Lesson Note on Cultural and Creative Arts JSS 3 First Term

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SCHEME OF WORK JSS 3 CULTURAL AND CREATIVE ART

WEEK           TOPIC

  1.                 Nigerian Traditional Arts and Culture
  2.                 Exhibition and Display Techniques
  3.                 Embroidery
  4.                 Opportunities For Career Dramatist
  5.                 Uses of Music
  6.                 Review of Chords and Triads
  7.                 Drama and Development of Rural  Communities
  8.                 Contemporary Nigerian Arts and Artists
  9.                 Sight Reading and Singing
  10.                 Revision
  11. & 12.      Examination

REFERENCE TEXTBOOK

  • A Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi and Others. (Book 1,2and 3)

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WEEK ONE

TOPIC: NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL ARTS AND CULTURE

INTRODUCTION: Traditional art emerged after the period of prehistoric arts. Traditional artists in Nigeria engaged in creation of traditional artworks using various materials or media. Various traditional arts in Nigeria are discussed under the following headings:

  1. Period
  2. Location/Site
  3. Media used
  4. Characteristics or features style and functions.
  1. NOK ART CULTURE: Nok art culture is the oldest of all the art cultures in Nigeria. It has a rich historical and cultural background which makes it still relevant till today.

PERIOD: Nok art culture dated conservatively to between 500BC and 200 AD.

LOCATION: Nok art got its name from a small village ‘Nok’ near Jemma in Kaduna state

which is equally close to Jos in plateau state.

MEDIA USED: Nok art works were executed from clay.

CHARACTERISTICS OF NOK ART

  1. Nok sculptural figures are in terracotta (baked clay).
  2. Animal figures are more represented (detailed) than the human figures.
  3. The terracotta animal figures are more naturalistic while the terracotta human figures are

represented in stylish manner.

  • Terracotta human figures possess perforated eye pupils, nostrils and lips, triangular eyes

andeyes equally in segment of a sphere.

  • Terracotta human figures possess oval, cylindrical and spherical shaped heads.
  • Terracotta animal and human figures are free standing(three dimensional).
  • Terracotta human heads possess varying head dress well formed.
  • IFE ART CULTURE:IFE is believed to be the ancestral home of the Yorubas,with the Ooni of Ife being a traditional ruler.

PERIOD: Ife traditional arts dated back to the 9th century A.D or 900 AD.

LOCATION: Ife art culture dominated the Western part of Nigeria, precisely Osun state.

MEDIA USED: Ife artworks were made from clay and metal.

CHARACTERISTICS OF IFE ART

  1. Sculptural works in animal forms are only in terracotta (burnt clay).
  2. Ife figures possess scarifications and are heavily beaded.
  3. Ife figures are symbolic as many of them represent human beings in nearly life size,

although the head is in life size.

  • Ife works are mainly in three dimensional appearance.
  • Ife art is a court art like the art of Benin. The Ooni of Ife controlled the arts and artists.
  • The hair and beard are not added in the modeled figure but rather are shown with serial

holes which probably act as channel for weaving hairs to make it look real.

  • Ife works are naturalistic in appearance.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Write a brief account on Nok Art Culture.
  2. Discuss briefly on the history of the art of Ife.
  • BENIN ART: The people of Benin in ancient times suffered in the hands of theBritish during an invasion in 1897,in which most of their relief plaques and figurines were taken away by the British, including the Benin Ivory Mask,   which is used as a symbol of

FESTAC 77.Benin art comprises of folk art and court art.

PERIOD:Benin art dated back to the14th and 18th century AD. This is between 1440 to 1897.

LOCATION:Benin is located in the capital of Edo state known as Benin.

MEDIA USED: Traditional artists of Benin used wood, bronze, ivory, clay and stone in creating artworks.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BENIN ART

  1. Works of Benin are in wood, bronze,ivory, clay and stone.
  2. Bronze head of the Oba of Benin is heavily beaded around the neck. It equally possesses

thick vertical marks on the forehead, bogus cheek, beaded crown and three dimensional forms.

  • The bronze head of Queen Mother Iyeobu equally possesses similar features with the

bronze head of the Oba of Benin.

  • Bronze plaque is a relief or two dimensional work characterized with three traditional

chiefs of Benin possessing the Benin traditional costume, accessories and a staff in their hands.

  • ESIE ART

PERIOD:The art tradition dated back to about 1100 AD.

