Civic Education Lesson Note SS 2 Second Term

Lesson note on Civic Education SS 2 Second Term –


1Revision of last term’s work
2Popular participation
-Types of popular participation (a) Campaign (b) Donation (c) Contesting election
-Reasons why people do not participate in politics i.e. economics obstacles, discriminations, illiteracy
-How popular organisations are formed
3Human Rights
– Limitation of human rights (a) War (b) State of emergencies (c) Conviction in high court (d) madness or unsound mind etc. 
– Definition of emergency
-Limitation of movement
-Lack of freedom of speech
-What are the roles of individual during emergency period
5Drug and Drug Abuse
– Definition
-Types of drugs and drug abused
– Importance of drug
-Cause of drug abuse
6Effect of drugs and drug abuse
-Symptoms of drug abuse
-Behaviour of drug abuse
7Drug and drug abuse (continues)
– Prevention of drug abuse
-List of some of the government organisation agencies working to protect
8Drugs and drug abuse (Continues)
– Identify drug laws promulgated by the government
– Describe some of the activities of drug law enforcement
-Burning fake or expired drugs
-Closing identified fake drug market
-Arresting drug traffickers Prosecuting drug traffickers
9Project work
-Vacating and visiting some of the agencies concerned with drug law enforcement
-Browsing through the internet the locate other world agencies responsible for drug law enforcement
10Drug use and abuse
-Government roles in fighting drug abuse and trafficking
– Group roles in fighting drug abuse and trafficking
– Individual’s roles in fighting drug abuse and trafficking
– Treatment of drug addicts/rehabilitation


It is the willingness of a large percentage of the populace to participate in major decision, political affair and on politics of their country. It is the un-restricted opportunities of the majorities of the citizenry in respective of the social economy status to make their opinion and interest known in national issues.

It is very vital in the policy of a state as it is one of the factors exposing the legitimacy of the government or any democracy. These underscores while democracy has been criticised by some scholars as a system of ignorance giving precedency to “quantity” rather than “quantity” rather than “quality” However, democracy is still the best form of government world-wide.

Issues in popular participation include, election, economic. Issues like privatisation and commercialization policies, educational issues like the 6-3-3-4 system of education. All classes of people irrespective of their economic status or political affinity should actively participate as this will affect them and their children.

According to shaeuffer  { 1992} popular participation enables people to:

  1. Gain knowledge, awareness and democratic experience.
  2. Take action to solve their own problem
  3. Gain social and political power.

Reason why people don’t participate in politics

  1. Economic obstacles: only party big wigs and see successful business men takes up the sensitive and powerful post in the party. As these reserved for them. This dissuades the poor citizen qualified for such offices to ordinary votes.
  2. Violence: Nigeria politics which is characterized with political assassinations, violence, electoral malpractices which are tools of God fatherism to intimidate, victimize and silence the innocent.
  3. Illiteracy: this is the inability to read and write a simple sentence in any language especially in an adult or school aged person.                                                 

                  Someone with this blight will shy away from politics even when he/she has ideas and charisma to lead, hence a society high level of illiteracy will have large percentage of it’s citizenry not participating actively in politics.

  • Poor performance of leaders in power.
  • Religious practices
  • Cultural practices.
  • Physical disabilities.

Political parties are examples of popular organisation formed based on different factors like ethnicity and profession etc. some of the basis of forming them includes

1. Social cultural associates: some parties started as social cultural organisation, e.g. AG cacition group formed Obafemi Awolowo in 1950 as EgbeOmo- Oodua. Also the northern people’s congress started as Jamiya Mutaten Arewa. The Action group later transformed into unity party of Nigerian which consulted in 1979 and 1983 general elections through labour union.

2. Through labour union: labour union could form political parties to contest for position, Indonesia had four labour base PP –political parties, and they include:

  1. Workers solidarity party
  2. National labour party (NLP)
  3. All Indonesia party.
  4. Indonesia workers party {IWP}.

In Nigerian, the labour party was re-elected in Ondo state at the 2012 gubernatorial (state governor candidates).

Edudelight Lessons



Every person at birth has certain God – given priviledges and freedoms that cannot be taken away by anybody, group of people, authority or government regardless of the religious, economic or ethnic division one belongs to, he has to live a descent and dignified life. This priviledges are human rights or fundamental human rights and they are stressed in the constitution of any country.

