Civic Education Note SS 3 Second Term

Lesson note on Civic Education SS 3 Second Term –


  1. Revision of SS3 first term scheme of work
  2. Characteristics of categories of Human rights

Meaning and examples of Fundamental Human rights

Characteristics of Human Rights

e.g Universality, Inalienability of Human rights

Categories of Human Rights e.g Civic, Political, Economic and social Rights

How individual rights can be protected

When right of an individual can be deprived

  • Fighting Political Apathy

Meaning of political Apathy and Examples of Political Apathy

Causes of Political Apathy

Way of Fighting Political Apathy             

  • Public service

Meaning of public corporation and examples – Agencies like Water Corporation, Airways services, Power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN)

Meaning of Civil Service, Characteristics of civil service e.g permanency, Bureaucracy, Neutrality, Impartiality etc

Importance of Public service

  • Short-coming in the public service
  • E.g Colonial Influence, corruption, Inconsistency of Government policies, tribalism and Nepotism, Government Interference, Lack of qualified personel
  • Ways of improving Public service in Nigeria

Achievements of Public service

  • How to Improve Public service in Nigeria

Structure of Public service

Functions of code of conduct Bureau

Public complaint commission

Discussing short coming of public service

  • Civil society

Meaning and examples of civil society

Qualities and problems of civil society

  • Project work

Visit to Public service

Browsing to locate public service and their works

  • Revision and Examination.


Human rights are inalienable privileges and freedom the citizen of every member states of the United Nations enjoy.  They had standards that enable people to live dignified and decent life.

Its recognition enhanced societal and individual development.

Human right; dated back to 1948 in the Universal Declaration of Human right of the United Nations charter which came in to effect on 10th December, of every year is observed Universally as the Human right’s day.

For human rights to thrive, it must be protected by the Rule of Law. Professor AV Dicey (1838 to 1932) postulated Human Rights as one of the three main features of the rule of law.

The Universal Declaration of Human Right (UDHR) which was adopted by a vote of 48 against zero begins with a preamble made up of seven paragraphs as follows:

  1. The first paragraph considers the dignity of all persons as the basis of justice and peace throughout the world.
  2. The second paragraph emphasizes the fact that the disrespect, the abuse of human right result in chaotic act which have broken the four freedom: Freedom of speech, Belief, want and Freedom from fear. This four freedoms are described as the peak of their aspiration of man kind
  3. The third provided that human right should be protected by the rule of law.
  4. The fourth present human right as a vista for developing friendly relation between nations and person.
  5. The fifth links the declaration back to the chapter which established faith in Fundamental Human Right, dignity and worth (value) of person.
  6. The sixth is emphatic of the fact that all member state of all united Nations have pledge themselves. 

The promotion of Universal respect and observation of Fundamental freedom and Right.

  • The seventh, refers to a common understanding of right and freedom as the most potent tool activating the pledge.


The characteristics of Human Rights include

  1. Inalienability: Human rights cannot be taken from the citizens rather it is a national contract that should be enjoyed by all.
  2. Unversality: Human rights are the same in all countries of the world irrespective of ethnicity, race, nationality, religion, gender (sex) or political division.  It is applicable to all that has to do with human freedom in the society.
  3. Indisputability: Human rights cannot be challenged or denied anyone since they are entrenched
  4. Indivisibility: Human rights like the dignity of persons, descent living and freedoms should be enjoyed by all citizens in its entirety.
  5. Human rights are always entrenched in the constitution.  This strengthens and safeguards the Fundamental Human rights.


  1. Political rights: These are the privileges individual has as a member of a state and are guaranteed by the Law for him to engage in all forms of political activities in the state.
  2. Civic Right: These are rights every individual has to engage in without fear, molestation or favour to perform ones duty and obligations as a citizen.  They include freedom of Association, freedom of conscience, freedom of expression and publication.
  3. Social Rights: These rights allows him interact with people around him and not violate laws while interacting examples of social rights include freedom of conscience, thought and religion, freedom of Association.
  4. Cultural Rights: These allows individuals to preserve their customs and traditions and as well practice their unique way of life.
  5. Economic Rights: These include all the right protecting the proper conditions of service which may include wages, secured working environment, working hours, welfare etc.


