Lesson Note Government SS3 Second Term

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com





WEEKS            TOPICS       

1.                     African Union- origin/Historical perspective: (i) Aims and Structures (ii) Problems of A.U

2.                     Common Wealth of Nation: (i) Definition/Historical perspective (ii) Membership (iii) Aims and objectives

3.                     Common Wealth of Nations: (i) Organs and functions (ii) Achievements (iii) Problems

4.                     United Nation Organization (U.N.O.) (i) Origin (ii) Principles (iii) Aims and objectives

5.                     United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) (i) Organs (ii) Functions

6.                     Specialized Agencies of U.N.O. (i) I.L.O, F.A.O and their aims (ii) U.N.E.S.C.O, W.H.O and their aims (iii) U.I.C.E.F and I.M.F and their aims

7.                     Specialized Agencies of U.N.O (i) Purposes of the Agencies, (ii) Achievements of U.N.O, (iii) Problems or failures of  the U.N.O

8.                     Economics Community of West Africa State (ECOWAS) (i) functions (ii) Aims and objectives (iii) Organs of ECOWAS and the their functions

9.                     Economics Community of West Africa State (ECOWAS): (i) Achievements of ECOWAS (ii) Problems of ECOWAS

10.                   Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (O.P.E.C): (i) Origin (ii) Aims and objectives

11.                   Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (O.P.E.C): (i) Achievements of OPEC (ii) Problems of OPEC

12/13               Examination



The African Union was established on Monday 8th of July 2002 by African Heads of State in Durban South Africa. This marked the end of organization of Africa Unity (O.A.U) after 39 years of its existence.The formation of African Union (A.U) was initiated by Libyan leader Moamen Gadhafi, who first proposed it as a full blown “United States of Africa.”  The 37th summit of the organization of Africa Union (O.A.U) held between the 9th -13th of July, 2001 was when the protocol establishing A.U. was signed. This summit was held in Lome, Togo and that was the last summit of the O.A.U.

Africa Union has 53 members which include every African nation, except Morocco which withdrew from the O.A.U in 1985 after the admission of Western Sahara into O.A.U. The A.U has the power to interfere in the internal affairs of members, unlike the O.A.U.

Aims and Objectives  

1. To promote democracy and fundamental human rights.

2. To facilitate economic development in Africa.

3. To end the senseless wars and conflicts causing so much pain and suffering to Africa.

4. To defeat poverty, disease and ignorance in the continent.

5. To promote deep and strong political, economic and social integration among members states.

6. To introduce a single currency for the African continent.


1. Give a brief history of A.U’s formation.

2. Give 4 aims and objectives of the A.U.


The African Union is patterned loosely on the European Union and embodies as similar aim of continental integration.

The 4th ordinary session of Assembly of African Union (A.U) came up with the following decision.

1. African parliament-to be located in South Africa.

ii.  African Central Bank in West African.

iii. African Investment Bank in North Africa.

Iv. African monetary fund in central Africa.

v. African court of Justice in East Africa.


1. Regional economic co-operation which can also bring about infrastructural development in areas like transport, communications and energy which would otherwise be too expensive for some


1. State the proposed achievements of African Union.

2. Describe the pre-colonial administration in Yoruba land

3. What functions did age grade perform in Igboland?

4. Compare the Igbo pre-colonial system of government with the Hausa pre-colonial political system.


1. Comprehensive Government by J.U Anyaele. 225-228

2. Essential Government by C.C Dibie pg 245-247


1. The African Union was established in —— (a) July 2002 (b) July 2001 (c) July 2003

2. The formation of African Union was initiated by ——- (a) Olusegun Obasanjo (b) Moamer Gadhafi (c) Thombo Mbeki

3. African Union is made up of —— members (a) 52 (b) 54 (c) 53

4. The following are the aims of African Union except ——- (a) To promote democracy (b) To eradicate poverty (c) To promote colonialism

5. The following are organs of A.U except (a) The trusteeship council (b) The commission (c) The executive council


1. What are the proposed achievements of A.U.?

2. List and explain the organs of A.U.

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com




  • Definition/Historical background
  • Membership
  • Aims and Objectives


The Common Wealth of Nation is a voluntary association of the independent Countries who were formerly British Colonies. It is made up of Britain and Countries that were at one point in time or the other British colonies. The United States of America, though a former British colony, is not a member.

The British monarch (the queen) is the head of the common wealth.


The origin of Commonwealth started with British desire to conquer greater part of the world as its empire. All the territories acquired by Britain formed the British Empire. Countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa who were formerly Brother colonies were granted responsible and representative governments in the 19th century. With that status, these countries were granted the freedom to elect their own legislature, manage their own internal affairs but they were still linked with Britain and their governors were still representing the queen of England. The queen of England could still make laws for these semi-independent countries. From 1907, these countries with, representative governments started regular meetings known as “imperial conference” in London.

From 1920, these semi-independent countries were granted full autonomy and Britain stooped managing their affairs. Then a new name was given to these territories called “Dominions” and was no longer called colonies.

In 1931, a law was made granting full independence to the dominion whereby, they were not bound to depend on laws passed by the British parliament. The name Commonwealth of Nations was adopted in 1951 as a result of the wide criticism that faced the word “dominions”. The dominions did not want to be addressed as dominions because they believed that it was synonymous with colonialism. However, Ireland ceased to be a member in 1949, South Africa was expelled in 1961 because of her apartheid racial policies. Commonwealth has its headquarters at mar borough house, London presently Commonwealth of Nations has 49 member-nations.


