Lesson Notes on Home Economics JSS1 Third Third Term

Home Economics Lessons JSS1 Third Term – Edudelight.com

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEKSTOPICS
1Basic sewing processes: permanent stitches and temporary stitches
2Basic sewing processes: decorative stitch e.g. satin, stem, herringbone e.t.c. seams.
3Production of clothing and household articles/craft: list and explain simple relevant household articles and crafts, tools, equipments and materials for making a simple relevant articles and crafts.
4(Practical work) Production of clothing and household articles/craft: construction of simple relevant articles e.g. apron, cap, bag, table mat, arm rest, head tie e.t.c.
5 & 6Puberty and adolescence: meaning of Puberty and adolescence, signs of puberty in boys and girls, needs and challenges of the adolescence
7Sexually transmitted infections (STIs, HIV/AIDs) meaning, causes, signs and prevention of STIs, HIV/AIDs.
8Fundamental human right and rights of the child: enumerate the rights of the child
9 & 10Entertainment in the home: meaning of entertainment, host/hostess, guests, importance of entertainment, preparation for entertainment, writing of invitation letter, types of entertainment styles e.g. cocktail, buffet, tray and table service, table laying.
11 & 12Revision and Examination

WEEK:                      ONE                                                              

TOPIC:                      BASIC SEWING PROCESSES

SUB-TOPIC:             TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT STITCHES

CONTENT

STITCHING

Stiching is the process of passing threaded needle and thread in and out of a material to make a specific design. The design produced is made up of STITCHES.

IMPORTANCE OF STITCHES IN CLOTHING CONSTRUCTION

Stitches are used to:

  1. Join two or more pieces of fabric together.
  2. Make decorative designs on articles.
  3. Mend tears in clothes.

TYPES OF STITCHES

There are broadly three types of stitches: the temporary, the permanent and the decorative stitches.

  1. TEMPORARY STITCHES:

These hold pieces of fabric together temporarily. They are removed as soon as they have served their purposes. Examples of temporary stitches are:

  1. EVEN BASTING OR TACKING: The stitches and spaces between them are equal. Work from right to left. Begin with the thread knotted or make a back stitch.
  2. UNEVEN BASTING OR TACKING: This is made up 0f short and long stitches.
  3. DIAGONAL BASTING: This is useful for holding together two or more layers of materials to prevent them from slipping out of position until finally stitching is completed. Start with a knotted thread. Push the needle vertically through all layers.
  4. TAILOR’S TACKS: These are used for transferring pattern marking to two pieces of fabric at the same time. They are only suitable for thick strong cloth.
  • PERMANENT STITCHES:

These are used for joining two or more separate pieces of material together permanently. The thread used should match the fabric in terms of texture and colour. Permanent stitches include:

  1. RUNNING STITCHES: This is used in making a line or in joining two pieces of material. To make, start with two backstitches. Then push the needle tip in and out of the material, making small regular stitches. Work one stitch at a time.
  2. BACK STITCH: This is a strong hand stitch that can be used in place of straight machine stitching. To make:
  3. Fasten on the thread.
  4. Take one long running stitch.
  5. Take a stitch back, and then bring the needle out again a little way along the seam line.
  6. Repeat to desired length.
  1. OVER SEWING STITCH: This is a strong, fine, light stitch used to join finished edges together. To make:
  2.  Bring folded edges together and insert needle through front edge.
  3. Slip needle through edges, at right angles to them, picking up little material.
  4. To end, sew back three or four stitches and slip needle between edges and cut thread.
  1. HEMMING STITCH: This is a slanting stitch used to hold down garment hems. It is worked from the wrong side of the garment. To make:
  2. Baste hem in position and press.
  3. Sew from right to left securing the thread.
  4. Slant the needle and pick about two threads from the fabric below the folded edge of the hem.
  5. Continue and end with two backward stitches. Cut off the thread.