LOCATION: Esieis located in an Igbomina Yoruba town, South East of Ilorin and near Offa in Kwara state.

MEDIUM USED: The Esie figures were carved from soapstone.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ESIE ART

  1. Esie men and women statues have beads,bracelets and anklets.
  2. Esie men and women figures are seated on a stool.
  3. All Esie figures havethree horizontal straight lines between the eyes and ear and some

figures have vertical lines on the chin and a host of scarification or striated lines on the face.

  • Esie men and women statues are semi naturalistic.
  • IGBO UKWU ART

PERIOD: Igbo Ukwu art dates back to the 9th to 13th century A.D

LOCATION: Igbo Ukwu is located in Anambra state.

MEDIUM USED: Bronze

CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBO UKWU ART

  1. Works of Igbo Ukwu were made from clay and metal, precisely bronze.
  2. Igbo Ukwu bronze works are naturalistic and symbolic.
  3. Bronze pendant represents a ram’s head.
  4. Bronze snail shell is precisely 20.1cm in length which is the shape of a snail shell, a

decorated vessel surmounted by a leopard.

  • TSEODE BRONZES / NUPE ART (Tada figures): Tsoede art is basically all about monumental bronze figures.Tsoedeis the son to the Atta of Idahwho was banished from Idah. He laterboarded a bronze canoe and took some bronze works along.He traveledalong the river Nile in search of the Nupekingdom.He highlighted at three villages and kept bronze works there namely Jebba and Tada in theIsland of Giragi. The villages are now occupied by the Nupepeople in Kogi state.Tsoede, the son to the Atta of Idah whotraveled along the River Niger to find theNupe kingdom in the 14thcentury.He eventually found the Nupe kingdom and settled there.The Tsoede sculptural works in bronze are seated human figures,bronze animal figures like ostriches and elephant and are equally figures that are naturalistic .Most of the figures are meant for fertility.

PERIOD:Bronze works dated back to 13th and 14th century AD and flourished around 1100 AD.

LOCATION: Nupe is located around the middle belt of Nigeria. Bronze works of art were found in the Tada and Jebbavillage in the present Kogi State of Nigeria.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TSEODE ART

  1. The seated Tada bronze figure possesses broken arms and leg.
  2. The standing Tada bronze figure possesses a complex dress and a disc.
  3. Animal and human figures of Tada are naturalistic and symbolic.
  4. Works of Tada are formed in bronze.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. State the art tradition that is oldest of other art traditions in Nigeria.
  2. Write short notes on any two art traditions you know.

GENERAL EVALUATION / REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Highlight the three properties of colour.
  2. Mention five classes of colour and give a detailed explanation respectively.
  3. Mention one contribution of Pa AinaOnabolu towards art development in Nigeria.
  4. State three elements of art and design and explain.
  5. What is music?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi(Book 3).

REFERENCE PAGE: Pages 1 – 9. Attempt the revision questions.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. …..is a dominant raw material or medium of Esie art culture. (a) Wood (b) Soapstone (c) Bronze  (d) Brass
  2. Bronze traditional works of Benin were formed through the……(a) saved wax method (b) cireperdue lost wax process (c) etching method (d) modeling method
  3. Which of these art traditions in Nigeria is the oldest? (a) Nok art (b) Igbo Ukwu art (c) Tsoede art (d) Benin art
  4. Clay works of Nok were fired which suggest what term in art. (a) Green ware  (b) Terracotta  (c) Slip  (d) Glaze
  5. Benin art and Ife art are both called …………………..….(a) royal art (b) court art  (c) symbolic art (d) folk art

THEORY

  1. State two features of Nok Art Culture.
  2. Why is Ife art referred to as court art?

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WEEK TWO

TOPIC: EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY TECHNIQUES

DEFINITION: Exhibition can be defined as a public display of visual creative artworks.

WAY OF PREPARING WORKS OF ART FOR DISPLAY

  1. LABELLING: A piece of paper containing the title and sizes of artworks is attached to the artwork for better understanding among visitors.
  2. FRAMING: It involves balancing and proportioning by cutting coloured or white paper into a window format called “mat” and placing the artwork on it for a better display.
  3. FIXING: It involves placing a transparent glass to cover metal visual sculptural artwork and fixing wooden slab or fiber finished frame underneath to command aesthetically pleasing artwork.
  4. MOUNTING: It involves the application of skill and accurate measurement by sticking paper works in form of a picture ,painting and drawing to a larger piece of hard paper in order to prevent the four corners from getting damaged.
  5. MOUNTING OF ARTWORKS ON WALLS: It involves the skill of measurement for proper hanging and placement of artworks on walls.

