Lesson Note on Business Studies JSS 3 Third Term

Business Studies for JSS 3 Third Term Learning Note

BUSINESS STUDIES SCHEME OF WORK  JSS3

WEEK                 TOPIC

  1. TABULATION EXERCISES ON SIMPLE COLUMN WORK WITH AT

MOST THREE COLUMNS

  • REVIEW OF THE VOWEL SOUND/SHORT FORMS AND PHRASES

                   – AND CIRCLE  S/Z AND DOTING

   3                 TYPES OF DISPLAY HEADINGS (VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL)

   4                 PROCEDURE FOR ERASING IN TYPEWRITING – MATERIALS FOR

                  ERASING – TIPP-EX/CORRECTING FLUID – TYPING ERASER –  

                  AUTOMATIC TYPING ERASER

  • REVISION AND MOCK EXAMINATION

                                      WEEK 1                                                 Date ———————-

TOPIC – TABULATION EXERCISES ON SIMPLE COLUMN WORK WITH AT  

                MOST THREE COLUMNS

Tabulation involves arranging items in columns. In a tabular arrangement therefore,

Items stand out below each other, vertically, and on the same line as another in the next

column, if horizontally.

A tabular work has the following features:-

1 Top and bottom margins are equal, if vertical display.

2 Left and right margins are equal, if a horizontal display.

3 Equal spaces between the columns, usually odd number spaces such as 3, 5 or 7

   spaces.

4Left and right margins, being equal, the table is centred over the page

NOTE

1 The effectiveness of any display work, particularly, in tabulation, depends on correct  

    horizontal calculation.

2 Ensure correct with of your paper on the typewriter

3 Pica and elite typewriters have six standard spaces to a vertical 1 inch (25 mm).

4 Horizontal spacing: Pica – 10 characters (horizontal spaces = 1 inch). Elite – 12 characters (horizontal spaces = 1 inch).

TWO-COLUMN TABULAR DISPLAY

                                 NATURAL RESOURCES                LOCATION

                                  Coal                                                    Enugu

                                Petrol                                                    Rivers

                                Tin                                                        Plateau

                                Limestone                                            Kogi

                                Groundnuts                                          Kano

                               Timber                                                  Delta

                               Cocoa                                                   Oyo

                               Palm oil                                                Imo

FOUR-COLUMN TABULAR DISPLAY

                                                   SUBJECT LECTURERS

SHORTHAND                      ‘BOLA               MATHEMATICS         MUKORO

TYPEWRITING                    NWOYE            PHYSICS                      ADAMS

BUSINESS STUDIES           SHUAIBU         CHEMISTRY                LIZA

COMMERCE                         MARTINS         BIOLOGY                    UWAH

EVALUATION

1 What are the typewriting typefaces?

2 What is most important in the  effectiveness of any display work?

READING ASSIGNMENT

READ BUSINESS STUDIES FOR JSS3 by O. A LAWAL and others pages 152-154.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 Pica and elite typewriters have ——— standard spaces to a vertical 1 inch (25 mm).

   a  5       b  6        c  7       d  8

2 For a vertical display top and bottom margins must be ————-

   a  odd number       b  unequal       c  equal        d even number

3 To centre the table heading, the left and right margins must be ————-

   a  equal       b  even       c  odd number        d unequal

4 The odd-number spaces between columns helps to insert ————

   a  missing words       b  missing letters       c  lines           d  decorations

5 To ensure the correct width of your paper on the typewriter by inserting the paper with left edge  on scale point ———-

a  25mm       b  0       c  2        d  3

 THEORY

1 Display with your typewriter the manuscript in Exercise 5 on page 155.

2 In an A4 landscap how many characters are there in a pica typewriter?

                                  WEEK 2                                Date ————————-

TOPIC: REVEW OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS/SHORT FORMS AND PHRASES AND CIRCLE S/Z AND DOTING

VOWEL SOUNDS

In shorthand the sound of the first vowel in a word determines where and how a word

is written.  There are 12 vowels in Pitman Shorthand and in English Language. In shorthand these vowels are grouped as follows:-

FIRST PLACE VOWELS

These are four in number and are written in the first place, that is, at the beginning of a stroke. When the first vowel in a word is a first place vowel, the outline is written in the first position, ie thebfirst downstroke  or upstroke in the outline is written above the line. Examples

1 Long ‘ah’ is represented by a heavy dot as in

   Pa, Ma, Calm, Palm, etc

2 Short ‘a’ is represented by a light dot as in

at,    add,   path,     pal,     pack, etc

3 Long ‘aw’ is represented by a heavy dash eg

saw,    paw,   pawpaw,    ball,    bought,     talk, etc.