Effectively, we can define human rights as those privileges citizen are endowed with and protected by their constitution. The citizens have duties and responsibilities towards their country of residence and in return the government of the country must protect the rights of a citizen without the ambit of the constitution.

The human right is not earned purchased or inherited. It has its foundation in most religions of the world.


a. State of Emergency: This is a governmental declaration or a rationale for temporarily suspending rights and freedom of persons. Such declarations usually come during the period of civil unrest. Emergency provisions are usually entrenched in the constitution thereby giving a legal backing to government declaration of state of emergency.

b. Conviction in a law court: Someone having been tried and found guilty of crime may be denied his right to life or movement as the case may be.

c. Slander libel and sedition: The freedom of expression and the press can be derived if someone publish false information about another person or make statement that are untrue or tarnish a reputation of another person. He could be charged for slander and liber respectively.

d. War: In a war situation, human right and freedoms are temporarily suspended especially the freedom of movement, conscription (false to join) into the Armed forces to fight against ones wish and buildings close to military barracks may be confiscated during war for security reasons while the owners and occupants are restricted to a safer area.

e. Military regime: They are usually regarded as unconstitutional and undemocratic form of government because they forced their way to the position of authority (de-facto) through coup d’état (a forceful and unlawful takeover of government).

The first thing a military government does when a coup d’état is successful is to suspend the constitution of the state and replacing it with decrees which supress and subrogate the right of man. Hence, in military era there is flagrant abuse of fundamental human right.


What are the roles of individuals during state of emergency?



The term drugs has not been precisely defined due to the different meaning in drug control laws, government regulations, medical and informal (colloquial) usage.

Pharmacist defined it as a chemical substances used in the treatment, cure, prevention and diagnose diseases or used otherwise to enhance physical or mental well-being.


Drugs can be used for different purposes, some of which include:

  1. It is used to treat illness
  2. To relieve or mitigate discomfort, pains or symptoms
  3. To modify chemical processes in the body for specific purposes
  4. As component of medication
  5. To reduce excessive weight
  6. As a steroids to improve the body strength. This is common among sports men and women.


Drug abuse also known as substance abuse is the abnormal or wrong usage of over-the-counter drugs against medical prescription or advice. Specifically, it is a harmful use of any substance drug for mood altering purposes.

It is the use of illegal drugs or indiscriminate use of prescription (over the counter drugs) for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner in quantities other than directed.

The indiscriminate use of drug can have negative health effect on the psychological and physiological state of the victim which may range from poor visibility, drastic loss of weight to hallucination and the increase impetus for criminality like suicide, murder, rape, stealing etc.


1. Stimulants: These are substances stimulates their users and are usually obtained from cocoa leaves. Such effects include: hallucination, confusion, high blood pressure and dizziness.

2. Anabolic steroids: These are performances enhancing drug used especially by sport men and sport women.

3. Alcohol: The effects of these substance hang over dizziness, absenteeism in work places etc. They found in alcohol beverages like whisky wine.

4. Hallucinogens: These are substances that makes one mis-judge they include; calm phetamines, heroine, cocaine and marijuana.


The following are some reasons why people abuse drugs:

1. Availability: People abuse some drugs because they are easy to come by or reach.

2. Peer pressure: “Evil communication, corrupt good manners”. This adage can be very apt when it’s comes to peer pressure. The kind of friends you keep has strong influence on you therefore avoid bad groups

3. To increase the strength of the body in other to improve one’s performance.

4. To make individuals feel high – some individual take drugs further to improve or boost their impetulse or to accomplish specific task.

5. To overcome anxiety, tears and sorrow.

6. To enhance boldness

Edudelight Lessons



  1. It leads to juvenile delinquencies
  2. It dent the nations image and consequently mars relationship with other nations
  3. It deplits human resources and manpower of the population
  4. It jeopardize the health and welfare of the nation
  5. When majority of the youth is given to drug addiction, it may lead to a very uncertain future of the society
  6. It leads to slow self-esteem, bad odours from the body, red eyes and dirty set of teeth
  7. It leads to accidents, permanent or temporary memory loss or even untimely death.
  8. It may lead to health problems like insomnia, hardening of the liver, heart attack, reduction of life span
  9. It may lead to indecent recruitment like political thuggery, street urchins, hired assasins, kidnapping, human trafficking, insurgency etc.


