civil service administration.
  • It separated Lagos and South Cameroon from the west and east respectively.
  • It raised the status of Governor to Governor General, Lieutenant to Governors.
  • The constitution effectively prepared Nigeria for Independence.
  • The regional legislatures were granted real law making [powers.
  • Clear-cut division of powers between central and regional government.
  • It created dual civil service and judicial administration.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Mention the five merits of the Lyttleton’s constitution.
  • What were the failures of the Lyttleton’s constitution?

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Who is a premier?
  2. Explain the composition of the federal executive council under the Lyttleton constitution.
  3. Explain the composition of the regional executive council under the Lyttleton constitution.
  4. What were the limitations of the Lyttleton constitution?
  5. State 5 features of Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The Governor General of Nigeria in 1954 was  (a) NnamdiAzikiwe (b) Oliver Lyttleton (c) Sir Bourdillon (d) Sir Lord Lugard
  2. The following were the main provision of the Lyttleton’s constitution except (a) Elective principle (b) Establishment of federalism (c) Division of power(d) establishment of the office of the regional premier
  1. The 1953 Constitutional Conference was held in (a) Calabar (b) Lagos (c) London (d) Ghana
  2. One of the failures of the Lyttleton’s Constitution was that (a) no provision was made for the office of the prime minister (b) it introduced federal structure (c) it made ministers heads of departments
  3. —– is regarded as the first Federal Constitution of Nigeria  (a) Clifford’s constitution (b) Macpherson’s constitution (c) Lyttleton’s constitution

THEORY

  1. Explain the major important provisions of the Lyttleton constitution.
  2. Explain the composition of the federal house of representative under the Lyttleton constitution.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 160-162

Essential Government Pages 176-178

Government Elesson Note – Edudelight.com

WEEK EIGHT

DATE: _______

TOPIC: CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CONTENT

  1. London Constitutional Conference of 1957
  2. Lagos Constitutional Conference of 1958.

LONDON CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE

This conference was convened to discuss issues surrounding the 1954 Lyttleton’s constitution. The outcome of the Constitutional Conference of 1957 includes the following;

  • The Eastern and Western region to be granted self-government immediately after the conference.
  • The North would become independent in 1959.
  • The office of the prime minister of the federation to be created.
  • Eastern region to have a house of chief in line with what obtained in the Northern and Western regions.
  • At the Central Legislature a house of senate to be created making it a bicameral legislature.
  • Southern Cameroon to be made a region with appointment of a premier.
  • Membership of the Federal House of Representative to be enlarged from 184 to 320 at the expiration of its term.
  • Election into Federal and regional legislatures for the East, West, Lagos and Southern Cameroon should be by universal adult suffrage, but election into the northern legislature to be by adult male suffrage.
  • Commission of inquiry to be set up to look into the affairs of each region.
  • Governor General to appoint an adhoc committee to carry out the division of the country into single member constituencies.
  • The Government at the region should appoint premiers from the majority representation in regional house of assemblies.
  • The Governor-General to appoint a prime minister, the person whose party secured majority in the House of Representative.

EFFECTS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DECISION ARRIVED AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE OF 1957

  • The Eastern and Western regions attained self-government on August 8, 1957.
  • On September 2, 1957 the Governor-General Sir AbubakarTafawaBalewa deputy leader of NPC was appointed as prime minister of the federation.
  • Southern Cameroon became a separated region with its own premie.r
  • Prime Minister AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa formed a coalition National government made up of NPC, NCNC,and AG.
  • All ex-officio British officials ceased to be members of the executive council except the governor general.
  • The reserved and veto power of the governor-general were withdrawn.
  • Willinks Commission was set up to examine fears of the minority groups.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What were the recommendations made by the London Constitutional Conference?
  • What were the decision arrived at the conference?

WILLINKS COMMISSION OF INQUIRY

It was set up to examine the fears expressed by the minorities about discrimination and domination in their respective regions by the majority ethnic groups and therefore requested for new regions.