Evaluation:

  1. Define stitching and stitches
  2. Enumerates the importance of stitches
  3. Classify stitches into temporary and permanent give their examples

Assignment:

  1. What is embroidery stitches?
  2. State five examples of embroidery stitches.

WEEK:                      TWO

TOPIC:                      BASIC SEWING PROCESSES (CONTD.)

SUB-TOPIC:             SIMPLE EMBROIDERY OR DECORATIVE STITCHES AND SEAM

CONTENT

EMBROIDERY OR DECORATIVE STITCHES

These are used for decorating the garments. Some can also be used for finishing raw edges. Examples include:

  1. STEM STITCH: This is useful for outlining designs. To make:
  2. Make the necessary design on fabric.
  3. Insert the needle at the tip of the line to be stitched.
  4. Bring the needle out half- way down the space made before.
  5. The thread must be kept below the needle and the needle bought out exactly where the previous stitch finished.
  • CHAIN STITCH: This gives an appearance of even back-stitch on the wrong side. To make
  • Make necessary design.
  • Fasten thread using backstitch.
  • Bring out needle and the thread a short distance away.
  • Repeat and continue until the end.
  • Fasten thread and cut off.
  • SATIN STITCH: This is used for filling design, in making appliqué, etc. To make:
  • Draw the design or motif.
  • Insert the needle at one edge of the design.
  • Fasten with a few running stitches.
  • Then insert needle again at the opposite edge.
  • Return to the starting edge by passing the needle underneath the material.
  • Repeat following the outline of the design.
  • Make stitches close together and parallel.
  • FRENCH KNOTS: This can give a seeded effect of a motif or design. There are different variations of the French knots.
  • HERRING- BONE STITCH: This is worked at two levels. It appears the same on both the right and wrong sides of the article.

SEAMS

A seam is the line of stitching that joins two or more pieces of cloth. There are different types of seams. It is important to choose the correct seam for any given article or part of garment.

POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING A SEAM

  1. Kind of material or fabric being sewn. For instance, flat seams (e.g. run- and fell) are suitable for bulky materials like wool. French seam is suitable for thin material like silk.
  2. Purpose or use of the garment. For instance, flat seams are suitable for night gowns.
  3. The person to wear the clothes. For instance, flat seams such as run- and- fell seam are suitable for children’s clothes that require constant washing.
  4. Position of the seam. For instance, lapped seam is suitable for curved seams.

TYPES OF SEAMS

  1. OPEN OR PLAIN SEAM: This is the simplest and most commonly used seam. It has little bulk. It leaves raw edges that need to be finished or neaten. To make:
  2. Place the right side of material together.
  3. Mark seam line.
  4. Pin, tack and sew from wrong side of fabric with proper seam allowance.
  5. Remove tacking thread and press open the seam.
  6. Finish or neaten the raw edges.
  1. FRENCH SEAM: This is a flat seam. It does not show from the right side. All raw edges are completely enclosed. It is suitable for children’s clothes. To make:
  2. Place wrong sides of fabric pieces together.
  3. Pin and tack along fitting line (seam line).
  4. Remove pins and sew 3- 6mm nearer the edge than seam line, using back- stitch or machine.
  5. Trim the seam allowance carefully.
  6. Remove tacking and fold the fabric right sides together.
  7. Roll the seam between fingers and thumbs until stitching is along the edge.
  8. Tack and press into place.
  9. Sew along seam line.
  10. Remove tacking and press.
  11. RUN- AND- FELL SEAM: This lies flat with two rows of stitching on the right side of the garment. All raw edges are enclosed. Thus no extra neaten is required. It is strong and durable. To make:
  12. Place wrong side fabric together and make a plain seam.
  13. Press the seam to one side.
  14. Trim the underneath seam allowance to about 3mm.
  15. Trim the upper seam allowance to about 10mm.
  16. Fold and press the upper seam allowance over the lower one.
  17. Sew through all layers close to the folded edge. Press.
  • LAPPED OR OVERLAID SEAM: This is visible on the right side. It is very strong. It is commonly used on curved or pointed seams where stitching from the inside is difficult. It is also used to give decorative effect. To make:
  • Mark the lapping lines on each pieces of fabric.
  • Turn under the seam allowance on the overlay to the wrong side.
  • Press and tack into place.
  • Prepare the underlay.
  • Place the overlay right side up on the underlay. Match fitting lines, as well as patterns.
  • Pin and tack the folded edge of the overlay onto the seam line of the underlay.
  • Sew 3- 6mm from the fold through all layers
  • Trim and neaten the seam allowances on the wrong side.