1. What is Commonwealth?

2. Mention 7 countries that are members of Common wealth.


1. The prospective country, must be a former territory or colony of Britain

2. The prospective country must have gained full political independence

3. The prospective country must be ready to accept or recognize the British Monarch as the permanent Head of Commonwealth

4. The prospective member country must be prepared to accept other member-states as equals and reframe from racial discrimination.


1. In all the Commonwealth member-nations, English is the common official language spoken.

2. The British Monarch (Queen of English) is the Head of the Commonwealth

3. Most of the member –nations adopts the British style of parliamentary government

4. Member-nations modeled their system of education on British type

5. Participation in the Common-wealth games and sports by member-nation

6. There is general co-operation among member-nations in the areas of international affairs, trade, finance, defense, law, medicine, agriculture etc

7. Member state adopt the English Common law

8. Frequent signing of defense pact between some member-nations.


1. List 3 qualification of membership of Common Wealth

2. Highlight 4 features of common wealth.


1. Solution to problems: To cooperate and find solutions to problems confronting its member nations in the areas of education, trade, finance, medicine, agriculture, science, sports etc.

2. Common Understanding: One of the aims and objectives of common wealth is to facilitate common understanding among the members.

3. Territorial Integrity: It was formed so as to respect and protect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of member nations.

4. Promotion of Sporting Activities: Promotion of sports among member states so that it will enhance the spirit of friendship and cooperation. This is held every four years.

5. Common wealth was established in order to bring about economic development of member-states through the offering of financial, material, manpower and technical aids.

6. To discuss the common language, English and speak with one voice in matters of international affairs.


List 4 aims and objectives of commonwealth


1. What is indirect rule? Why did the British adopt the system of indirect rule?

2. What factors led to the failure of indirect rule in Eastern Nigeria?

3. Explain the weaknesses of indirect rule system.  


1. The Commonwealth is _____ (a) an economic organization (b) made up of independent ex-colonies of Britain (c) made up of independent European countries (d) made up of oil producing countries.

2. The head of the Commonwealth of Nations is (a) American president (b) Tony Blair (c) Ban Ki moon (d) The British Monarch.

3. The Commonwealth of Nations was established in (a) 1953 (b) 1956 (c) 1951 (d) 1931

4. The following are members of commonwealth except (a) U.S.A.(b) Nigeria (c) Ghana (d) Sierra Leone.

5. Commonwealth is presently made up of ——- members (a) 51 (b) 49 (c) 50 (d) 48


1. Briefly describe the origin of commonwealth.

2. What are the qualifications for membership of commonwealth?


Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pgs 228, 226-223

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pgs 246-247




  • Organs and functions of commonwealth
  • Achievements
  • Problems


The following are the organs of the Commonwealth of Nations and their functions.

1. The Prime Minister’s Conference; The prime minister’s conference is the highest organ of the Commonwealth. This organ is composed of the Heads of State and government of member-states or their accredited representatives.


1. Approval of Budget: It is the sole responsibility of the Prime Minister’s of member-states to receive and approve the budget of the organization.

2. Appointment of the Secretary-General: It is the body that appoints the Secretary-General of the organization.

3. Discussion of Problems: The Prime ministers of member-states discuss issues, problems as they affect member states and give recommendations or solutions for such problems.

4. Power of Sanction: The Prime minster of member-states has the power to sanction any member that does not adhere to the aims and objectives upon which the organization was established for example, Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth in 1995 for the violation of human right i.e the killing of Ken Saro Wiwa and other 8 Ogoni citizen.

5. Receives Reports: The organ receives reports and endorsed the report of the organization submitted to it by the secretariat.

2. The Secretariat: The secretariat of the Commonwealth was established in 1965. The secretariat is headed by a Secretary General and is located in London. The first Secretary General of the Common wealth is Arnold Smith (1965-1975) and he is from Canada and was followed by Sir Shridath Ramphal (1975-1990) from Guyeana. He was succeeded by Chief Emeka Anyaoku from Nigeria (1990-2000).

Functions of the Secretariat

1. It organizes conferences of heads of state and government of member states.

2. It prepares the report of the organization.

3. The secretariat performs administrative functions

4. It prepares the annual report on the activities of the organization.

5. It provides facilities for all the meetings of the organization.


1. Common wealth award scholarship to deserving students within member state countries

2. Member states of commonwealth help one another to discuss common problems and also profer solutions to such problems.

3. Member states of commonwealth speaks the same language, which is English language. This makes communication easy.

4. Member states engage in sporting activities every four years, this helps to strengthen the relationship among them.

5. The rich countries help the poor ones by granting of loans or financial assistance.


1. Foreign Policies: One of the problems facing Commonwealth is that its member-nations pursue different foreign policies.

2. Problem of South Africa: South Africa’s apartheid policy is still a problem that is threatening to divide member-nations of the Commonwealth.

3. No Common Currency: Member-nations no longer have a common currency, as it use to be tied to British pound sterling.

4. Compliance with Decision: Another major problem facing Commonwealth is that it has no power to compel its member-nations to comply with its decision and implement its resolution.

5. Restriction of Movement: Members of Commonwealth no longer have free movement to immigrants from Commonwealth countries. For example, Nigerians traveling to Britain should require a visa.

6. Charter: Commonwealth has no charter like UNO and OAU. Therefore, there are no formal rules governing it.

7. Political Instability: Most of the member-nations especially the developing ones are constantly faced with political instability e.g. Military intervention in the political system.

8. The Issue of EEC: One of the problems facing Commonwealth is the fact that its member-nations belong to many different other organizations which make them to have divided interest and loyalty to commonwealth e.g. the OAU, ECOWAS, EEC etc.

9. Secession: Another problem is that member states can easily secede or pull out of the body.


How can foreign policy constitute a problem to Commonwealth?