EVALUATION

  1. What is exhibition?
  2. List the five ways of preparing artworks for display.

DISPLAY TECHNIQUES

  1. CATEGORIZING: The classification is very important in the selection of artworks. The arrangement of all exhibits must be in sections to distinguish eachartistic medium. For instance, sculpture and ceramic);(painting, graphics ,drawing, and textile)
  2. DESIGNING OF SPACE: All artworks should have a breathing space /volume to allow sight appreciation of content and forms. For instance, colours. Hence, this is one of the vital strategies in displaying an artwork.
  3. LIGHTING:The exhibition hall must be conducive in terms of lighting and ventilation.All visual artworks must be quite different from each other in the exhibition hall.
  4. DISPLAY STAND BOARD:A fabricated display stand board is necessary for hanging artworks for display.The production of the stand is a combination of a white painted flat wooden slab and four solid legs. Therefore, the display stand board should have the capacity to carry the hung artworks for a number of days during display.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the four display techniques.
  2. Explain any two display techniques you know.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State the difference between treble clef and bass clef.
  2. How many lines and spaces make up a staff (stave)?
  3. Write the letter names on the lines and spaces of the treble and bass stave.
  4. State the musical notes and their respective values.
  5. What is leger line in written music?

READING ASSIGNMENT

A Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi(Book 3).

REFERENCE PAGE: Pages 37 – 38. Attempt the revision questions.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ……..is the process of showcasing visual artworks to the public in the exhibition hall.

(a) Painting  (b) Sculpting  (c) Exhibition  (d) Marketing

  • The process of arranging artworks into sections within the exhibition hall is called………..(a) fixing (b) framing  (c) categorizing (d) mounting of artworks on walls.
  • ………………….is the process of cutting coloured or white paper into a window format (Mat) and placing the artwork on it for a better display.(a) Fixing  (b) Framing  (c) Mounting  (d) Labeling
  • The process of sticking a piece of paper with details about the artwork is what way of preparing artworks for display.(a) Labeling (b)Fixing  (c) Framing (d) Mounting of artworks on walls.
  • Which of the following apart from wall is required for  hanging artworks for a number of days during display? (a) Display stand board (b) Easel (c) Flat wooden board (d) None of the above.

THEORY

  1. List two ways of preparing artworks for display.
  2. State three display techniques in exhibition.

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WEEK THREE

TOPIC:  EMBROIDERY

DEFINITION: Embroidery refers to decorative stitches made on fabric. Embroidery is also a textile craft in which beautiful patterns are formed on fabric using needle and thread or embroidery sewing machine.

EMBROIDERY FACILITIES

  1. Needle
  2. Embroidery threads in various colours
  3. Automatic swing needle machine (embroidery machine)
  4. Light weight tracing paper
  5. Brown paper for initial practice
  6. Tracing wheel
  7. Embroidery hoops

TYPES OF EMBROIDERY

  1. Machine made embroidery
  2. Handmade embroidery

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is embroidery?
  2. State two embroidery facilities.
  3. Mention the two types of embroidery.

SOURCES OF EMBROIDERY DESIGNS: Embroidery design can be obtained from these sources as follow:

  1. Geometry
  2. Abstract
  3. Environment
  4. Flowers
  5. Nature etc.

METHODS OF TRANSFERRING DESIGNS

  1. TAILOR’S TACKING: Tailor’s tack is a loose looped sewing stitch used to transfer marking for darts etc., from a pattern to material. It entails transferring markings from a pattern to a piece of fabric. A loose stitch is formed through the fabric and the pattern piece then the stitches are cut, leaving a line of loose threads as your marks.
  2. PRICKING: This is also called prick and pounce. It is a method of transferring an embroidery design by using a pattern piece that is pricked with tiny holes ,placed on the fabric ,and then pounced  all over with powder that filters through the tiny holes leaving tiny dots on the fabric.
  3. TRACING METHOD:Tracing paper transfer method of marking an embroidery design  on fabric(sometimes referred to as thread tracing) uses a light  tissue or tracing paper that you have marked with your  pattern. It is a great way to transfer a design to fabric without actually marking the fabric.
  4. DIRECT DRAWING OF DESIGN ON FABRIC: Direct drawing method involves drawing free hand with the help of a pencil or water soluble pen on the fabric directly.