Evaluation:

  1. What is embroidery stitches?
  2. State five examples of embroidery stitches.
  3. Define seams and give the examples

Assignment:

Make a chart showing different types of decorative stitches.

WEEK:          THREE & FOUR (PRACTICAL WEEKS)

TOPIC:          PRODUCTION OF CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES/CRAFTS

SUB-TOPIC:         TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT FOR MAKING HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES

CONTENT

HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES/CRAFTS

Home economics teaches people to produce different types of articles or crafts for personal use or for the home. Students can produce some of these household crafts and sell them to make little pocket money.

SIMPLE RELEVANT HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES AND CRAFTS

  1. Apron
  2. Cap/head-tie
  3. Needle-Work bag
  4. Tray cloth
  5. Handkerchief
  6. Head-rest
  7. Table mat
  8. Purse curtain holder
  9. Bibs
  10. Arm-rest
  11. Shopping bag
  12. napkins
  13.  Table cover
  14. Oven Gloves.

MATERIALS, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT NEEDED FOR PRODUCING

HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES/CRAFTS

  1. Plain or patterned cotton fabric
  2. Matching thread
  3. Needle
  4. Scissors
  5. Pieces of calico/baft cloth
  6. Sewing kit.

Evaluation & Assignment: students should produce different types of permanent, temporary and decorative stitches and also make simple household articles with the guidance of the teacher.

WEEK:                      FIVE & SIX

TOPIC:                      PUBERTY AND ADOLESCENCE

SUB-TOPIC:             NEEDS AND CHALLENGES OF ADOLESCENCE

CONTENT

MEANING OF PUBERTY;

Puberty is the short span of time which marks the beginning of sexual maturation. This period differs between boys and girls. Boys generally reach puberty at about the age of 14 years. Girls reach it at about 12 years of age. There are individual differences Therefore, these periods cannot be the same for everyone and for everybody.

SIGNS OF PUBERTY IN BOYS

  1. Hair begin to grow on different parts of the body such as the armpit, pubic region,
  2. Beard around the jaw and a moustache above the upper lip.
  3. Voice breaks and becomes deeper.
  4. There is change in general body appearance as muscles develop. The boy may need Larger and new clothes.
  5. Sex organs develop. Sex glands called testicles produce spermatozoa or sperm.

SIGNS OF PUBERTY IN GIRLS

  1. The breasts develop.
  2. The body changes.
  3. Hair grows on her armpits and pubic region.
  4. Menstruation begins.
  5. There could be skin changes and problem such as pimples.

MEANING OF ADOLESCENCE

       Adolescence is the period in every person’s life that lies between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood. It is a period of time a person matures and moves from childhood to adulthood. This is a period of life when you prepare to be an adult

ADOLESCENT

An adolescent boy or girl is someone that is passing through the adolescent period.

SPECIAL NEEDS AND CHALLENGES OF ADOLESCENT

These challenges are the problems which the adolescent often face. The adolescent are neither children nor adults. They often have problems as they relate with people. Their challenges include;

  1. ADJUSTMENT: They have problem adjusting to their physical changes for instance, the girls have to cope with enlarged breast and menstruation, the boy copes with changed voice and bigger penis. They are often uncomfortable, clumsy and anxious.
  2. STATUS: They want to behave like adults, yet they are not fully adults. Boys may try to smoke and girls may try putting on make- ups
  3. INDEPENDENCE: Adolescents often want to do things their own way. They do not like to be directed or guided by parents or other adults. This is often a source of problem
  4. NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT: Adolescents want to excel, when they fail, they become unhappy
  5. PEER PRESSURE: They often want to go along with their peers. There could be negative influences from peer group, for instance, in dressing, feeling and expression of sexuality
  6. PHYSICAL NEEDS: These arises as a result of the physical changes going on in adolescent. These needs include:

Balanced food needed for proper development

New clothes to replace outgrown old ones

Girls will need brassiere as their breasts develop

  • NEEDS FOR PARENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT:

            Parents should:

  • Understand what their adolescent children are passing through
  • Be more tolerant
  • Communicate freely, advice and encourage adolescents.