4 Short ‘o’ is represented by a light dash eg

top,   odd,   doll,   dog,   job, etc.

SECOND PLACE VOWELS

These are represented by two heavy vowels ‘0’ and ‘a’ as in

1 toe,   oat,    oath,    boat,    both, etc.  – these are represented by heavy dashes  placed

   at the middle of  the outlines and

2  pay,    may,     say,    bay, etc – these are represented by heavy dots at the middle of

the outline and

Two light vowels ‘o’ and ‘a’ as in

3 cup,   us,    up,   touch,    Dutch, etc – represented by light dashes at the middle of the

   outlines

4 get,    engage,    enough, etc. – represented by light dots at the middle of the outlines

THIRD PLACE VOWELS

These are four in number – two for long vowels ‘e’ and ‘oo’ as in

1 fee,   feed,    deep,    keep,   teach,    theme, etc – represented with heavy dots at the

   end of the outlines, and as in

2chew,    shoe,    food,    move,   youth, etc. – represented by heavy dashes at the end

   of the outlines.

Two short ‘i’ and ‘oo’ as in

3 bit,   pick,    big,    ship, etc – represented with light dots at the end of the outlines

and

4 book,    look,    took,    wood, etc. – represented with light dashes at the end of the

   outlines.

SHORT FORMS

These are frequently occurring words in English Language, hence short forms are designed for them for high speed writing.

They include- be,   it,   do,   which,   the,   to,   two or too,   for,   a or an,   of,   on,   had,   different or difference,   put,   wish, etc

PHRASES

Are the act of joining two or more shorthand outlines together where possible to enhance speed writing. Examples are –

To be,   to the,   to do,   to pay,   pay the,   can you,  with you,   they will,   they will be,

etc.

CIRCLE S/Z AND DOTING

For convenience, some words ending with ‘ing’ or S/Z end  with dots in place of the ‘ing’ eg

Space,   but  spacing,    set,    but setting,    sit,   but sitting,   seek,     but seeking, etc

EVALUATION

1 How many short vowels are there in Pitman Shorthand ?  Give examples.

2 List 12 examples of words containing heavy vowels.

READING ASSIGNMENT

     Read NEW ERA SHORTHAND  pages 9-10 and 13-14

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 The act of joining two or more shorthand outlines is called

   a  joining     b  phrasing       c  consonant     d  vowelDING

2 The act writing frequently occurring words with one sign or one stroke is called

   a  short forms      b  phrasing     c  frequency       d  diphones

3 The outline for the word ‘oat’ is ———— the line

    a  on      b  above      c  through        d  none of the above

4 The word ‘bill’ is controlled by —– place vowel

    a  1st      b  2nd       c 3rd         d  4th

5  There are ——- consonants in Pitman Shorthand.

a  10        b  20        c  25           d  24

                                                   THEORY

1 How many short vowels are there in Pitman Shorthand?  Give examples

2 List 12 words containing long vowels vowels

                                       WEEK 3                                               Date —————–

TOPIC: – TYPES OF DISPLAY HEADINGS – VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL

VERTICAL DISPLAY

Whether a typewriter has pica or elite typeface it should produce six standard line spaces to a vertical inch (25 mm). Six clear single line spaces make one vertical inch (25 mm), eg

                                                                     1

                                                                     2

                                                                     3

                                                                     4

                                                                     5

                                                                     6

   Vertical spacing entails returning the carriage with the line space regulator at 1 from the top edge of the typing paper to the bottom edge of the paper.

When matter is vertically displayed, the top and bottom margins must be equal. T centre items, vertically, for example on A5 portrait paper, procrrd as follows:-

1 Insert A5 portrait in the typewriter with the left edge aon 0.

2 Clear all the tab stops.

3 Move the margin stops to the extreme left and right of the carriage.

4 Set the line space regulator at 1.

5 Adjust the typing paper on the roller.

6 Recall the number of vertical line spaces on A5 portrait.

7 Count the number of lines on the material to be typed.

8 Subtract the number of lines on the material from the number of line spaces on A5

   portrait.