EMBROIDERY STITCHES

  1. Herring bone stitch
  2. Feather stitch.
  3. Button  hole stitch
  4. Loop stitch

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is embroidery?
  2. State two embroidery facilities.
  3. Mention two stitches employed in embroidery.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi.(Book 3)

REFERENCE PAGE:Pages 53 – 56.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ……….are decorativestitches made on fabric using needle and thread.
  2. Embroidery  (b) Macramé (c) Cloth weaving  (d) Needle craft
  3. Embroidery is a local craft practiced in Nigeria. (a) True (b) False (c) Maybe (d) Not sure
  4. …….is embroidery transfer method that requires the use of a water soluble pen to draw beautiful designs on fabric directly. (a) Pricking (b) Direct drawing (c) Tracing (d) Tailor’s tacking
  5. …..…involves the use of a light weight tracing that is marked with a pattern to transfer the embroidery design to fabric.(a) Tracing (b) Direct drawing (c) Pricking (d) Tailor’s tacking
  6. Handmade embroidery and machine made embroidery are……….….of embroidery. (a) types   (b) functions  (c) crafts  (d) motifs

THEORY

  1. Define pattern.
  2. Mention two sources of embroidery design.

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WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAREER DRAMATISTS

MEANING OF A DRAMATIST: A dramatist or playwright is a person who writes plays. A dramatist is simply a playwright or a person who writes plays. A dramatist is a playwright while a playwright is a writer and creator of theatrical plays.           

CAREER PROSPECTS OF A DRAMATIST/PLAYWRIGHT

(DRAMATIST’S  JOB)

A dramatist creates original written works such as scripts, essays, prose, poetry, or song lyrics for publication or performance. Playwrights are creative writers who create stories that are both fictitious and non fictitious, that often occur on stage. Playwrights bring about characters that are then brought to reality by the players. The written words once presented, create a piece of art which entertain, educate ,inform and move the audience.

NOTABLE NIGERIANS IN VARIOUS FIELDS

  1. PLAYWIGHTS: Professor Wole Soyinka ( He was awarded a noble prize in Literature in 1986 and the first African to be honored ) , Hubert Ogunde, BiyiBandele, BolajiOdofin, Jimi Solanke, NdukaOnwuegbute, Ola Rotimi , Ola O. Olugoke, Chinua Achebe etc.
  2. DIRECTORS: Adim Williams, Andy AmadiOkoroafor, Akin Omotoso , Andrew Dosunmu, Anthony Onah, BranwenOkpako, Chico Ejiro, Desmond Elliot , Alki David etc. 
  3. DESIGNERS: DeolaSagoe ,ZiziCardow, FolakeFolarin Coker etc. 

WAYS DRAMA AFFECT THE SOCIETY

  1. Positively deconstructing and reconstructing the society through written drama.
  2. Written works of dramatists cause a positive reformation and revolution in the mind of

the readers in the society.

  • Educating and informing the society through written and unwritten works.
  • Entertaining the society through artistic actions or renditions.
  • Spiritually elevating and connecting the reader to the creator.
  • Promoting the cultural heritage of the Nigerian people .
  • Exposing social vices and in turn teaching us moral lessons through the outcome of such

actions.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Who is a dramatist?
  2. Mention two names of playwright, director and designer in Nigeria.
  3. State two ways in which playwrights affect the society.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention the three primary triads.
  2. What is time signature?
  3. What is key signature?
  4. How many notes make a pentatonic scale?
  5. What musical sign is placed before a note to raise it by a semitone?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi. (Book 3)

REFERENCE PAGE: Pages 91– 99. Attempt the revision questions.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ……….…is a skilled drama personnel who creatively writes plays. (a) Playwright  (b) Poet  (c) Novelist  (d) Journalist
  2. Who among these playwrights in Nigeria won a noble prize in 1986 as an outstanding playwright of dramatic literature?    (a) Chinua Achebe (b) Prof. Wole Soyinka  (c) Ola Rotimi  (d) Ola Olugoke
  3.  Written works of a playwright or dramatist are solely based on …….and ………..… (a) fiction and non-fiction (b) religion and politics (c) None of the above  (d) All of the above.
  4. ‘The gods are Not to Blame’ is a written work by …….(a) Ola Rotimi (b) Ola Olugoke  (c) Prof. Wole Soyinka  (d) HurbertOgunde
  5. Written plays that are invented or imagined without being relevant to real life situations are based on ……….….(a) fiction   (b) non-fiction   (c) All of the above  (d) None of the above

THEORY

  1. Mention the name of two popular drama directors in Nigeria.
  2. State one renowned designer in Nigeria.

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WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: USES OF MUSIC

INTRODUCTION: Music plays a vital role in our everyday life. This makes music part of our lives from inception till this contemporary time. The uses of music are as follows:

  1. It is played to entertain guests during ceremonies.
  2. Music is played during cultural festivals to spice up the event.
  3. Music is played during religious worship.
  4. Music is played at the background during advertisement both on radio and television.
  5. Music is used by a medical practitioner in hospitals to treat patients.