Recommendation of the commission

The commission agreed that some of the fears were genuine but maintained that creation of states was not the only option available to allay such fears. It therefore recommended far reaching measures.

  • Bill of right to protect the fundamental human right of the minorities to be embodied in the constitution.
  • No change or adjustment should be made in the boundary between northern region and western region.
  • The Federal Police Force would further guarantee the rights of the minorities.
  • Non- Muslims in the north not willing to be tried under the Sharia court, have the option of being tried in a non- Muslim court.
  • Special development boards for Niger Delta areas to be established.
  • Majority parties would have to win the support of the minorities.
  • Special minorities commission to be jointly run by federal and regional government.

LAGOS CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE OF 1958

This was the last constitutional conference held before the attainment of Independence in 1960. The conference made the following recommendations.

  • The last conference held before Nigeria National independence on October 1st , 1960.
  • That Nigeria should become independent on October1, 1960.
  • Considered the issue of creation of states to allay the fears of the minorities.
  • Plebiscites were to be organized on the 11 and 12 February, 1961.
  • That northern would attain self independence in 1959.
  • It adopted Willinks recommendation not to create states but accepted the entrenchment of fundamental human rights into the 1960 constitution.
  • The amendment process of the constitution and boundary adjustment procedures were accepted.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What were the recommendations made by the Willinks commission?
  • What were the important decisions reached at the 1958 constitutional conference?

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Highlight five features of the Yoruba pre-colonial administration.
  2. Enumerate five functions of traditional rulers in the pre-colonial system.
  3. State five functions of the age-grade.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The Lagos constitutional conference was held in (a) 1953 (b) 1958 (c) 1957
  2. All  but one of  the following were the recommendations made by theWillinks commission  (a) to entrench fundamental human rights in the constitution (b) to create more states (c) to establish special development board for Niger Delta
  1. The last constitutional conference held before independence was in (a) Lagos (b) London (c) Calabar
  2. According to the recommendation made at the end of the London Constitutional conference of 1957, the northern was to be granted self government in (a) 1959 (B) 1952 (C) 1956
  3. The first Nigerian prime minister was (a) AlhajiTafawaBalewa (b) NnamdiAzikiwe (c) Yakubu Gowon

THEORY

  • What were the major decisions reached at the 1957 constitutional conference?
  • Explain the provisions of the Willinks commission of inquiry.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 162-163

Essential Government Pages 179-180

WEEK NINE                                                                                                                                                         DATE: _______

TOPIC: INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960

CONTENT

  1. Features.
  2. Achievements and Weakness.

MAIN FEATURES AND PROVISIONS OF INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960

  • The constitution retained the federal structure initially adopted by the Lyttleton’s Constitution of 1954.
  • Governors-General became Ceremonial Head of State for the Queen of England.
  • It adopted the parliamentary system of government in Nigeria.
  • There was a bicameral legislature for the federal and regional House of Assemblies.
  • Executive power was granted to the prime minister and premiers.
  • The senate was given power over money and other bills.
  • Dual government powers existed at federal and regional government.
  • The constitution embodied Fundamental Human Rights of citizens.
  • It adopted a right approach to constitutional amendments.
  • Federal legislatures had power to make laws during period of emergency.
  • Provisions for Nigerian citizenship were copiously detailed in the constitution.
  • The process for appointing Supreme Court and high court judges through the advice of the judicial service commission.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • Why the 1960 constitution was named Independence Constitution?
  • Who were the head of state and head of government under the 1960 Independence Constitution?