Evaluation:

  1. What is puberty and adolescence?
  2. State five signs of puberty in boys and girls
  3. Mention the needs and challenges of adolescence.

Assignment:

Make a chart showing different types of decorative stitches.

WEEK:                      SEVEN

TOPIC:                      SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIs, HIV/AIDs)

SUB-TOPIC:             MEANING, CAUSES, SIGNS AND PREVENTION

CONTENT

MEANING OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS)

Sexual activity comes with risks of sexually transmitted diseases/infections (STDs/STIs), including HIV/AIDS. While some can be treated, others cannot. They can cause very serious damage to the body and even death. STD is an illness spread from one person to another through sexual contact.

TYPES OF STDs

  1. GONORRHEA: This is caused by the bacterium “Neisseria gonorrhoea”. It is spread through sexual contact between infected persons.
  2. Itching and discharge from penis and vagina
  3. Painful urination
  4. Can cause infertility
  5. If a pregnant woman has the disease, her child’s eyes will be affected at birth.
  • SYPHILIS:  It is caused by the bacterium “Treponema pallactium”. It is spread through sexual contact between infected persons.
  • Sores on the sex organs
  • Fever, aches, rashes and hair loss. 
  • At later stages, it affects the heart, eyes and brain.
  • It can leads to insanity and death.
  • ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): one of the most frightening of all STDs is AIDS. It is caused by:
  • A virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • HIV enters the body of a person and kills the cells of the immune system.
  • HIV makes the body weak and less able to fight sickness.
  • People with HIV in their body go on to become sick with AIDS. AIDs results in death.

HOW HIV CAN BE SPREAD

  1. Having sex with someone who already has HIV
  2. Transfusion of infected blood
  3. Use of a needle or blade that has been used on a person with HIV and not sterilized afterwards.
  4. Women with HIV can pass it to their babies. The baby becomes infected in any of these three ways;
  5. While in the mother’s womb
  6. At birth
  7. Through the breast milk (breast feeding).

SIGNS OF HIV/AIDS

  1. People with HIV/AIDS suffer sickness like fever, rashes and diarrhoea.
  2. They also lose weight
  3. Death is the final result.

TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

  1. At the moment, there is no known cure for HIV/AIDS.
  2. There are however, medicines that can help infected persons to fight off the sickness that come with HIV/AIDS
  3. Antibiotics and other medicines can help people with HIV/AIDS to feel much better and help to live longer.

WAYS STIs AND HIV CAN BE PREVENTED

  1. Do not have sex until you get married, when you are married; stay faithful to your partner.
  2. An infected and already sexually active person must have sex only with a mutually faithful partner who is also known to be unfaithful.
  3. In all other situations, individuals are advice to use condom during sex.
  4. Women with HIV should seek advice before getting pregnant.
  5. Avoid blood transfusion as much as possible
  6. When you cannot avoid a blood transfusion, insist on having blood which has be tested for HIV.

Evaluation:

  1. Mention the different types of STIs
  2. State causes and ways of preventing STIs, HIV/AIDs

Assignment:

What are the effects of HIV/AIDs to the victims, the victims’ families and the nation?

WEEK:                      EIGHT

TOPIC:                      FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS

SUB-TOPIC:             RIGHTS OF THE CHILD 

CONTENT

FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS

MEANING OF RIGHT

            A right is a statement showing the following

i.          A natural due

ii.         A moral claim

iii.        A legal entitlement.

Right can also be called freedoms and benefits that are guaranteed to people by law.