  1. Change in attitude: in the forms of academic performance, at times increase in phone calls, night crawling, change in set of friends and becoming more secretive
  2. Dirty teeth, red eyes, protruded eyes and bad body odours which may lead to the use of perfumes, peppermints etc.
  3. Reduce concentration, memory loss, poor co-ordination, looking unkept
  4. At times metal problems could be the results as the case may be damaged as a result of overuse of hard drugs
  5. Continuous possession of drugs and accessories


1. There is total negligence or assigned responsibilities at the place of work. This may lead to absenteeism

2. Due to the effect of drugs in their psychological and emotional state, they engage in criminal activities contrary to the established laws of the society

3. They resort to self – solitary conferment. A social problem of the pressure and frustration where drug addicts deliberately to avoid other people.

4. Ianure: In home front responsibilities as they are committed to the drugs, that they are addicted to rather than their family.

5. They posses a special box kept closed to their bed which usually contains drugs that they swift or injected into their body as well as syringes

6. They choose to be violent and rebellious when they feel insecured as a result of their peers, friends and family members, being meticulous about their strange erratic behaviours.

Edudelight Lessons



The consequences of drug abuse are numerous on the individual and the society ranging from mental disorders, psychological and emotional disorders, economic hardship, insecurity etc.

“Prevention they say is better than cure” and “obedience is better than sacrifice”. These two statements are apt when it comes to drug abuse.

Drug addicts are liable to shorten life span, a ruined future and life. The following are ways of preventing drug abuse.

1. Being early: Frequently, parents should ask for their children view about drugs and correct their wrong notions about the same.

2. Good examples: parents and teachers should stay clear of illegal drugs as people saddled with the responsibility of bringing up young ones. If parent smoke cigrettes the child may do move by smoking cocaine, marijuana, indian hemp etc “charity begins at home”.

3. Media campaign: With the aid of programs the mass media should expose student to the effect of drug abuse in their future.

4. Government effort: government should legislate against dispensing of illegal drugs especially to youth. Tobacco and alcohol produces should be forced to discourage people of certain fun consuming their products.

5. Encourage extra-curricular activities: youth should be made to engage sporting, musical and religious activities to keep them busy and have no time talking about drugs.

6. The school curriculum: government should educate school children in drug abuse’s effects on their future by including such in primary and post-primary schools curriculum.

7. Public enlightenment: programs in the abuse of drugs should be embarked upon by government to educate parent and youths in the consequences through billboards, posters, handbills and mass media.

8. The fight against of hard and fake drugs should be continued and intensified. The fight put up by NAFDAC and NDLEA should be sustained.



1. NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES (NDLEA): was established by decree 48 under General Ibrahim Babanginda (IBB) of January 1990 to enforce drug laws.


  1. It coordinates all drug laws and enforcement
  2. It eradicate the demands for and cultivation of narcotic drugs through different measures
  3. It supress all illegal traffic of narcotics

2. NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC): This was established by decree 15 of 1993 and started as parastatals of federal ministry of health to regulate and control the standard of foods, drugs, soaps, packaged water, and medical services distributed within Nigeria.


  1. It regulates and control the advertisement, manufacturing, importation, sales and distribution of drugs and cosmetics
  2. It registers all drugs, packaged foods and water distributed within Nigeria
  3. It satisfy factories for production and conduct the inspection of drugs and food that are distributed
  4. It comply standards, guidelines and specification for production and importation
  5. It established laboratories, irrelevant and strategic places.

Edudelight Lessons



1. Indian hemp decree 1966: This prohibits the cultivation, trafficking and consumption of Indian hemp. Its cultivation attracts 21 years imprisonment exportation attract 10 years, 5 years or more for smoking utensils.

2. Indian hemp amendment decree of 1975: This reduces the penalties in 1966 decree to 6 months imprisonment or #20,000 or both for smoking Indian hemp.

3. Indian hemp decree of 1987: This repeated 1975 amendment act and reinstated severe penalty. 21 years for sales, trafficking

4. Tobacco smoking decree 1990: This act laws smoking tobacco in public places like schools, offices, public transport etc. It also ensures and enforce all tobacco advertisement to give caveat to discourage people of certain age not to smoke or drink alcohol like;

“Drink responsibly”, “Not suitable for people under 18”.

“Smokers are liable to die young (18)”.


1. Identify seven roles of government by fighting drug abuse

2. State six ways of rehabilitating drug addicts

3. State six roles of government on fighting drug abuse

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