  1. How can the individual right be protected?
  2. What role should your country Nigeria play in safeguarding UDHR?


TOPIC: Fighting Political Apathy

Duration:             40 mins


Political Apathy involves activities like refusal to register for elections, to vote during elections, the unwillingness to fight electoral malpractices, lack of trust/confidence and respect for political authorities among others found in a larger percentage of the population of a country.  It is the opposite of popular participation.  In which larger parts of the populace are a political or Apathetic.  This could be caused by Bad governance, lack of security, corruption and so on.

Ways of fighting Political Apathy

  1. We must develop ourselves intellectually by reading books about politics
  2. Governance through the National Orientation Agency (N O A) and traditional rulers in every community should embark on Mass Mobilization and enlightenment of the citizenry.
  3. We must participate in the electoral process.
  4. We must know our rights and be ready to defend them
  5. Political education should be included in primary and post primary schools curriculum
  6. Citizens must participate in activities of popular organizations like political parties, civil liberties organizations, campaign for Democracy etc


1a.          Explain the term political Apathy

b.            state three consequence of political apathy

c.             Highlight 3 – ways through which political apathy can be encouraged. Lesson note


TOPIC:  Public Corporation

Duration:             40 mins


A Public Corporation may be defined as a business entity, owned, managed and financed with tax payers’ money by government of a country with the main motive of not making profit but to render essential services to the public PHCN, Water Corporation, Nigerian Airways, Nigerian Ports Authority are example of Public Corporations.


  1. Huge Capital outlay is involved in the establishment of public corporation.  Hence, the need for government involvement.
  2. Provision of essential services by the government necessitates the need for its establishment
  3. Prevention of Exploitation by private enterprises.  Hence the need for government participation
  4. For security purposes: Government of a country establishes and owns public corporations like Airports, seaports, Minting etc in order to monitor its activities
  5. It served as an avenue for employment generation for the citizens.


  1. Frequent government/Political interference in the administration of Public corporations which result in gross inefficiency.
  2. Favoritism in the appointment of general managers and members of board of directors of ten lead to enthronement of mediocrity rather than meritocracy
  3. Political victimization of officials of public corporations
  4. Ethnicity and sectionalism hamper the effective performance of public corporations
  5. Non-challant attitude of workers of public corporations as nobody’s business makes it grossly ineffective.


  1. Parliamentary control: The parliament is given some powers by the acts establishing it to scrutinize their accounts, auditor’s report brought before the House during question time.
  2. Judicial control: As a legal entity which can be sue and sued, a public corporation can be dragged to court if it fails to act within the confine of the law establishing it and its action declared ultra vires.
  3. Ministerial control:  Ministers that are accountable to the parliament are given extensive power in public corporations i.e appointment and dismissal of Board of Directors.
  4. Public control: Members of the public that consume goods and services of the public corporations exercise some form of control through criticisms leveled against them.


1a.          Define public corporation

b.            Account for the reasons for the establishment of public corporation

2.            Account for the problems facing public corporations. Lesson note




SUB-TOPIC:        Problems of the public service in Nigeria

Duration:             40 minutes


At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Explain the meaning of Public service
  2. Mention and discuss reasons for the shortcoming in the Public service
  3. Discuss ways of improving the Public service in Nigeria.

Key vocabulary words: Bureaucratic, Red tapism, corruption, Nepotism, Tribalism, Ethnicity.

Resource Materials: Textbook, Internet and Flashcards


Public service is a term used to mean services provided by government to the citizens.  Public service as a unit of government is responsible for running of daily activities, policy formulation and implementation as well as playing advisory role.  They are called ministries and is headed by Ministers or commissioners.

They served as both political and Executive Head.

The structure of the civil service

  1. Administrative class: Principal officers, permanent secretaries etc
  2. The executive class: They are executive officers, running daily affairs
  3. The professional class: Lawyers, Doctors, Engineers etc.
  4. The clerical class: Clerks, typist, clerical Assistant – GCE holders
  5. Messengerial Class: Messengers, cleaners, Drivers etc

They drive official cars and deliver official messages.

Problems of Public service in Nigeria

  1. Colonial influence
  2. Bribery and corruption
  3. Inconsistence in Government policy
  4. Bureaucratic Red-tapism
  5. Ethnicity, Nepotism and Favoritism
  6. Non-chalant attitude towards work

Ways of improving the public service in Nigeria

  1. Civil servants must abstain from party politics
  2. Observation of official secrecy
  3. Employment and promotion by merit
  4. Working condition in the civil service should be improved upon to attract brilliant graduate
  5. Controlled by public service commission.