DEFINITION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

            Fundamental rights of every Nigerian person are the legal entitlements of each one of us. They are the rights that are written in the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Chapter IV Sections 33-43, pages 18-26. These include:

  1. Right to life: no one shall be deprived intentionally of his life.
  2. Right to dignity of human person: No one shall for instances be subjected to inhuman treatment.
  3. Right to fair hearing: Every human person is entitled to a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court or other tribunal established by law without partiality.
  4. Right to private and family life: The privacy of citizens, their homes, correspondence, and telephone conversation is guaranteed and protected.
  5. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
  6. Right to freedom of expression and the press.
  7. Right to peaceful assembly and association.
  8. Right to freedom of movement.
  9. Right to freedom from discrimination: no citizen of Nigeria is expected to be discriminated against sex, religion or political opinion.
  10. Right to acquire and own immovable properly anywhere in Nigeria.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHILD’S RIGHT

The United Nations (UN) convention on the rights of the child was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 20th of November, 1989.

The following are the basic principles of child’s right.

  1. Every child has the right to life and be allowed to survive and develop.
  2. Every child is entitled to a name, family and nationality.
  3. Every child has the right to express opinions and freely communicate them on any issues subject to restriction under the law.
  4. Every child is entitled to adequate rest, recreation (leisure and play) according to his/her age and culture.
  5. Every child is entitled to receive compulsory basic education.
  6. Every child is entitled to good health, protection from illness and proper medical attention.
  7. Every child must be protected from indecent and inhuman treatment through sexual exploitation, drug abuse, child labour, torture, maltreatment and neglect.

Evaluation:

  1. What is human right?
  2. State the fundamental rights of every Nigerian person
  3. Mention five rights of a Nigerian child

Assignment:

Explain ways in which someone’s rights can be violated.

WEEK:                      NINE & TEN

TOPIC:                      ENTERTAINMENT IN THE HOME

SUB-TOPIC:             TYPES OF ENTERTAINMENT STYLES AND TABLE LAYING

CONTENT

MEANING OF ENTERTAINMENT

Entertainment in a home means receiving people in the home and giving them food, drinks, etc. It also means making people feel happy. It involves organizing formal or informal parties. A female who entertains is a hostess, while a male is a host. The person who is entertained is the guest.

IMPORTANCE OF ENTERTAINMENT

  1. Entertain is a way of building good relationships among people.
  2. It gives you practice in being a hostess or host.
  3. It is a way of showing and sharing love.
  4. It makes people (hostess, host and guest) happy.
  5. It helps people learn how to treat others, for instance, respect of people’s feelings.
  6. It can help people develop interests and acquire skills needed in hospitality industry, such as hotels and restaurants.
  7. It gives the host/ hostess opportunity to prepare different types of dishes (meals) and snacks.
  8. It helps people learn how to serve others.
  9. It provides for relaxation which is necessary for good health.

PREPARATION PROCEDURE FOR ENTERTAINMENT

There are many ways of preparing for entertainment. These are the things which the host/ hostess has to do:

  1. Preparation and sending out invitation letters or cards.
  2. Preparation of the house/hall/venue.
  3. Collection and arrangement of equipment and materials.
  4. Preparation of refreshment/ food. (The amount of preparation needed depends on the type of party and number of people invited).

PREPARATION AND SENDING OUT INVITATION LETTERS OR CARDS

Preparation and sending out of invitation or cards are very important. This is because the guests are very important in any party. Without the guests there will be no entertainment. The invitation letters, cards or telephone calls must be prepared and sent early enough.

Invitations can be issued in person, on the telephone or by written cards. FORMAL parties are often by cards, while INFORMAL ones may be verbal or telephone. A complete invitation letter regardless of its form should include:

  1. The name of the host/ hostess.The type of event.The date.Time and place of the party.The name of the guest.

PREPARATION OF THE HOUSE/ HALL/ VENUE

The venue or place for the party can be the family house or a hall outside the home.

