Lesson Note on English Studies SS3 First Term – Edudelight.com
ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS3 FIRST TERM
WEEK TWO (2)
Title: Revision on vowel and consonant sound.
Vowel sounds are produced when the airstream flows from the lungs to the mouth without obstruction. There are fourteen-four sounds segments in English, which comprises of twenty (20) vowels and twenty four (24) consonants. Consonant sounds are produced with obstruction or interrupt flow of air from the lungs.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL
The vowels in English are classified into two main groups. Pure vowel (monophthongs) and diphthong. The pure vowels are sub-divided or classified into short and long vowels.
DIAGRAM SHOWING ENGLISH VOWELS
The obstruction that occurred in the production of consonant sound could be “partial” or “total”. For example, when consonant /P/ is produced, the flow of the air is obstructed by the lips. The obstruction here is called a total obstruction because the flow of air is completely obstructed, unlike /f/ it is partial.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANT SOUND
Manner of State of Place of
Articulation Glosses Articulation
STOP PLOSIVE Voiceless Voiced
P b Bilabial
t d alveolar
k g velar
FRICATIVE f v Labio-dental
O 2 Dental
S z Alveolar
S 3 Palato – Alveolar
AFFRICATIVE tg dz Palato Alveolar
LATERAL l Alveolar
LIQUID r Alveolar
SEMI VOWEL w Bilabial
NASAL m Bilabial
AN EXPOSITION ESSAY
An expository essay describes and explains how something or work is done. It requires or calls for a clear understanding of what things are. To write this essay effectively, you should equipped yourself with knowledge of ‘facts’ which can be required and the processes involved in any topic given i.e stages should be clearly stated. Example
TOPIC: Describe carefully the preparation of your favorite food. Your essay should be suitable for publication in your school magazine.
GUIDELINE (EXPOSITORY ESSAY)
(a) Have the facts at your finger tips.
(b) Understand how the facts fit together and are made.
(c) Equipped yourself with a sound knowledge of any human field.
(d) Be exact in your explanation how things are done or work.
WEEK THREE (3)
Title: VOWEL SOUND – A Diphthong /ie/ Listening and speaking skill
Diphthong is a “double sound” vowels because the articulation involves a glide from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore, a vowel which change its qualify in the process of its articulation e.g ‘boy’ starts with /b/ and ends with /i/. So the shape of the lip changes from “rounded” to “spread”. In English and the phonetics, there are eight diphthong /ei, 2U, eU, eU, ci, i2, e2, U2/
/i2/_When one pronounce the word ‘here, the shape of the lips remains neutral from the beginning of the articulation of the diphthong to the end, while the glide begin with a tongue position for /i/ and moves in the direction of /e/. The spelling symbols for /ie/ are listed below:
“ere” as in here
“ear” as in hear
“eer” as in beer
“eir” as in weird
Note: Find out more on these sign symbols.
TOPIC: QUESTION TAGS
These are phrases in question form which are asked at the end of statement. For example He is going to school, isn’t he ? He is going to school is a statement while isn’t he? Is the question tag. Question tags are also called question phrases. Auxiliary verbs are usually use in question tags.
Note the following steps in constructing question tags
1. If the statement is affirmative (positive), the question tag is negative.
2. If the statement is negative, the question is affirmative.
3. The tense of the verb in the statement should be used in the question tag.
4. Pronouns are used in question tags instead of nouns.
An affirmation statement is the one without “not” while a negative statement is the one with “not”
Affirmative statement with negative question tags.
a. She goes to school, doesn’t she?
b. He has gone to school, didn’t he?
c. He has gone to church, hasn’t he?
d. They will go school, won’t they?
Affirmative Auxiliary Verbs turned into negative
Shall – Shan’t
Can – Can’t
Must – Mustn’t
Could – Couldn’t
Might – Mightn’t
Should – Shouldn’t
Are – Aren’t
Were – Weren’t
Ought – Oughtn’t
Negative Statement with affirmative question tags
(i) He is not going, is he?
(ii) He does not go, does he?
(iii) He didn’t go, did he?