Characteristics of Politics service

  1. Permanence
  2. Bureaucracy
  3. Political neutrality
  4. Impartiality
  5. Expertise
  6. Anonymity etc


  1. Describe five problems facing Nigeria Public service
  2. Describe the ways of improving public service in Nigeria. Lesson note


TOPIC: Code of Conduct Bureau

Aims and Objectives

  1. To maintain High standard of morality in the conduct of government business
  2. To ensure that the actions and behavior of Public officers conform to the highest standard of Public morality and accountability
  3. To receive Assets declaration by Public office in accordance with the provision of the Act.



  1. To ensure accountability in government business
  2. To give the Judiciary more power to discipline erring judges
  3. To protect Public officers from the press
  4. To give the police more power to make arrest.


Ombudsman is a government institution established to examine complaints of inefficient administration, corruption and unjustified treatment by overzealous public authorities or officials against citizens.  It was introduced in Sweden in 1809 and in Nigeria in 1975.


  1. To examine the problems and complaints of those citizens cheated in one way or the other
  2. To investigate thoroughly cases of bad administration leveled against any public authority.
  3. This body is committed to ensuring the protection of the rights and liberties of the member of the public.
  4. It is to investigate allegations of corrupt practices leveled against officers
  5. They monitor neglect experienced in some public institutions e.g Prison, Hospitals, Orphanage homes, etc and recommendation are made by the commission


  1. Account for the functions of code of Conduct of Bureau

2a.          Define Ombudsman

b.            State five functions of Public Complaints Commission

3.            What are the short comings of Public Service? Discuss Lesson note







At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to;

  1. Explain the meaning of civil society
  2. Identify types of civil society organizations
  3. Describe the functions of civil society organizations

Building Materials: The students had been exposed to Public service in the Past


Civil society organizations are non-governmental organizations made up of different kinds of people with various ideas, interest and need, seeking ways to improve their lot as individuals, group, organization or community.

Types of Civil Society

Professional: NMA, NBA,

Labour Groups: Nigeria Labour Congress

Campaign for Democracy

Students Groups: National Association of Nigerian Students

Business Groups: Manufacturer’s Association of Nigeria, NGOS, Co-operatives and Cultural Groups.

Lastly, Religious Groups: Christian Association of Nigeria, Council for Islamic Affairs.

Functions of Civil Society

  1. Civil Society organizations check the excesses of political leaders and military dictatorship.
  2. They place importance on fairness and justice
  3. Civil Society foster peoples participation in governmental development.
  4. Civil Society helps to settle conflicts and mediate in Crisis.
  5. Civil Society monitors the electoral process and also makes elected leaders to be accountable to the electorate

Problems of Civil Society

  1. Sometimes Civil Societies may not be sincere in their motives but have their own narrow interest or hidden agenda.
  2. Some civil society conducts their affairs as though they were at war with government. Having collision course with constituted authority.
  3. Some civil Society groups raise fund from international agencies and not using it for the purpose for which it was donated.
  4. Sometimes, activities of some civil society groups may have the tendency of inciting citizens against political authorities there by causing political crisis.
  5. Some civil society groups enrich themselves by embezzling the money donated for programs.

Qualities of Civil Society

  1. Civil Society groups are civil, Polite and have respect for the laws and other groups.
  2. They get involved in social, political and economic activities of the state and make government to be responsive and accountable.
  3. Civil Society is set up by government.  They are independent of government
  4. Civil Society organizations are involved in charity work e.g old peoples home or national emergency.
  5. Civil Society organizations are set up to make society better and they promote popular interest and participation.

Review Questions

1a.          Define Civil Society

b.            Discuss in outline functions of Civil society

2.            Account for the problems facing the civil society organizations


1a.          What are values?

b.            State six importance of values to the Nigerian society

2a.          Explain the Term Citizenship Education

b.            State four reasons for effective citizenship education of Nigerian youths.

3a.          What is the meaning of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (UDHR)

b.            Highlight any six core rights of Freedoms in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948

4a.          Define Human Trafficking

b.            State six causes of human trafficking in Nigeria.

5a.          What is Drug Abuse?

b.            Highlight six ways by which drug abuse can be curbed in the society.

6a.          List Five consequences of cultism

b.            Highlight five ways by which cultism can be prevented.

7a.          Mention five characteristics of democracy.

b.            State five ways by which the practice of democracy can contribute to National Development

8a.          Explain the term political apathy

b.            State three consequences of Political apathy

9a.          Define the term popular participation

b.            State six reasons for popular participation in the society. Lesson note

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