1. Explain the meaning and features of the French policy of assimilation.

2. Discuss the factors that contributed to the failure of the policy of assimilation in the former French West African colonies

3. Make a comparison of the British and French system of colonial administration in West Africa.


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 246-247


1. The secretariat of the Commonwealth was established in____ (a) 1963 (b) 1965 (c)1957 (d) 1960

2. The first Secretary General of Commonwealth is (a) Arnold Smith (b) Emeka Anyaoku (c) Sir Shridath Ramphal (d) Tony Blair

3. The following are the functions of the Prime Minister’s Conference except (a) budget approval (b) appointment of secretary general (c) preparation of annual report (d) discussion of problems

4. One of the following is a problem of Commonwealth (a) no charter (b) promotion of unity (c) Common language (d) political assistance.

5. E.E.C stands for (a) European Economic Cooperation (b) European Economic Community (c) European Economic Composition (d) European Economic Corps.


1. State the problems faced by the Commonwealth

2. Explain what you know about the Secretariat of the Commonwealth. 

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com




  • Origin.
  • ii. Principles.
  • iii. Aims and objectives.

Origin of U.N.O

The United Nation Organization came into being on October 24, 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations, which collapsed as a result of the Second World War. The formation of the U.N.O. was led by the victorious powers, which were United Kingdom, America, Russia and China. The United Nation has its headquarters in New York, United States of America. Admission into the U.N.O is open to all peace loving countries.

The Principles of U.N.O

1. Respect for the sovereign equality of all nations.

2. Provision of military assistance to troubled states when it is called to do so.

3. Promotion of democratic principles.

4. Maintenance of international peace and security.

5. The use of force in settling dispute should be discouraged.

6. Peaceful settlement of disputes.

7. Unity and cooperation among member nations.

Aims and Objectives of the U.N.O

1. To maintain international peace and security.

2. To settle disputes through peaceful means.

3. To respect the sovereignty of member states.

4. To promote and encourage respect for human rights.

5. To develop friendly relations among states.

6.  To accelerate the independence of trust territories.


1. Discuss the origin of the U.N.O.

2. State 4 aims and objectives of the U.N.O.


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 251-252   


1. Highlight 5 principles upon which the U.N.O was founded

2. What is Non-alignment? Examine the advantages of the policy

3. Why is veto power given to the five permanent members of the Security Council of the U.N.O?

4. What are the effects of Second World War on Nationalism in Nigeria?


1. The United Nations Organization was formed in (a) 1949 (b) 1956 (c) 1945

2. The international organization that existed before the formation of the U.N.O was (a) the League of Nations (b) ECOWAS (c) Commonwealth

3. Nigeria became the ____member of the U.N.O. (a) 89th (b) 99th (c) 95th

4. The charter of the U.N.O was drawn in (a) Washington (b) Newyork (c) Geneva

5. The main reason for establishing the U.N.O is to _____ (a) fight international war (b) stop colonialism (c) maintain world peace


1. Give 3 aims and objectives of the U.N.O.

2. State 4 principles of the U.N.O.  

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com




  • Organs of U.N.O.
  • Functions of the organs of U.N.O.


The following are the organs of U.N.O

1. The General Assembly.

2. The Security Council.

3. The Secretariat.

4. The trusteeship Council.

5. The international Court of Justice.

6. The Economic and Social Council.

The General Assembly:

The General Assembly is the central organ of the U.N.O. Its membership includes all member countries of the U.N.O. Each state is entitled to five representatives or delegation. The Assembly meets once in a year on regular session. The General Assembly has the power to deliberate on any matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the organization’s interest. On important matters, decisions are made by two –third of the members present to vote. Decisions on ordinary matters are reached by a simple majority. The chairmanship of the Assembly is held for one year and rotated among member-states.


1. Deliberative function: It provides a forum for the discussion of world peace and security and to make recommendation for the resolution of conflicts.

2. Approval of annual budget: It is the function of the General Assembly to discuss and approve the annual budget of the organization.

3. Voting: The General Assembly has the power to vote on issues of international importance.

4. Admission: It is the duty of the General Assembly to admit new members into the organization.

5. Education: The body elects non-permanent members into the Security Council and judges of international courts of justice.

6. Settlement of dispute: It settles disputes by peaceful means and eradicates the causes of war and threat of wars.

 7. Annual report: The General Assembly considers annual reports by the secretary-general e.g the state of the World address.

8. It guides jealously the realization of fundamental human rights and freedom for all people.


The Security Council has fifteen members. The membership was enlarged from eleven to fifteen in 1965. Out of the fifteen members, five, namely; The United States of America, Russia, China, France and Britain are permanent members. They also have wielded veto power. There are ten non-permanent members of the Security Council. They are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. The Security Council is the most powerful organ of the U.N.O and is charged with the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security.


1. Peace and Security: The major function of the Security Council is to maintain peace and security in the World.

2.  It makes recommendation to the General Assembly for the appointment of Secretary-General.

3. It makes annual and special report to the General- Assembly.

4. It recommends the admission of new member state.

5. It investigates any matter that can lead to war and effect peaceful resolutions.

6. It recommends the suspension and expulsion of erring member –states to the General Assembly for consideration.

7. A veto by any of the permanent member nullifies a decision.

8. The organ elects the judges of the World court in collaboration with the General Assembly.


This is the administrative unit of the U.N.O. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General. He is responsible for the supervision and co-ordination of the activities of all the organs. The Secretary General is elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year term. He can be re-elected. The past Secretary General of U.N.O include the following ; Mr. Trigve Lie (Norway), Mr. Dag Hammars-Kjold of Sweden (1953-61), U. Thant of Burma (1961-72). Others are Kurt Waldheim of Australia (1972-82), Perez de Cueller of Peru (1982-92), Boutros Boutros Ghali of Egypt (1993-98), Dr. Koffi Annan of Ghana (1998-2006) and the incumbent Secretary General is Mr. Ban Ki Moon of Korea.