(iv) She hasn’t gone, has she?
(v) They won’t go, will they?
TOPIC: AN INFORMAL, AND FORMAL LETTER
1. Formal letter is refers to letter to the press, business, request for casual leave by staff in offices, an offices, an application for a job. It is also refer to as a letter written to people who are not too close to us.
THE FEATURES OF FORMAL LETTER
(i) The Address
(ii) Salutation (greeting)
(iii) The Introduction
(iv) The body of the Letter
(vii) Signature and name
(viii) The recipient address
THE INFORMAL LETTER
Informal letter refer to the letter we write to our friend and relation e.g brother, sister, parent, son, daughter, husband etc.
Features of informal letter
1. Writer address
2. Salutation (greeting)
4. The body of the letter
6. Subscription. E.g Your Sincerely,
LITERATURE: TYPE OF DRAMA
1. Tragedy: This is a play or dram which is usually ends in Catastrophe or sadness that is an unfortunate find incident, especially the death of a hero.
2. Comedy: This is generally an amusing play, without a complicated plot structure and a happy ending.
3. Tragic Comedy: This is a mixed plot of sad and funny (happy) part just as the name suggest.
4. Farce: this is the play that is meant to make the audience laugh.
5. Pantomome: This is a dram involving action like gesture, mimicry, dancing etc without making speech.
WEEK FIVE (5)
Topic: READING AND COMPREHENSION – UNIT 4
– Test of writing skill
– Answering the comprehension question as directed by the teacher.
TOPIC: GRAMMAR: PART OF SPEECH
SUB LESSON TITLE: NOUNS, PRONOUN, VERBS AND ADJECTIVES.
PART OF SPEECH
1. NOUN: A Noun is refers to the name of a person, animal, thing or place, A Noun also includes quality or idea. Example Gbenga, Lion, School, Abuja, Lagos, Sokoto, Table, Book, Intelligent, wisdom, etc.
Typed of Noun: Noun are broadly divided into two, proper noun and common noun.
2. PRONOUN: A Pronoun is a word used in place of a Noun. Example
(i) She has gone to School.
(ii) He is Coming.
(iii) I have seen her.
TYPE OF PRONOUN
1. Demonstrative Pronoun
2. Interrogative Pronoun
3. Relative Pronoun
4. Possessive Pronoun
5. Personal Pronoun
3. VERB: Verb are action or doing words. It tells us what a Pronoun or Noun does. E.g. Run, Sit, Sweep, Stand, Jump, Walk, Open, Etc.
(i) The Student talked to the Principal this morning. Verb
(ii) She danced yesterday
TYPE OF VERB
Finite and Non – Finite Verb
4. ADJECTIVE: Adjective are words which describe a Pronoun or noun. Example: Ugly, Good, Bad, Beautiful, Strong, Big, Tall, Small, etc.
(i) Andrew is beautiful than his sister.
(ii) Gbolahan is an intelligent boy.
TYPES OF ADJECTIVE
1. Interrogative Adjective
2. Descriptive Adjective
3. Possessive Adjective
4. Demonstrative Adjective
5. Distributive Adjective.
WEEK THREE (6)
TOPIC: PART OF SPEECH (CONT’D)
ADVERB, CONJUCTION, PROPOSITION
1. ADVERB: These are used to modify a verb or an adverb in a sentence. Example: sadly, quietly, strongly, fairly, quickly, carefully, wisely, godly etc.
(i) The children acts carefully
(ii) The teacher speaks wisely
(iii) She answered her mother quickly
2. CONJUCTIION: These are words use in joining two or more word together to give a correct meaning. E.g. and, but, so, also, although, such as, so, because etc. Example in sentence form
(i) Bola and Kunle arrived late to the party.
(ii) I love to be at the party but my father hindered me.
3. PREPOSITIONS: These are words that show relationship between two words such as noun and pronoun E.g. into, between, behind, before, under, on below, after, across, etc.
(i) My father travels across the sea.
(ii) The Cat is under the table
(iii) The book is on the Shelf
TOPIC: WRITING AN OUTLINE
A Journey to my home Town.