ADVANTAGES OR ACHIEVEMENTS OF INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION

  • The attainment of nationalistic struggle was crowned with the independence constitution.
  • It was the greatest definition of the demise of colonialism which began in the late 19th century in Nigeria.
  • Nigeria became a sovereign state and was free to aspire to have international recognition by joining UNO, Commonwealth.
  • Nigeria joined other nations to seek trade relations and boost Nigeria’s foreign trade and improved living standard.
  • Attainment of independence meant increase in employment in the civil service and other sector of the economy.
  • The creation of public service commission by Nigerians.
  • Establishment of bicameral in our legislative system at the federal and regional government levels.
  • Introduction of accountability in the utilization of Nigeria revenue through the ministry of finance by the activity of department.

DISADVANTAGES AND WEAKNESSES OF INDEPENDENCE OF 1960

  • It still retained the Queen of England as the titular or ceremonial head of state represented by the Governor-General.
  • The privy council in Britain was the highest court of appeal for Nigeria.
  • Members of the senate were not directly elected but appointed by regional government.
  • It failed to clearly state the process and position for creation of states, the creation of mid-west was attended by many political tensions.
  • It was a foreign designed constitution supervised by the retreating British colonialist.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What were the failures of the independence constitution?
  • Why was the constitution regarded as a foreign designed constitution?

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Highlight the features of the 1960 Independence constitution.
  2. State 5 contributions of the independence constitution of 1960.
  3. Mention the names of Nigeria leaders before 1960s.
  4. Discuss the features of the Igbo pre-colonial political system.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The first Nigeria prime minister was (a) AbubarkaTafawaBalewa (b) ShehuShagari (c) AguiyiIronsi (d) ObafemiAwolowo
  2. The 1960 constitution adopted —– in Nigeria (a) Presidential system (b) parliamentary system (c) unitary system (d) confederal
  3. The following were the provisions of the 1960 constitution except (a) It adopted a parliamentary system (b) The senate was given power over money (c)  it introduced unicameral legislature (d) Governor general became the ceremonial president.
  1. Nigeria got her independence on (a) 2nd October 1960 (b) 1st October 1960 (c) 1st November 1960 (d) 3rd of February 1961
  2. The head of state under the 1960 constitution was (a) NnamdiAzikiwe (b) TafawaBalewa (c) Yakubu Gowon (d) ObafemiAwolowo

THEORY

  1. Highlight the features of the independence constitution
  2. What were the achievements of the constitution?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 163-164

Essential Government Pages 180-182

WEEK TEN

DATE: _______

TOPIC: THE FIRST REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1963

CONTENT

  1. Features
  2. Merits and Demerits

FEATURES OF THE REPUBLIC AN CONSTITUTION OF 1963

Nigeria obtained a Republican Constitution of 1963 and some changes were introduced by the constitutions.

  • It enthroned a Republican Constitution in Nigeria.
  • Queen of England was no longer head of state.
  • The Queen was replaced with the president who became Head of State and Commander –in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
  • The president to be elected by secret ballot of the joint session of the two houses of the Federal Assembly.
  • Supreme Court replaced Privy Council as highest court of appeal in Nigeria.
  • It strengthened the Fundamental Human Rights.
  • It abolishes the Judicial Service Commission and made the prime minister the sole appointee of judges.
  • The Prime Minister’s office strengthened with the departure of the Governor General.
  • The office of the Governors at the regional level ceases, while the premiers assumed total executive government powers.
  • The director of public prosecution was brought under political control.
  • Membership of the house of senate and representative was increased from 44 to 56 and 305 to 312 respectively.
  • Federal government assumed some emergency powers over the legislative arm.
  • The Supreme Court was given power of judicial review.
  • The process for creation of states and boundary adjustment was embodied in the 1963 Republican Constitution.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What is a Republican Government?
  • Who was the president under the republican constitution?

MERITS OF THE 1963 REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION

  • The elected president became head of state instead of British Monarch.
  • The constitution was autochthonous meaning, it was a home based or derived constitution.
  • Supreme Court became the final court of appeal in the land.
  • Right of citizens was fully guaranteed and entrenched.
  • Nigerians were in complete control of decision making and implementation.
  • British influence over the country in any aspect was terminated.
  • Supreme Court was given the power to check the excesses or unconstitutional actions of the executive and the legislature.