1. The secretariat handles all U.N.O. correspondence.

2. It gives annual report of U.N.O to General Assembly.

3. The secretariat performs administrative functions as the administrative headquarters of the organization.

4. It makes available all the materials needed for all meetings of the organization.

5. It serves as the information center of the organization.

6. It carries out the recruitment of U.N. staff.


  1. Mention 4 functions of the Assembly of Heads of States of U.N.O.
  2. State 4 functions of the Security Council of U.N.O.


The council comprises member states who administer trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council and other members determined and elected by the General Assembly. It oversees the administration of non-self governing territories under member countries. Its relevance has diminished with the independence of virtually all countries.


1. It is responsible for the supervision of territiories placed under the international trusteeship system.

2. The council help tp promote the economic, social, political and educational development of these people.

3. The council receives and considers progress reports submitted by member countries.

4. It encourages trust countries towards their self government.

5. The council pays periodic official visits to the trust territories to assess the progress going on there.

6. The council accepts and considers petitions from the trusteeship areas.


This is the judicial organ of the U.N.O. It is also known as the World court. It has its headquarters in  Hague, Netherland and it has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the security for a period of nine years. Members of the court can be re-elected at the expiration of their term of office and their appointment is on full time basis.


1. This organ is the main judicial organ of the U.N.O.

2. The court settles disputes among member-countries of U.N.O brought before it.

3. It gives legal advice to the U.N.O and the specialized agencies.

4. The court interprets international conventions and agreements.

5. The court makes the decisions of the court binding on member-states in disputes.


The council is made up of 27 members of which are elected by the General Assembly for a period of three years with retiring members eligible for immediate re-election. This council is mainly responsible for all economic and social activities of the U.N.O. Settlements of issues or matters are reached by simple majority vote.


1. The council is responsible for the economic and social activities of the U.N.O.

2. It prepares reports on the activities of all U.N.O agencies.

3. It organizes international conferences to examine the economic and social development problems of the World.

4. It makes recommendation for the promotion of fundamental human rights.

5. It gives information and assistance to the Security Council.

6. It involves in coordinating the activities of specialized agencies e.g Food and Agricultural Organization.


i.List 3 functions of the Trusteeship Council.

ii. Highlight 3 functions of the international court of justice.


1. Expalin the meaning of nationalism.

2. What are the factors that contributed to the growth of nationalist movements in West Africa?

3. Explain the effect of the second World War on nationalist in West Africa.

4. Why did nationalist leaders in West Africa criticize colonial rule?


Comprehensive Government by Anyaele J.U. pgs. 222-224

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pgs 225-259


1. The Secretary General of the U.N.O. is appointed for a period of_____ (a) three years (b) five years (c) seven years

2. The official language of Common Wealth is (a) English (b) French (c) Spanish

3. The Security Council of U.N.O. has_____ permanent members (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 5

4. The current U.N.O. Secretary General is_____ (a) Ban Ki Moon (b) Koffi Annan (c) Tony Blair

5. The headquarter of the international Court of Justice is located at_____ (a) Britain (b) U.S.A. (c) Netherlands.


1. Highlight 5 functions of the Secretariat of the U.N.O.

2. State 4 functions of the International Court of Justice.




  • I.L.O, F.A.O. and their aims
  • U.N.E.S.C.O, W.H.O. and their aims
  • U.N.I.C.E, I.M.F and their aims


Specialized agencies are bodies that are independent which exist under the umbrella of the U.N.O. These agencies are given special assignments which help U.N.O. to achieve its aims and objectives. The activities of these specialized agencies are coordinated and supervised by the min organ of the U.N.O. called the Economic and Social Council.


This agency was established 1919 by the League of Nations with headquarter in Geneva.


1. Improvement of workers: It was established to help improve labour condition of workers

2. Standard of living: It was established to raised the standard of living World wide.

3. Promotion of economic and Social stability: It was formed to enhance the promotion of economic and Social stability.

4. Child Labour: It campaigns against child labour and slavery.

5. Research: It conducts extensive research in the field of power and vocational training.

6. Celebrates Workers Day: It celebrates May 1st of every year as worker’s day World wide.

7: Representatives: Government employees and workers are directly represented in I.L.O.

8. Training: It runs technical training courses.

9. Right of Workers: It encourages most government of the World on the need to respect workers rights, liberties and freedom.

10. It experts advice developing nations on labour related matters.


W.H.O. was established in 1948 and has its headquarters in Geneva and regional offices all over the World.


1. Training of medical personnel: It was established to assist in training medical personnel.

2. Method of teaching: To improve the standard of teaching and training in the field of health.

3. To improve the health sector: To improve the knowledge and standard of health all over the World by sending medical team to countries in need.

4. To improve nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic or working condition.

5. Coordination: To direct and co-ordinate international health work in the World.

6. Epidemic diseases: To ensure that epidemic and diseases are completely eradicated from the World.

7. Provision of materials: To provide and materials to developing nations to improve their health facilities.

8. Disease Monitoring: To respect the outbreak of infectious diseases in one country to other countries of the World.

9. Drug Administration and Control: It controls the manufacturing and distribution of dangerous drugs.

10. Creation of Standard: To help in standardizing the quality and dosage of drugs.

11. Control: To suggest ways of controlling the spread of infections all over the World.


1. Outline 5 aims of I.L.O.

2. State 5 objectives of W.H.O.


F.A.O. was established in 1945 and has its headquarter in Rome.