9 Divide the remainder by 2, and add one space.

10 From the top edge of your typing paper, return the carriage the number of single line  

     spaces arrived at in Step 9 and type the first line,etc.

HORIZONTAL DISPLAY

In horizontal spacing, 1 inch (25 mm) on elite typewriter contains 12 characters (12 horizontal spaces) while on pica typewriter, 1 inch (25 mm) contains 10 characters (10 horizontal spaces).

To centre a matter horizontally, the left and right margins must be equal. Proceed as follows:

1 Clear all tabs

2 Move the margin stops to the extreme left and right of the carriage

3 Set the line space regulator to 1.

4 Insert A5 landscape paper, for example, with the left edge on 0.

5 Adjust the paper evenly on the roller

6 Read the scale point on the right edge of the paper, pica is 82, elite is 100.

7 With a pencil, mark in pairs the characters, cluding spaces and punctuation marks, on

   each of the horizontal lines you wish to centre.

8 Bring the typing point to the centre of your typing paper, pica 41 and elite 50.

9 From this centre half, backspace once for every two letters on the horizontal line and

   type the first line at the point reached.

10 Return the carriage to the centre and backspace once for every two letters in the

     second line and type the line at the point reached.

11 Repeat these steps for the third and subsequent horizontal lines.

EVALUATION

1 How will you centre the expression ‘JESUS IS LORD’?

2 What are the typewriter typefaces?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read BUSINESS STUDIES FOR JSS3 BY O. A. LAWAL and others pages 102-102.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 When matter is vertically displayed, the top and bottom margins must be ———–

    a  even number     b  uneven       c  equal       d  unequal

2 Whether a typewriter has pica or elite typeface it should produce ——  standard line

    spaces to a vertical inch (25 mm).

a  six      b  seven       c  eight       d  nine

3  When items are displayed in closed capitals the space between each word should be —

    a  three      b  two     c  one      d  four

4  Displaying work in spaced capitals will involve giving ———– spaces between words.

    a  one     b  two       c  three       d  four

5  The appropriate finger for depressing the spacebar is —————————————–

    a right thumb     b  left thumb    c  right index finger       d  left index finger

                                                 THEORY

1 Type the following expression in spaced capitals ‘The quick brown fox jumps right

    over the lazy dog.           2.  List and type with typewriter, 15 parts of the typewriter.

                                                 WEEK 4 t                                      Date :———————–

TOPIC: – PROCEDURE FOR ERASING IN TYPEWRITING

In typewriting work, errors and mistakes must be corrected. If the typewriter eraser is being used, first move the carriage so that the mistake is outside the typebasket. Then turn up the paper so that the error, or mistake rests on the erasing table of the carriage. If the rubber eraser is being used, lightly rub the mistake up and down until the mistake is cleared. If on the other hand, the correcting fluid is being used, rub the tin liquid across themistake, and allow to dry. After making the correction,return the roller to the line of typing and type in the correction.

MATERIALS FOR ERASING INCLUDE:

1 Tipp-ex/ correcting fluid

2 Typing eraser

3 Automatic typing eraser

4 Red liquid fluid

EVALUATION

1 Explain typing basket.

2 List three typewriting errors correcting materials

READING ASSIGNMENT

Read page 108 of BUSINESS STUDIES for JSS3 by O. A. LAWAL and others

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1 ——————— method of correcting error is allowed to dry before correction is  

   effected.

   a  Rubber eraser       b correcting fluid     c  Red  ink      d  Pencil eraser

2  ————– is NOT a material for the correction of typewriting errors.

    a Red fluid     b  Tipp-ex     c  Rubber eraser     d  Automatic typing eraser

3  The carriage is moved outside the typebasket in order to prevent ————— from the

    typewriter.

4  Care of the typewriter includes the following except ———–

a  covering the machine when not in use     b  covering the carriage to prevent

    movement     c  dusting the machine daily     d  applying water and soap

5  Which of the following cannot lead to typing error?

A  Sitting position of the typist     b  Level of training of the typist     c  Quality of manuscript     d  Brand of the typewriter.

                                             THEORY

1 List  three materials used for correcting errors in typing and explain how they are used.

2 Explain five approaches to preventing typing errors.

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