IMPACTS OR EFFECTS OF MUSIC

  1. Music helps to build relationship.
  2. Music fosters brotherliness.
  3. Music creates awareness in the mass media.
  4. The lyrics of music mould and mar or destroy one’s life.
  5. Music helps to project important dignitaries in the society.
  6. Music is used by nursing mothers to send a baby to sleep.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention two functions of music.
  2. Highlight three ways music can impact the humans.

GENERAL EVALUATION / REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What are local crafts?
  2. Mention two notable areas in Nigeria where fabric dyers practise tie and dye.
  3. What is self control?
  4. State three ways in which one can exercise self control.
  5. What is teamwork?

READING ASSIGNMENT

A Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi (Book 3).

REFERENCE PAGE: Pages 83 – 87. Attempt the revision questions.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. …………….song gives a soothing relief to a bereaved person who lost a loved one.  (a) Funeral (b) Cradle   (c) Insult  (d) Folk
  2. ………….….is a kind of song that mothers sing to send a baby to sleep. (a) Lullaby  (b) Gospel song  (c) Folk song  (d) Insult song
  3. Music is a form of entertainment.(a) True  (b) False  (c) Maybe (d) Not sure
  4. Which one of these is NOT an impact of music? (a) Moulding and marring one’s life. (b) Creating disunity in the country  (c) Creating public awareness through the mass media  (d) building relationships
  5. Which one of these is not a function of music? (a) Killing one’s idea  (b) Adding life to an occasion   (c) Celebrating cultural festivals  (d) For religious worship

THEORY

  1. State two uses of music.
  2. Enumerate two effects of music.

WEEK SIX

TOPIC:REVIEW OF CHORDS AND TRIADS

DEFINITION OF CHORD: Chord refers to two,three or more notes that are played at the same time.Chord is also three or more notes that combine harmoniously in music.

DEFINITION OF TRIAD: Triad is a combination of three(3)notes which include the first,third and the fifth. Triad can be built on the degrees of the scale. Tonic triad is a chord made up of the 1st, 3rd and 5th. Therefore,tonic triad is built in the other major and minor scales.

TYPES OF CHORD:PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CHORDS

They include:

  1. PRIMARY CHORDS:This is built in the first, fourth and fifth.
  • SECONDARY CHORDS: This is built in the second,third, sixth and seventh.

The three minor triads of all major keys include: II,III,and VI

INVERSION OF TRIADS

 Inversion of triads occurs by placing the root or bottom note an octave higher and the top or upper note an octave lower.A third and sixth add up to nine since it is counted twice.The inversion of triadsis shown below:

  1. Triad in the root position which carries the figure base  5

 3

GClef.svg

  1. Triad in the first inversion with figure base 6                                                                                   

3

GClef.svg

  1. Triad in the second inversion with figure base 6                                                                                           

 4

GClef.svg

INVERSION OF TRIADS

As earlier mentioned,triad is a combination of three (3) notes, the 1st,3rd and 5th.Triad can be built on any of the degrees of the scale .The first degree in the root position is placed an octave higher. In the first inversion, the root note is placed an octave higher.

This is shown below:

GClef.svg

                                       C, E, G                                      E, G, C                                  G, C, E

            Triad in the root position                    First inversion in figure          Second inversion in

            in figure base 5                                   base 6                                      figure base 6

 3                                             3                                              4

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Define chord and triad respectively.
  2. Mention the three types of triad.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention three string instruments.
  2. State three blowing instrument of the aero phone family.
  3. Highlight three ways of exercising self control.
  4. What is sense of belonging?
  5. How did art penetrate the Nigerian school curriculum?
  6. Mention any three elements of drama.
  7. What is the difference between drama and theatre?

READING ASSIGNMENT

A Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi (Book 3).