1. Production of Food: It is mainly concerned with fighting hunger in the World by helping its members to grow more food.

2. To improve the production and distribution of agricultural products to all parts of the World.

3. Provide advice: It improves useful advice on food storage, fertilizer usage and oil erosion.

4. Relief Materials: The agency sends relief materials in form of food and money to disaster areas.

5. Credit Facilities: It provides credit facilities to agricultural sector.

6. Conservation of Natural Resources: It helps in the conservation of natural resources like environment, lakes, and forests and so on.

7. Provision of technical assistance: This agency sends experts to countries that need assistance of such technocrats.


UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16, 1945. UNESCO has 195 member states and 6 associate members. The organization is based in Paris, with over 50 field offices and many specialized institutes and center throughout the World. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programmes, which are; Education, Natural Science, Social and Human Sciences, Cultural and Communication and information.


1. UNESCO was formed with the purpose of encouraging universal respect for justice, human rights and the fundamental freedoms.

2. The UNESCO as an international organization must serve the ends and objectives of the United Nations, which in the long perspective are World ends for humanity as a whole.

3. UNESCO was set up to help to manage natural and earth’s resources like water and water quality, the ocean and promoting science and technology.

4. It was established to promote basic human rights and focuses on global issues like fighting, discrimination and racism.

5. To maintain cultural diversity, as well as the protection of cultural heritage.

6. To promote communication and information worldwide and to empower people through access to information and knowledge.


UNICEF was established on December 11, 1946, with its headquarter located in New York, U.S.A. It works with children in 158 countries.


1. To supply drugs and equipment to children who suffers from different kinds of diseases in the World.

2. It assists in setting up welfare, nutrition and health activities of children in developing countries.

3. To provide food to children in order to improve their nutrition.

4. UNICEF works cooperatively with I.L.O.(International Labour Organization) to improve occupational health.

5. To supply materials and equipment that can help in training of children.

6. It releases fund in time of emergencies.

7. It assists W.H.O to train medical personnel in rural areas.


The International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.) was set up after the Second World War, in order to encourage the development of foreign trade. It started operation in 1947 with headquarter in Washington, U.S.A.  Presently, it has about 188 member countries.


1. To established and stabilize exchange rate among member nations.

2. To make fund available to members to finance balance of payment deficit.

3. To make recommendations to members concerning economic policies to be adopted.

4. To encourage the development of international trade.

5. To promote cooperation among member countries on financial matters.

6. To facilities settlement of debts in foreign transactions.


1. State 4 aims and objectives of the Food and Agricultural organization (F.A.O.)

2. Give five reasons for setting up UNICEF.


1. List the political parties in the second republic

2. Give 5 contributions of the NPP

3. Mention 5 features of the McPherson constitution

4. What were the weaknesses of the McPherson constitution?


Essential government by C.C., Dibie pages 255-257


1. The following are specialized agencies of UNO except (a) F.A.O. (b) U.B.E (c).I.L.O.

2. The headquarters of the International Court of Justice is located in (a) Hague (b) Newyork (c) Geneva 

3. The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in (a) 1945 (b) 1950 (c) 1948

4. The International Labour Organization has its headquarters in (a) Geneva (b) Canada (c) Australia

5. The international court of justice is made of up how many Judges? (a) 10 (b) 12 (c) 15


1. Give 4 purposes of the specialized agencies of U.N.O

2. State 4 functions of the Economic and Social Council of U.N.O.

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com




  • Purpose of the Agencies
  • Achievements of U.N.O.
  • Problems of U.N.O.


1. To reduce international conflicts: The establishment of this agencies has helped to a very large extend in reducing international conflicts to the barest minimum.

2. International interests: Another purpose for setting up these agencies is to integrate the interest of the various nations. 

3. To promote World peace: The establishment of these special agencies is to bring about World peace through the sharing of common interest by these agencies.

4. To bring nations together: These agencies were set up with the believe that it would go beyond national boundaries and harmonizes interest of diverse nature.

6. Creation of a World community: These agencies have the purpose of bringing the World together to become a World community devoid of war and conflicts.


1. Contribution to International Security: The U.N. has so far succeeded in averting war at World wide dimension. Although war has not been completely prevented, the U.N. has helped in reducing tension and conflict e.g Libya and Chad. The case between Nigeria and Cameroon was settled in favour of Cameroon.

2. Prevention of another World war: One of the achievements of the U.NO. is that the organization since its establishment after the Second World war, has prevented the outbreak of a third World war. For example the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq was quickly contained by the major powers by collectively expelling Iraq from Kuwait.

3. Peace-keeping operations: The U.N. has contributed greatly to the peace process in different countries and regions through peace keeping exercises e.g. Yugoslavia, Somalia, Lebanon, etc.

4. Promotion of Fundamental Human Rights: The U.N. has played a commendable role in promoting respect from human rights and dignity.

5. Achievement of Independence: The Trusteeship Council has helped in this respect by assisting some territories that have not gained independence to do so. For example, Namibia got her independence through the efforts of the U.N.O.

6. Promotion of cooperation among countries on regional bsis as a way of ensuring regional development. U.N. made provision for financial assistance to the regional organizations like, European Union (E.U.), O.A.U etc.

7. Settlement of refugees: The U.N plays a key role in providing shelter, food and medicine for displaced people in different parts of the World e.g Africa.

8. Promotion of development programmes: Through its specialized agencies, the U.N.O provides economic assistance to less developed countries. Also, educational, health, cultural and aids to its member states especially developing countries.