(i) A definition of key word (Journey)
(ii) The set time and place for the Journey. The Body
(iii) The purpose for the Journey.
(iv) Experience acquired during the Journey.
(v) Thing that interest you most in the Journey.
(vi) Reason why you will love to embark on such Journey again. The Conclusion
NOTE: The teacher will guide the student into proper writing.
The recommended text is use as characterization is considered. i.e. Note on characterization.
WEEK THREE (7)
TOPIC: SPEECH WORK:/CI/ DIPHTHONG
To articulate this /ci/, the tongue glide begins from the back toward the front and the lips which are rounded gradually become spread toward /i/. there are two spelling symbol for diphthong /ci/’
“oi” as in boli”
“oy” as in boy
Contrast between /c:/ and /ci
This diphthong a gradual glide toward /i/ as the vowel quality changes
TOPIC: COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVE
Adjective have three degree of comparison namely: Positive, Comparative and Superlative.
1. POSITIVE: It is used when describing object. Example: She has a long ruler.
(ii) Ajide has a small bag
(iii) Mr Obiora is a big man.
2. COMPARATIVE: It is form by adding ‘er’ to the positive. We can use comparative when comparing two things or person. Example
(i) Peter is taller than John.
(ii) This bag is bigger than James bag
(iii) Bunmi is more beautiful than her sister.
3. SUPERLATIVE: It is formed when three or more things or person compared and this is done by adding ‘est’ to the positive. Example
(i) He is the tallest boy in the Class
(ii) Emeka is the most generous man in Abuja.
(iii) Kemi hair is the longest among the girls.
Adjective can still be compared through the following ways. Add er and est tothe simple adjective to form the comparative and superlative.
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Tall taller tallest
Big Bigger Biggest
Thin Thinner Thinnest
Rich Richer Richest
Long Longer Longest
Old Older Oldest
Fast Faster Fastest
Deepest Deeper Deepest
TOPIC: WHAT I DO EVERYDAY
I work up every day by 6:00am to pray, and read my bible. After which I joined my mummy in the kitchen to assist her.
At exactly 6:45am, I have my bath, get prepared for school and have my breakfast at exactly 7:00am.
By 7:15am, I walk to school since my school is very clos to my house. At School I studied hard, listened to my teachers and wtite all my note and answer my assignment at home.
………………………………At exactly 9:00om I go to bed. This is what I do every day.
WEEK EIGHT (8)
TOPIC: SPEECH WORK: CONSONANT SOUND /C/, /P/, /S/ ETC.
(a). /l/ in the production of /l/, the tip of the tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge. This obstruction causes a partial obstruction of the airstream which however passes along the sides of the tongue. The local card vibrates during the production of /l/ and the consonant is therefore a voiced alveolar lateral. The usual spelling symbol is “l” but it is a silent in word like “Psalm” “walk”, “yolk”, “could”, “should” etc.
(b) /P/ for the production of /P/, the upper and lower lip are brought together to obstruct the flow of the airstream from the lungs. This obstruction does not last long as there is an immediate release of the air pressure which build up. There is no vibration of the vocal card while /P/ is produced. On the whole /p/ is voiceless bilabial plosive.
The spelling symbol for /p/ is not pronounced in words like “Psalm” “empty”, pneumonia and a few other words.
(c) /s/ for the articulation of /s/, the tip and blade of the tongue make a light contact with the alveolar ridge while the airstream passes through the groove created by partial obstruction . Ii is therefore voiceless, alveolar plosive. The common spelling far /s/ are as follows:
“S” as in Seat
“SC” as in Science
“C” as in cease
“x” as in axe
Oral composition on “The Family (Nuclear and Extended).
TOPIC: AUXILIARY VERB
Making Request (using Will, Could, Please)
More on Auxiliary Verb.
Auxiliary verbs are helping verbs. They help other verb both affirmative and negative sentence, meaning they are not use alone in sentence. They are also used to ask question.
1. PRIMARY AUXILIARY: They are used with other verb to show tense and number in sentence. They include be, am, is, was, were, being, been, has, have, having, had, do, does, doing, did, and done.