REFERENCE PAGE:Visit the internet.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. …..refers to three or more notes that are played at the same time. (a) Chord  (b)Triad  (c) Melody  (d) Tune
  2. A group of three notes usually the first, third and fifth in music is called …………… (a) Chord  (b) Triad  (c) Brace  (d) Clef
  3. The inversion of the tonic triad in C major is ……………..….. (a) C E G (b) C G E (c) E C G (d) None of the above
  4. The primary chords or triads are built in the ……………………………………….. .(a) I,IV,V      (b) II,III,VI,VII  (c)  II,III,VI         (d) I,V,VIII
  5. The secondary chords or triads are built in the………………………………………..

(a) II,III,VI,VII        (b)  I,III,V  (c)  III,IV,VI     (d)  II,III,VI

THEORY

  1. What are the tonic solfas of the triad in the root position?
  2. Define inversion of triads.

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: DRAMA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

SUB TOPICS

  1. What Theatre for Development represents.
  2. The State of the Rural Communities.
  3. Ways drama can assist the rural people.

THEATRE FOR DEVELOPMENT

Theatre for development represents a live performance or theatre used as a developmental tool as in international development. It encompasses the following in person activities, with people before an audience:

  1. A spoken word drama or comedy.
  2. A music, singing and /or dance production.
  3. A production with movement but no sound.
  4. Participatory or improvisational techniques using any or all of these theatre for development as a progression from less interactive theatre forms to a more dialogical process , where theatre is practiced with people or by the way of empowering communities ,listening to their concerns, and then encouraging them to voice and solve their problems.

STATE OF RURAL COMMUNITIES

People inrural communities encounter the challenge of a slow pace development as a result of

youths migrating from rural communities to urban areas in search for white collars. This hampers the development of rural communities, since the youths play a key role in the development of such rural communities. It is being observed that in the rural communities of South East States of Nigeria, the level of development is low as a result of high level of poverty, low standard of living,and neglect by government in providing the basic amenities etc.

WAYS DRAMA CAN ASSIST RURAL PEOPLE

  1. Self motivation of people upon the provision of Western style of adopting best health practices through drama. Interactive dramatic techniques help members of rural communities assess their health needs and possible solutions to the problems they face in rural communities.
  2. By engaging the rural people through active participation in drama that serves as an avenue in which they can earn a living.
  3. Exposing rural people to televised drama that reveal events that happen in urban areas in order to inculcate or teach moral lessons.
  4. Taking some rural people on tour to urban areas where they can participate with actors in urban areas and learn more through drama.
  5. By using drama as a tool in rural communities to promote the culture ,tradition and belief of the rural people through their involvement in drama .This will to a large extent not only benefit the rural people but also those from all parts of the country and beyond in understanding the significance of their culture , tradition and belief.
  6. Organizing training programmes for the rural people to be adequately equipped in the art of drama and also for self empowerment.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What does theatre for development represent?
  2. State two other ways that drama can help the rural people.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What is contemporary art?
  2. Write a brief history on the art of the early men.
  3. Highlight the differences between relief sculpture and sculpture in the round.
  4. What is theatre design?
  5. Mention three elements that make up a theatre.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi, Book 3.

REFERENCE PAGE: Pages 91 –   95. Attempt the revision questions.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Which one of the following is NOT a way of assisting the rural people through drama? (a) Provision of opportunities for the rural people to participate in drama.      (b) Exposing the rural people to what is generally accepted as a norm in urban areas through drama. (c) Disregarding the culture of the rural people and paying more attention to the Western culture. (d) None of the above.
  2. A popular area in Lagos State where live dramas are performed…………(a) National Museum ,Iganmu ,Lagos State  (b)National Theatre ,Onikan, Lagos State (c) Esie Museum (d) None of the above
  3. Rural communities are underdeveloped compared to urban areas. (a) True  (b) False  (c) Maybe  (d) Not sure
  4. Drama is a means of promoting entertainment both in the rural communities and urban areas. (a) True (b) False (c) Maybe  (d) Not sure
  5. Traditional drama serves as a means of promoting the culture and tradition of people in rural communities. (a) True  (b) False  (c) Maybe  (d) Not sure

THEORY

  1. What does theatre for development represent?
  2. Describe the state of rural communities briefly.

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN ARTS AND ARTISTS

SUB-TOPICS

  1. Date and place of birth
  2. Schools attended
  3. Area of specialization
  4. Location of art works in public places
  5. Contributions of first generation Nigerian artists
  6. Ways of generating income through art.
  1. CHIEF PA AINA ONABOLU:  AinaOnabolu was born in Ijebu Ode in Ogun state. He was born in 1882 and died February 1963 in Lagos state. He attended St. John Wood Art School London and Julian Academy in Paris. He was a specialist as a painter and art educator.