9. ARMS limitation: The U.N. encourages arms reduction through its non-proliferation treaties between the two super powers –USSR and USA.

10. Condemnation of Apartheid: The U.N.O has helped in no small measure in the fight against apartheid policy. For example the U.N.O. fight against apartheid in South Africa, is a case in point.

11. Increase in standard of living: The material aids like food, medicine, etc, given to developing countries by U.N.O.’s specialized agencies like W.H.O, UNICEF, etc have helped to raise the standard of living in the developing nations.  


i. Highlight five principles of the Specialized Agencies of the U.N.O.

ii. Outline five achievements of the U.N.O.


1. Shortage of Fund: The ability of the U.N. to carry out its functions effectively partly rests on availability of funds. The U.N. is handicapped by lack of adequate finance. Some member states default in payment of contribution.

2. Veto Power: The exercise of veto power by the five permanent members of the Security Council has rendered the Security Council in particular and U.N. in general impotent. This is a threat to World peace and security because of the selfish interest for which the veto power is used.

3. Difference in Ideology: The ideology of member states in areas like culture, politics And methods used in pursuing economic goals differs. There is also ideological rivalry between the communist East and Capitalist West, which has affected the aims and objectives of the U.N.O.

4. Peace Keeping: The U.N. since its existence has not being able to live up to expectation in the area of peace keeping, just like the League of Nations it replaced. The U.N.O. suffer from lack of unanimous acceptance by the factions involved in war in some member countries meant to be mediated by U.N. peace-keepers.

5. Poor World Economic Condition: One of the concerns of the U.N. is improving the living standards of the people. The World is currently witnessing deteriorating living conditions in many areas.

6. Problem Posed by Big Powers: The U.N. has proved helpless in cases of aggression involving the major powers. The so called big powers seem to be above the U.N. to the extent that the organization cannot control them. For example, American aggression in Vietnam and Soviet attack on Afghanistan.

7. Language Barrier: Language is a major problem to U.N. as speeches in the General Assembly are interpreted into the at least five major languages.

8. Suspicion Among Member States: Some activities of the U.N. are sometimes negatively affected by the suspicion among member states. For instance, Iraq strongly believe that the U.N. inspection team was a spying agent of the United States of America and as such refused to co-operate with them.

9. Non-implementation of Resolutions: The U.N. has not been able to implement its resolutions. They are passed all the time by the organization especially on South Africa but their implementation has suffered a major set back.

10Inability to end Colonialism: The U.N was unable to end colonialism in Africa as it was unable to force South Africa to hands off Namibia. Also, countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, Angola etc, gained their independence through arms struggle executed by their nationalist rather than through U.N.O.

11. Problems of Arms Race: The U.N. has failed to find a lasting solution to arms proliferation. Many nations of the World like U.S.A, Britain, France, etc are spending money in manufacturing weapons of war. For example, the U.N. has failed to stop Iraq’s arm’s build up.


i. Why is the U.N. financially handicapped?

ii. Explain how the exercise of veto power affects U.N.O.


1. Account for the cause of the Kano riot of 1953

2. Account for the cause of the Census Crisis of 1962/63

3. What were the important provisions made by the Lyttleton constitution?

4. Mention the 5 merits of the Lyttleton constitution


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 257-259           


1. Which of the following is not a specialized agency of the U.N.O? (a) The Food and Agricultural Organization (b) The General Assembly (c) World Health Organization

2. The organ of U.N.O which can impose mandatory sanctions on any of its members is the (a) Security Council (b) General Assembly (c) The Secretariat

3. Which of the following countries is a permanent member of the Security Council of the U.N? (a) Italy (b) Korea (c) China

4. All the following are problems of U.N. except (a) settlements of refugees (b) language barrier (c) shortage of fund

5. W.H.O. was established in____ (a) 1956 (b) 1948 (c) 1947


1. State 5 problems confronting U.N.O.

2. Briefly explain some of the achievements of U.N.O.

Government Notes for Secondary School 3 – Edudelight.com




  • Formation
  • Aims and objectives
  • Organs of ECOWAS and their functions


The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created by the Treaty in Lagos, Nigeria, on 28th May, 1975. It was created to promote economic trade, national cooperation and monetary union, for growth and development throughout West Africa. The administrative headquarters of the community is located in Abuja, while the fund raising headquarters is located in Lome, Togo. The establishment of the organization was masterminded by General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria and President Eyadema of Togo. There are currently 15 member countries in the Economic Community of West African States. The founding members of ECOWAS were : Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania (left 2002), Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Burkina Faso ( which joined as Upper Volta). Cape Verde joined in 1977.


1. To promote cooperation and integration in all fields of economic activities.

2. To raise the living standard of the people.

3. To increase and maintain economic stability.

4. To foster closer relations among member states.

5. To contribute to the progress and development of the African Continent.

6. To eliminate custom duties within the ECOWAS sub-region.

7. To remove obstacles to free movement of goods and people among members states.


1. Give a brief history of the formation of ECOWAS.

2. State 4 aims and objectives of ECOWAS.   


The following are the organs of ECOWAS;

A. The Authority of Heads of State and Governments: This is the highest organ of the organization. It comprises of Heads of State and government within the sub-region. The organ is headed by a chairman who holds office for a period of one year. The body meets once in a year but extra-ordinary meeting may be called.

Functions of the Authority of Heads of State and Governments

1. The body appoints the Executive Secretary for the organization.

2. It is the highest decision making body of the organization.

3. The body approves the recommendations of the council of ministers.

4. It approves proposals initiated for the amendment of the charter established by the community.

5. The body approves all agreements and treaties entered into by the community.

B. Council of Ministers: This Council is made up of two ministers or representatives from each member state. The council meets twice in a year.