2. MODAL AUXILILARY: They are used with other verb to change their meaning. They express idea such as Possibility, Intensity, or Permission. E.g. can, shall, should, will, would, may, mighty, must, ought to, dare, need, used, to, and had better.
In ordinary sentence, shall goes with I, and we to indicate the future tense e.g. I shall eat the food.
We shall travel tomorrow.
WILL: goes with: He, She, You, They, it. Example
He will come here today
She will write the letter
You will buy the book
They will go to Abuja
It will fly away
1. Can I please come in?
2. Will you come home with me?
3. Shall will go?
4. Will you please close the Door?
5. Can I eat the food?
LITERATURE – IN – ENGLISH
Recommend Text (Summary Note)
TOPIC: VOWEL SOUNDS /a:/, /e/, /i/, /a/, /D/
/i/ this is a short vowel which is also a front vowel. For the production of the vowel, however, the part of the tongue raised is nearer the centre than the front while the lips are spread. The common spelling symbol are:
“I” as in Pit
“e” as in Pretty
“a” as in Village
“y” as in Symbol
“ay” as inMonday
“w” as in build
“u” as in miniute
/a:/ this is a long vowel which may be described as a back vowel even though it is actually articulated with the part of the tongue between the centre and the back. While the lips are in neutral position, the jaw is open. The usually spelling symbol are:
“a” as in Pass
“ar” as in Cart
“al” as in Palm
“au” as in laugh
“ear” as in Heart
/e/ this is also a short vowel, the tongue is raised to position where the Jaw can neither be described as “open” or “Close”. The lips are spread for the production of /e/ which like all the other vowel in English is voiced. The common spelling symbol are:
“e” as in bed
“a” as in many
“ea” as in head
“ai” as in said
“ie” as in friend.
/a/ this is a short vowel articulated (produced) with the back of the tongue while the jaw is open. The lips are rounded far the pronunciation of this vowel. The common spelling symbols are:
“a” as in want
“ou” as in Cough
“O” as in Dog
TOPIC: GRAMMAR: ADVERBIAL & TENSES
An Adverbial clause functions as an adverb in the sentence. It modifies the verb in the main sentence
Types of Adverbial
1. Adverbial Clause of Reaction: it is introduced by the following conjunction e.g. that, since, because, seeing that. Example: The teacher could not talk because he was dumb.
2. Adverbial Clause of Purpose: It introduced by the following conjunctions, in order to, so that, in order that. An example: My mother slept early so that she would meet up with the appointment.
3. Adverbial clause of Time: This is introduced by the following conjunction before, whenever, while, since, when, until, after. Example: I will not eat until he comes back.
4. Adverbial Clause of place: It is introduced by the following conjunction wherever, where. An Example: My uncle left the money where it could be seen.
5. Adverbial Clause of manner: It is introduced with conjunction such as: as if, as etc. An Example: Bola passed his examination as we expected him to do.
Other Adverbial includes: Concession, Condition, Result, Etc.
Note: Taking on theme.
TOPIC: FORMAL LETTER (CON’T)
A formal letter refers to letter to the press, business letter request for casual leave by staff in offices, an application for Job etc. It is also a letter written to people who are not close to us.
FEATURES OF THE FORMAL LETTER.
1. Address: This should be written at the top of a letter on the right hand corner. Write the date in full and put a full stop after abbreviation Example
8, Adeosun Street,
7th July, 2015.
2. The Recipient’s Address should be written on the left hand side below the writer’s address. Example
The Director General,
Ministry of Education,
3. Salutation (greeting)
The name is salutation is followed by a comma, Example Dear Madam, Sir, Dear Sir, Dear Mr Ojo..
4. Title: A formal letter should have a title. Example: A letter of Apology, The causes of Road Accidents, The Importance of Agriculture in Nigeria etc.
5. Introduction: The Introduction should show what the letter is all about.
6. The body of the Letter: Write clear and simple English. Mind your tenses. Pay attention to spelling and punctuation. Try to be specific in your writing.