DEMERIT OF THE 1963 REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION

  • The President represents a minority interest of members of the House of Representatives instead of majority vote of the electorates.
  • The legislative and the executive arm of government were fused.
  • It permitted carpet crossing where elected members could easily change allegiance for personal rewards.
  • It had parliamentary supremacy instead of constitutional supremacy.
  • Prime minister was accountable to the parliament and not to the people.
  • It exposes the legislative system to bribery and corruption, since the legislature holds aces; they could easily be swayed to secure their compromise.

EVALUATION QUESTION

Enumerate four shortcomings of the 1963 Republican Constitution.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the achievements of the 1963 Republican Constitution.
  2. Why is the 1963 Constitution regarded a home based constitution?
  3. Highlight 4 shortcomings of the republican constitution of 1963.

4.Explain the composition of the federal legislature under the 1963 republican constitution

5. What is Carpet Crossing?

6.(a) Define indirect rule (b) Give 5 reasons for the introduction of indirect rule.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The 1963 Constitution adopted—system of government (a) federal  (b) unitary (c) parliamentary (d) confederal
  2. Under the 1963 constitution—-was supreme (a) the parliament (b) the constitution (c) the congress (d) the President
  1. The following were the features of the 1963 constitution except (a) it was a republican government (b) supreme court replaced privy council (c) Queen of England was still the head of state (d) fundamental human rights were fully guaranteed
  2. One of the following was the achievement of the 1963 constitution (a)Elected president became the head of state (b) The privy council was still the final court (c) Rights of citizen was not guaranteed (d) the queen of England was still the head of State
  3. The head of state under the 1963 Constitution was (a) AbubakarTafawaBalewa (b) NnamdiAzikiwe (c) OlusegunObasanjo (d) ObafemiAwolowo

THEORY

  1. Explain the main features of the 1963 Republican Constitution.
  2. What were the failures of the 1963 Republican Constitution?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Comprehensive Government Pages 164-165

Essential Government Pages 182-184

Lesson Note Government SS2 Second Term

WEEK ELEVEN

DATE: _______

TOPIC: THE SECOND REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1979

CONTENT

  1. Historical Background.
  2. Features.
  3. Merits and Demerits.
  4. Differences between 1963and 1979 Constitution.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

General Murtala Mohammed came to power in 1975 and he promised to return the country to a civil rule after long years of military rule that started on January 15, 1966. But General Mohammed did not live to fulfill his promise. It was his deputy Lt.GeneralOlusegunObasanjo who made the promise a reality. This started with the establishment in 1975 of the Constitution Drafting Committee consisted of 49 members.

THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE SECOND REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1979

  • The constitution rejected the Parliamentary System and introduced the Presidential System.
  • It was headed by an executive president who acted as both the head of state and head of government.
  • The president was directly elected by the electorate in a general election.
  • The president appointed his ministers outside the legislature subject to the confirmation by the senate.
  • The president and the vice can be removed from office by impeachment.
  • There was the principle of separation of powers among the three organs of government.
  • A governor who acted as the chief executive with a Deputy Governor with other members of the executive appointed by the governor called Commissioners existed in each state of the federation.
  • The president and the governors were to hold office for four years of not more than two terms if re-laced.
  • The president was also made the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
  • Lobbying was also allowed why carpet crossing was disallowed.
  • The judiciary was empowered by the constitution to interpret the law.
  • The National Assembly was bicameral which consisted of the Senate and House of Representatives.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  • What is carpet crossing?
  • Explain the composition of the National Assembly under the second republican constitution.