Functions of the Council of Ministers

1. The council implements the decisions of the Authority of Heads of State and Government.

2. It approves the budget of the organization.

3. It recommends the appointment of Secretary General of the organization.

4. The council prepares the agenda for the meetings of the Heads of State and Government.

5. It appoints the Managing Director of the ECOWAS fund.

6. The body appoints the deputy Executive Secretaries.

C. The Executive Secretary: This is the administrative wing of the organization. It is located in Abuja. The Secretary General is the head of the secretariat. He holds office for a period of five years and may be re-elected for another term.

Functions of the Secretariat

1. The secretariat prepares the annual report of the organization.

2. It prepares the budget of the organization.

3. It prepares the agenda for the meetings of the council of ministers.

4. The secretariat implements the decisions of the Authority of Heads of States and Council of Ministers.

5. The secretariat keeps the files on all the meetings of the council of ministers and Heads of States.

6. The body is responsible for all correspondence of the community.

D. The Fund for Co-operation, Compensation and Development: The headquarters of the fund is located in Lome, Togo. It is headed by a Managing Director, who is appointed by the Council of Ministers.


1. The fund is used to provide compensation to member states which sustained losses in the process of the application of the ECOWAS treaty.

2. The fund is to promote development efforts in less developed member states.

3. The fund is to facilitate mobilization of internal and external resources for development.

4. It helps to guarantee foreign investments proposed by member states.  


1 .Give 5 functions of the Authority of Heads of State and Governments.

2. Highlight 4 functions of the council of ministers.


1. Examine the features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration

2. Examine the features of the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration

3. Describe the political administration of the Yoruba pre-colonial system.


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 260-262

Comprehensive government by J.U. Anyeale pages 240-241


1. ECOWAS was established in (a) 1972 (b) 1985 (c) 1975

2. All but one of the following were the founders of ECOWAS (a) Moamer Gaddafi (b) Eyadema (c) Yakubu Gowon

3. The current Secretary General of ECOWAS is (a) Mohammandu Buhari (b) John Mahama (c) Jacob Zuma

4. The administrative headquarters of ECOWAS is located in (a) Abuja (b) Lome (c) Accra

5. The fund raising headquarters of ECOWAS is located in (a) Free Town (b) Lome (c) Abidjan


1. Identify the organs of ECOWAS.

2. State 4 functions of the Secretary General of ECOWAS.

Lesson Note Government SS3 Second Term




  • Achievements of ECOWAS
  • Problems of ECOWAS


1. The body has removed all customs duties in the areas of importation and exportation of goods within the sub-region.

2. Member states cooperate in the areas of sports and culture.

3. ECOWAS has helped to unite the people of member nations irrespective of the differences in ideology, beliefs and so on.

4. Formation of ECOMOG: ECOMOG was formed through ECOWAS to help maintain peace in the sub-region and it helped to restore democracy in Liberia and Sierra Leone.

5. Member states of ECOWAS spoke against Apartheid in South Africa and neo-colonialism.

6. The organization helped in removing all administrative restrictions on trade within the sub-region.

7. Member states mediate in disputes among states, e.g. Nigeria and Chad, Liberia, Sierra Leone and so on.

8. The body has eliminated obstacles to movements of persons, services and capital within the sub-region.


1. Language barrier: Member states of ECOWAS do not speak the same language.

2. Free movement: The free movement as provided by the Charter of ECOWAS is no longer automatic.

3. Different Ideology: Difference in ideology hinders the progress of the organization.

4. Common currency: The organization does not have a common currency.

5. Political instability: Frequent change in government of some countries hinders the successful operation of the organization.

6. Poor transportation and communication: These are some of the problems facing the organization

7. Similarity of products: Member states of ECOWAS manufacture similar products which makes trade among ECOWAS states difficult.

8. Fear of domination: Smaller states within the ECOWAS sub-region are afraid of being dominated by the larger states.

9. Shortage of fund: Most member states of ECOWAS do not pay their dues which hinders the organization form executing its projects.

10. Colonial masters: The political and economic activities of member states are tied to that of their former colonial master. So, their first loyalty goes to their former colonial masters not to ECOWAS.


1. Discuss 5 achievements of ECOWAS.

2. Highlight 5 shortcomings of ECOWAS


  1.  Highlight the features of the independence constitution
  2. What were the achievements of the constitution?
  3. Briefly describe what led to the Western election crisis of 1965
  4. Explain the causes of the general election crisis of 1983.


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 262-263

Comprehensive government by J.U. Anyaele 242-243


  1. ECOWAS is made up of ____ countries (a) 15 (b) 16 (c) 20
  2.  ECOWAS was established to promote ____ (a) political instability (b) economic trade (c) colonial rule 
  3. The Secretary General of ECOWAS is elected for a fixed term of (a) three years (b) four years (c) five years
  4. ECOMOG means (a) Economic Monitoring Group (b) ECOWAS Monitoring Group (c) ECOWAS Military Group.
  5. All the following are problems of ECOWAS except (a) removal of customs duties (b) language barrier (c) ideological differences.


  1. Discuss 4 areas where ECOWAS have recorded success.
  2. Explain 5 limitations of ECOWAS.




  • Origin
  • Aims and objectives
  • Organs


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (0PEC) , comprises of 13 third world petroleum producing countries , formed in 1960 to promote and protect the interest of its members. OPEC as an organization was formed as a reaction to the exploitative motives of multinational companies, which as at that time were controlling oil operation in the oil producing countries in 1960. Five oil producing countries met in Baghdad the capital of Iraq to form a union that will fight against the exploitative tendencies of multinational companies. The five countries that held the meeting were; Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Some other countries later joined the organization because of its effort in curtailing the activities of the oil companies. Countries like Algeria (1969), Nigeria (1971), Gabon and United Arab Emirate (1973), joined the organization.