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF THE VENUE

  1. Ensure that the space is enough for the number of guests.
  2. Provide enough seats and tables for the guests.
  3. Clean the room or hall thoroughly. Remove all cobwebs, dust and dirt on walls, windows, doors, floor and other surfaces.
  4. Clean the chair thoroughly. No guests will like his/ her clothes to be soiled by sitting on dirty chairs.
  5. Arrange the chair and tables properly. Make sure that there are enough waling/ movement spaces for the guest and for services. Provides spaces between tables.
  6. Decorate the table with good table- clothes.
  7. Hang some decorative pieces on the walls. This should be done properly.
  8. The colours used in decoration should be in harmony.
  9. Decorate with properly arrange flowers. Large flower arrangements should be use in small rooms.
  10. The room or hall should be properly ventilated, that is, airy.
  11. There should be a good light in the room or hall.  

COLLECTION AND ARRANGEMENT OF EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

The equipment and materials which are often used in parties include musical equipment such as stereo and accessories, plates, cutlery, cups, serviettes, straws for drinks, gifts/ souvenir, drinks, food items, etc. All theses must be carefully collected and arranged before the party.

GUIDELINES FOR COLLECTION AND ARRANGEMENT OF

EQUIPMENT     AND MATERIALS

  1. Determine the number of guests expected to attend the party.
  2. Decide on the types of food and drinks to serve.
  3. Draw up a shopping list for food, drinks, gifts/ souvenir, decoration materials, etc. Consider the money at hand. Budget within the limit of your money.
  4. Plan for the provision of plates, cutlery, cups, etc. Where possible disposables can be used.
  5. Plan for careful serving of drinks, food and take- away gifts.
  6. Plan for music equipment and other things.
  7. Plan for clearing up and washing of plates, cutlery, etc.
  8. Share responsibilities among those who are going to help with the party.
  9. Determine the positions for the placement of equipment, food, and other items in the room or hall.
  10. Start all preparations, cooking, arrangement of hall, etc, well ahead of time.
  11. The host/ hostess must be ready to receive the guests before they arrive.

REFRESHMENT/ FOOD FOR ENTERTAINMENT

The type of refreshment/ food and method of serving will depend on:

  1. The type of part, for instance tea party, cocktail, formal or informal, buffet parties.
  2. The type of food being served.
  3. The duration of the party, that is, the length of time for the party.
  4. The space available in the room or hall.
  5. The number of people eating.
  6. The number of people available for serving and clearing up.

COMMON STYLES OF SERVING FOOD.

  1. TRAY SERVICE: Here food and drinks are served in individual trays.
  2. FAMILY- STYLE SERVICE: Dinner plates are arranged at each person’s place. The foods are in serving dishes on the table and are passed around from person to person to help themselves.
  3. PLATE SERVICE: The food is placed in each person’s place in the kitchen or from one corner of the hall. The food could be in food warmers. The filled plates are brought to the table or handed over to guest by hand.
  4. BUFFET SERVICE: Plates, napkins, serviette, food, and drinks are arranged on the buffet table and guests help themselves to the food. This is an easy way of entertaining a large number of guests.

GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES/ CHARACTERISTICS OF A HOST/ HOSTESS.

Some of these responsibilities are also part of the preparations already discussed. A good host or hostess should be able to:

  1. Decide on the type of the party to give and discuss with the family.
  2. Plan the party thoughtfully and prepare in advance.
  3. Decide on :
  4. The date of the party.
  5. The number of people to invite.
  6. The kinds of food to serve.
  7. The activities for the party.
  8. Send invitation letters to guests well in advance. This is to enable them make plans to attend your party.
  9. Plan the menu and activities for the party.
  10. Make a comprehensive shopping list.
  11. Shop wisely.
  12. Clean and decorate your home for the party.
  13. Get dressed and ready to receive your guests before they arrive.
  14. Get everything ready before time.
  15. Welcome guests as they arrive and take them to their seats.
  16. Introduce guests to each other and to your parents. An introduction helps strangers to fell at ease.
  17. Involve all guests in the activities (e. g. dancing, games, etc.). Help the shy guests to get involved in activities without embarrassing them.
  18. Serve food smartly and ensure that each guest has enough.
  19. Be friendly, warm and enthusiastic.
  20. Lead and encourage conversation but do not monopolize it. A host/ hostess should be able to communicate easily with people.
  21. At the end of the party see guests off to the door and thank them for attending.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF A GUEST