LOCATION OF HIS WORKS

  1. Portrait of Lady Spencer Savage in 1906
    1. Portrait of Mr. Randle
    1. Portrait of Rt. Rev. Oluwole
    1. Portrait of Chief (Dr.) Sapara in water colour and several portraits showcased at the National Gallery of Modern Art, Lagos.
  • LAMIDI FAKEYE: LamidiOlonadeFakeye was born in IlaOrangun in Nigeria. He was born in 1928 and died 25th December 2009. In Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria He was a first generation Nigerian sculptor with reference to traditional Yoruba carving and academician.


LOCATION OF HIS WORKS

  1. Relief sculptural works and wooden statues in the round are located atGallery of Modern Art, Iganmu , Lagos.

EVALUATION

  1. Which contemporary Nigerian artist fought relentlessly for the introduction of art into the

Nigerian school curriculum?

  • State the area of specialization of  LamidiFakeye.

CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN ARTISTS

  • BEN ENWONWU: Ben Enwonwu was born in Onitsha, Anambra state. He was born on 14th July 1921 and died 5th February  1994.He attended Government Colleges in Ibadan and Umuahia respectively, where he was taught by Kenneth Murray who encouraged him in the subject between 1934 and 1937. He later attended Gold Smiths College, New Cross Ashmolean in Oxford and Slades School of Art where he graduated in 1947.He had his post graduate studies in Anthropology and Ethnography at the University of California, Los Angeles. He came to Nigeria in 1948.

LOCATION OF HIS WORKS

  1. A sculptural work called ‘Sango’ is located outside Power Holding Company of Nigeria

Headquarters in Marina, Lagos.

  • Statue of Queen Elizabeth II sitting on the throne outside House of Representative in

Lagos.

  • A statue called ‘Anyanwu’ (Awakening) outside the wall of National Museum, Iganmu

Lagos.

  • A relief work called ‘Risen Christ’on the door panel at the Chapel of Resurrection,

University of Ibadan.

  • AKINOLA LASEKAN: AkinolaLasekan was born inOwo, Ondo state. He was born in 1916 and died in 1972, precisely at the age of 56 years. He attended St. Patrick’s Central School, Owo where he had his primary education in  1932.He further travelled to England in 1945 and attended Hammer Smith School of Art. He was a painter and cartoonist.

LOCATION OF HIS WORKS

  1. Painting of a market scene located at Gallery of Modern Art, Iganmu , Lagos.
    1. Portrait of a Yoruba girl at Gallery of Modern Art, Iganmu , Lagos.
    1. Portrait of a Yoruba boy at Gallery of Modern Art, Iganmu , Lagos.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Give a brief account on the life,death and works of Ben Enwonwu and AkinolaLasekan.
    1. Define contemporary art and state one contribution of Ben Enwonwu and Akinola

Lasekan.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What key is the mediant in Eflat major scale?
  2. ……is a pattern of three beats to the measure.
  3. State the meaning of the Italian term “loud”.
  4. How many lines and spaces make up music staff?
  5. What are transposing musical instruments?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi, Book 3.

REFERENCE PAGE:Pages 10-31.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ……..championed the course for the introduction of art into Nigerian schools.               (a)AinaOnabolu(b) Yusuf Grillo(c) Demas Nwoko(d)LadiKwali
  2. Which one of the following is the father of contemporary Nigerian arts and artists?   (a) LadiKwali  (b) Yusuf Grillo (c) AinaOnabolu (d) Ben Enwonwu
  3. A popular Potter who was skillful in the modeling of earthen wares on the throwing wheel is…… (a) Yusuf Grillo (b) Ben Enwonwu  (c) LadiKwali  (d) Dele Jegede
  4. Who sculpted a free standing statue of a man holding an axe in one hand at the front of NEPA headquarters, Lagos State? (a)  Ben Enwonwu (b) Yusuf Grillo  (c) AinaOnabolu  (d) Yusuf Grillo
  5. The life and death of Chief Pa AinaOnabolu is between ………….and ……….……(a) 1987-1990  (b) 1882-1963  (c) 1756- 1897  (d) 1985-1997

THEORY

  1. Define contemporary art.
  2. State two outstanding works of Ben Enwonwu.

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: SIGHT READING AND SINGING (REVIEW OF LINES AND SPACES)

A stave or staff consists of five horizontal lines and four spaces. Notes are written on the lines and spaces of the treble or G clef and bass or F clef. On the lines and spaces of the treble stave, there are letter names E , F , G , A , B , C, D , E and F while on the lines and spaces of the bass stave, there are letter names G , A , B , C , D , E , F, G and A . A piece of music in the scale of C major begins from C and ends in C. The tonic solfas for the respective keys or notes in the scale of C major include do, re, mi, fa ,so, la, ti, do.