1. OPEC was established so as to stabilize price of oil in the World market

2. To co-ordinate and unify: OPEC was formed to co-ordinate and harmonize oil policies of member nations to bring them in line with the standard set by OPEC.

3. Steady Income: It was also formed to stabilize oil income of its members states.

4. To ensure steady supply of oil to consuming nations.

5. Quota: To fix and allocate production quotas to member nations.

6. Protection of member states: It was formed to protect the interest of member states and also to ensure the participation of foreign multi-national companies in oil exploitation does not threaten the interest of member nations.

7. To negotiate for the participation of member nations in  oil exploitation and exploration.


i. Briefly describe the origin of OPEC.

ii. List five aims and objectives of OPEC.


1. The conference

2. The board of Governors

3. The Secretariat.


The Conference is the supreme organ of OPEC. Each member-nation is represented by its Minister of Petroleum who lead the a delegation to OPEC meetings. It meets twice in a year but the Secretary General can call for extra-ordinary meeting after due consultation with the President of the Conference and approved by a simple majority of member-states. The ordinary meetings of the Conference are held in Vienna, Austria, the organization’s headquarters and each member has a simple vote.


1. The Conference formulates the general policy of the organization and determines the appropriate methods and means of its implantation.

2. It appoints the Secretary General, the Deputy Secretary, the Chairman and the Alternate Chairman of the Board of Governors.

3. It approves the appointment of the members of the Board of Governors.

4. It considers the applications for membership of OPEC.

5. It approves the budget of the Organization.

6. The Conference considers and approves all reports and recommendations submitted by the Board of Governors.

7. It appoints auditors that examine the accounts of the organization.


This organ is made up of representatives called governor. Every governor has one vote and serves for a term of two years. The board meets at least twice a year.


1. It manages the affairs of the organization

2. It prepares agenda for the meeting of the conference.

3. The board implements the decisions made by the conference.

4. The board nominates the auditor of the organization.

5. The board also prepares the budget of the organization.

6. The board considers and submits the statement of account and the auditor’s report to the conference for approval.

7. The board considers and takes decisions on any report submitted by the Secretary General.


The Secretariat of OPEC is located in its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. The organ carries out the executive functions of the organization. The head of the secretariat is the Secretary General, assisted by a deputy Secretary General and other members of staff. The Secretary General has three years tenure and could be re-appointed.


1. The secretariat is responsible for all the correspondence of the organization.

2. It performs the executive and administrative functions of the organization.

3. It represents the organization.

The departments of the secretariat are;

i. Information department

ii. Economic department

iii. Administrative department.

iv. Technical department.      


1. List five functions of the conference of OPEC.

2. List five functions of the board of governors of OPEC.


  1. Explain the causes of the Kaduna state executive/legislative crisis of 1981.
  2. Enumerate the immediate causes of the civil war.
  3. Enumerate the positive consequences of the civil war


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 264-265

Comprehensive government by J.U. Anyaele pages 229-230


1. OPEC was established in____ (a) 1962 (b) 1970 (c) 1960

2. Nigeria was admitted into OPEC in the year____ (a) 1971 (b) 1970 (c) 1981

3. The supreme organ of OPEC is _____ (a) The Secretariat (b) The Board of Governors (c) The Conference

4. The annual budget of OPEC is prepared by the____ (a) Board of Governors (b) Conference (c) Secretariat

5. The headquarters of OPEC is located in_____ (a) London (b) New York (c) Austria.


1. Highlight 4 functions of the Conference of OPEC.

2. State 5 aims and objectives of OPEC




  • Achievements
  • Problems                                     


1. The organization has created a forum where member states can resolve their problems.

2. The organization has put the activities of multi-national companies to check.

3. The common fund established by the organization has helped to reduce the financial problems of the members.

4. The organization has encouraged member states to take part in oil exploration.

5. OPEC has succeeded to some extent in regulating production of oil and raising the prize of oil in recent time.


1. The issue of quota: Member states do not abide by the directives of the organization on oil quota.

2. The discovery of North sea oil and the competition is a great threat to prize stabilization.

3. Oil storage: The rate at which some developed countries are storing crude oil, is a great threat to OPEC.

4. Frequent international crisis has affected the prize of oil. e.g the Gulf war (1990-1991).

5. Economic depression worldwide can bring down the prize of oil.

6. Research: Some developed counties are carrying out research to find alternative to oil. This has negatively affected the prize of oil.


1. State 4 achievements of OPEC.

2. Give 3 failures of OPEC.


1. Highlight 4 functions of the Secretariat of OPEC.

2. What are the reasons for Nigeria making Africa the centre-piece of her foreign policy.

3. Mention the aims of O.A.U.

4. Mention the factors affecting Nigeria’s foreign policy.


Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 264-266

Comprehensive government by J.U. Anyaele pages 230-231


1. The current Secretary general of OPEC is (a)

2. The following are organs of OPEC except (a) Security council (b) the Conference (c) the Secretariat

3. The Conference of OPEC holds her meetings ——– in a year (a) twice (b) once (c) thrice

4. The Secretariat of OPEC is located in (a|) U.S.A (b) Britain (c) Austria

5. The Secretary general of OPEC stays in office for a period of _____ years (a) four (b) three (c) five


1. Give four functions of the Secretary General of OPEC.

2. Discuss the origin of OPEC.

Lesson Note Government SS3 Second Term

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