A good guest is as necessary to the success of a party as a skilful host/ hostess. Whenever you accept an invitation to a party, you have the following responsibilities:

  1. Reply to the invitation to a party. Accept as soon as possible. Or let the host know at once if you cannot attend.
  2. Dress properly for the party.
  3. Do not be late for the party.
  4. Cooperate with the host/ hostess.
  5. Treat other guests in a friendly way.
  6. Take part in all the activities planned by the host/ hostess.
  7. Do not misbehave during the party.
  8. Respect the host/ hostess and other guests.
  9. Do not engage in long private conversations and ignore other guests.
  10. When the party is over, thank the host and go home.

TABLE LAYING

Table laying is the process of setting a table. It means the arrangement of tableware or table appointment (plates, glasses and cutlery) for each person who will be eating a meal.

IMPORTANCE OF TABLE LAYING

Table laying is important because

  1. It makes the dining table more attractive.
  2. It makes the meal more convenient to eat.
  3. It helps to make the meal more enjoyable.
  4. It helps in training younger children on table manners.

GUIDELINES AND PROCESSES OF TABLE LAYING

Table can be set or laid for both formal and informal meals.

  1. Determine the number of persons to be served and the menu before laying the table. Each person must have a COVER. A COVER refers to the place set for a person on the table mat, glass cup, side plate, and table napkin for each person. A cover normally is about 60cm long.
  2. Make the table design simple and natural.
  3. Choose and use colour and materials to achieve an attractive table design.
  4. The table setting should complement the meal. The materials used for table setting should suit the type of meal and the method of serving it.
  5. Aim at the comfort and enjoyment of the people who are going to eat the food. For instance, high flower arrangement which could make conversation across the table awkward should be avoided. When deciding where each cover is to be placed, the size and shape of the table as well as the convenience of serving must be considered.
  6. The dining room, table linen, and all other materials required for the meal must be properly cleaned.
  7. The pieces of cutlery should be placed fairly close together.

MATERIALS FOR TABLE SETTING

The following materials are necessary for table setting.

  1. Table cloth.
  2. Side plate.
  3. Meat fork.
  4. Soup spoon.
  5. Tumbler or glass cup.
  6. Table napkin or serviette.
  7. Place mats.
  8. Bread knife.
  9. Meat knife.
  10. Dessert spoon and fork.
  11. Wine glass.

PROCEDURE FOR INFORMAL TABLE SETTING

Family meals are often informal. They can be made up of two or three courses. A THREE- COURSE meal could be made up of:

  1. Soup as a first course.
  2. Jollof rice with beef as the second course.
  3. Dessert, e. g. fruit salad, as the third course.

To Set The Table:

  1. Collect every item you need for the table setting on a tray or trolley where available.
  2. Lay the tablecloth on the table. Place the centre fold of the cloth to the centre of the table. Draw down the edge of each side and ensure that it hangs evenly round the table.
  3. A good flower arrangement at the centre of the table adds colour to it.
  4. Place the placemats for each cover. Allow enough space for each person and for serving the meal.
  5. To place the cutlery, starts from outside and work in. Cutlery for the first course is on the outside of the setting and so on.

Evaluation:

  1. Explain the meaning of entertainment, host/hostess and a guest.
  2. State five importance of entertainment.
  3. Enumerate the preparation procedure for entertainment.
  4. List and explain the different types of entertainment styles.

Assignment:

Write an invitation letter inviting inviting a friend of yours to your 10th year birthday party. Putting into consideration the important imformations that must be included.

WEEK:                      ELEVEN

TOPIC:                      REVISION

WEEK:                      TWELVE

TOPIC:                      EXAMINATION

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