REVIEW ON NOTES, VALUES AND NUMBER OF BEATS

Musical Notes                                    Values                         Number of Crotchet Beats

  1. Semibreve                                              1                                           4
  2. Minim                                        1/2                                         2
  3. Crotchet                                                1/4                             1
  4. Quaver                                      1/8                                         1/2
  5. Semi Quaver                             1/16                                       1/4
  6. Demi Semi Quaver                   1/32                                       1/8
  7. Hemi Demi Semi Quaver                     1/64                                       1/16

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. What is ‘staff’ in music?
  2. How many notes make up the scale of C major?

SUB-TOPIC: MUSIC COMPOSITION

SINGING: This is the ability to sing a piece of music either as a group or as an individual. The National anthem is a musical composition and equally a sacred song of a country.

SETTING WORDS INTO MUSIC

INTRODUCTION: It is rather complex to set words to music. To set words to music, start by breaking the words into their constituent syllables. Any phrase or sentence you come across will have its own metre, such as the iambic parameter so prevalent in William Shakespeare. The authentic secret behind setting words to music is discovering where the strong and weak accents lie within the words. For example, take a look at this excerpt.

If we break it down into syllables, we get the following.

My Mis-tress’ eyes are no-thing like the sun.

Taking the process one step further, the next task is to highlight the strong and weakaccents as shown below.

Strong accents are shown in bold.

My Mis-tress’s eyes are no-thing like the sun.

This example uses a line from Shakespeare’s sonnet 130, written in iambic parameter where the strong-weak accents are regular.

EVALUATION QUESTIONS

  1. Define phrase and sentence in music respectively.
  2. How can a person set words into music?

CONSTRUCTION OF A SONG IN THE MAJOR SCALE WITH KEY SIGNATURE / CONSTRUCTION OF TONIC SOLFAS

The above music piece is based on the lyrics of the Nigerian National Anthem in key F major. This is shown below.

s, d  s, : d: m  s: :-: m f : m : r: r d

A rise    O compatriots; Nigeria’s call o – bey,

s, d:s, d: m s : – : m f  : m : r : r d :- :-

To serve our fatherland with love and strength and faith

r   r :- :-  m f : r m :-  f : s : s l : s : f : f : m

the la-bour of our he-roes past shall ne-ver be in vain

r:- :- : d s :-  s :- s m l :- :- r

vain ,To serve with heart and might one

r :-m:  f ., m : r l :-  : s :- f : m:  r:-  r d :- :-

Nation bound in freedom, peace and unity.

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISON QUESTIONS

  1. What is motif?
  2. Mention five types of motif.
  3. What is rest in music?
  4. Mention three transposing instruments of the aero phone family.
  5. What is improvisational theatre?
  6. State the difference between tragedy and comedy.
  7. What is comic dance?
  8. Distinguish between pure dance and dance drama.
  9. State the difference n between leger line and double bar line.

READING ASSIGNMENT

A Proper Approach to Cultural and Creative Art by Peter Akinyemi (Book 1, 2, 3).

REFERENCE PAGE: Visit the internet.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ………….is a type of clef in written music. (a) Leger line (b) Treble clef  (c) Double bar line  (d) Bar line
  2. ……………………is the musical value of the musical note ‘semibreve’. (a) ¼   (b) ½  

(c) 1/8    (d) 1

  • A piece of music in the scale of C sharp major has all the keys …………………………. (a) raised  (b) lowered  (c) modulated (d) None of the above
  • A series of five horizontal lines and four spaces makes up a ………………(a) stave 

(b) clef (c) brace  (d) None of the above.

  • Music is a combination of organized sounds that is pleasant to the ear.      (a) True 

(b) False (c) Maybe  (d) Not sure

THEORY

  1. Write out the tonic solfas in the scale of C major.
  2. What is scale in music?

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