ADVANTAGES/MERITS OF THE 1979 CONSTITUTION

  • Separation of Power: There is separation of powers as members of the executive are not members of the legislature.
  • The executive president was popularly elected: The president is above his political parties since he is popularly elected by the electorates and he is responsible to the electorates.
  • Fixed Term of Office: It fixed the tenure of office of the political office holders thus; it prevents the tendency of any leader or party from perpetuating itself in power.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution was supreme and as such must be obeyed and respected by all authorities and citizens.
  • Rights of Individual: Fundamental human rights were fully elaborated and guaranteed.
  • A new Federal Capital territory was provided for by the constitution.
  • The president had a free hand when selecting his ministers and as such the best materials were made ministers.
  • Activities of the Ministers: The president appoints his ministers. He can direct and check their activities as they are individually responsible to him.

DISADVANTAGES/DEMERITS OF THE 1979 CONSTITUTION

  • The constitution is expensive to operate as functions are duplicated.
  • Impeachment clause: The law makers can use the impeachment clause indiscriminately and victimize a political opponent.
  • Concentration of powers: There is concentration of powers in the hands of the president since he combines the functions of the head of state and government.
  • Delay in the execution of programmes: Due to separation of powers, there can be delay in the execution of government programmes.
  • Federal Character: The appointment of people into federal establishment may not reflect federal character. This is because some sections of the country would still feel neglected.
  • Problems: There is the possibility of problems coming up between the executive and the legislature especially where the ruling party is not maintaining the majority in the legislature.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 1963 AND 1979 CONSTITUTION

  • The 1963 Constitution was based on the British Parliamentary System of Government while the 1979 Constitution was based on the American form of presidential system of government.
  • In the 1963 Constitution,the Prime Minister was the head of government while in the case of the 1979 Constitution the executive president was both the head of state and head of government.
  • In the 1963 Constitution, the prime minister was the leader of the party that won majority of seats in parliament while in the 1979 constitution the president might not be from the party that won the majority seats in parliament.
  • The 1979 Constitution provided for a clear separation of powers between the executive and the legislature while the 1963 Constitution fused the two organs of government.
  • The 1963 Constitution only allowed the prime minister to appoint his ministers from his party members in the parliament while in the 1979 Constitution, the president appointed his ministers outside the party.
  • In the 1963 Constitution, a minister was a member of the parliament as well as the executive while in the 1979 constitution, a minister was not a member of parliament, he belong only to the executive arm of government.
  • While the 1963 Constitution provided for the official opposition, the 1979 Constitution did not recognized official opposition.
  • The 1979 Constitution did not allow the system of collective responsibility as provided in the 1963 constitution.
  • In the 1963 Constitution, there was parliamentary supremacy while in the 1979 Constitution; there was the supremacy of the constitution.
  • The 1979 Constitution provided that the president can be removed from off ice through impeachment, while the 1963 Constitution provided for the removal of the prime minister through a vote of no confidence.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is collective responsibility?
  2. Mention five achievement of the 1979 constitution

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Explain the term federal character.
  2. Highlight 5 achievements of the Second Republican Constitution of 1979.
  3. What is Lobbying?
  4. State 5 differences between 1963 and 1979 Republican Constitution.
  5. (a) What is Policy of Assimilation? (b) Give 5 features of the policy.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The term used in removing a president in a Presidential System of Government is called (a) vote of no confidence (b) impeachment (c) suspension (d) termination
  2. Under the 1979 Constitution, other members of the federal executive council other than the president were called (a) senators (b) supervisory councilors (c) ministers (d) commissioners
  1. Under the 1979 Republican Constitution, the president was elected by (a) electorates (b) senate (c) electoral college (d) National Assembly
  2. All but one of the following was a feature of the 1979 Constitution (a) Clear separation of power (b) Lobbying was allowed (c) There was fusion of power (d) The president was popularly elected.
  3. Under the 1979 Republican Constitution, ministers were responsible to the (a) parliament (b) president (c) senate (d) Chief Judge

THEORY

  1. Discuss the features of the 1979 Constitution.
  2. Discuss the merits of the 1979 Constitution.

Lesson Note Government SS2 Second Term

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