7. Conclusion: The conclusion should draw together the idea and its relationship with the major paints.
8. Subscription comes at the end of the letter. This is followed by a comma. Remember to write ‘y’ in capital letter. Note that ‘faithfully’ is written with small letter but not capital. An Example
SS3 English (1st Term)
Revision of last term examination question/ resumption.
TOPIC: STRUCTURE: REVIEW OF NOUN.
PHRASES AND NOUN CLAUSES (ADJECTIVAL PHARASES, ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES)
A. NOUN PHRASE: A noun Phrases does the work of a noun in a sentence. Example
1. Ade, the school driver, has died
2. Jerusalem a city on high land has cool weather.
B. NOUN CLAUSE: A Noun clause functions as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb in sentences. In other words, a noun clause perform the function of a noun in sentence. It introduced by the following words what, that, how, when, if, etc. Example:
(i). How she escape the accident is mysterious.
GN- Noun Clause
GF-Subject of the Verb “is”
(ii) Mr. Ogbonnaya told me that he had delivered the envelop.
GN- Noun Clause
GF- Object of the verb “told”
C. ADJECTIVAL NOUN: It does the work of an adjective in the sentence. It qualifies pronoun or noun. It is shown by the following words; whose where, that, whom, when, which, who. Example:
(i) Bola followed the road which was very high
GF- It qualifies the “Road”
(ii) He met the girl who stole has bag.
GN: Adjectival/relative Clause
GF: It qualifies the noun “girl”
D. ADJECTIVAL PHRASE: An Adjectival Phrase qualifies a noun. In other words, it does the work of an adjective in a sentence. It always begins with preposition words such as in, on with, from etc. Example:
(i) The boy with a dirty cloth stole the money.
GF- It qualifies the noun “boy”.
(ii) The book in the box belongs to my teacher.
GF- It qualifies the noun “book”
Review of Narrative and Descriptive Essay.
A Narrative is a story, a tale or an account of something that has happened and which one is retelling to another person.
Writing a good Narrative. To write a good narrative essay or enjoy a good story telling, the following should be consider.
(i) The use of good language
(ii) Contain an element of suspense (this involves good presentation)
(iii) Appeal to the sense (of smell, touch, sight, feeling, and taste).
(iv) it should not be too complex (I.e. without too many sub-plot
The above point means that
– tell a simple story with just a few characters so that you can handle the narration effectively.
– Write your story in such a way that you do not let your reader know the most vital result of the actions until the very end.
– Narrate your story so vividly that a reader would almost see the people, event, and places described; smell the odours described, hear the sound made, feel the warmth and texture of object described; have a taste of food, stews, fruit, liquids, etc. which the people in the story are having
– take care to write simple correct English and also ensure that you experiment with a lot of linguistic devices that language attractive such as: idiomatic and figurative expressions.
A descriptive Essay: This describes a person, place, or an object as clear as possible so that the reader can have a vivid mental picture of what the person or thing looks like. To describe therefore requires the student to have a salient fact at his finger tops. Also, he should be a good observer of things or people for instance, in describing your town the most obvious facts would be ones like: the name of the town, where it is located, the type of physical features in and around. The following guidelines will help
(a) Pay attention to details which you can get by observation.
(b) Use the detail to establish a point of view
(c) Discuss a fat or point of view in one paragraph
(d) Ensure that the different idea and paragraph are classify linked together.
To write good descriptive essay you would need to put down several point. How you should use these point (often, very, many and sometimes contradiction) will form the focus of attention in the section after next.
TOPIC: SUMMARIBING A PASSAGE INTO SPECIFIED NUMBER OF SENTENCE
* A reference to the recommended text.
(i) Reading a summary passage
(ii) Giving answer into specified number of sentences.
WEEK THREE (3)
TOPIC: REVIEW OF SENTENCE INTONATION PATTERN
Intonation is another feature of speech which affect the understanding of a message. This is the rise and fall of the voice in speech (or the vanation) in pitch intonation convey the attitude or mood of the speaker to his audience.
Intonation is the change in the level of pitch (how high or low the voice is) make speech interesting.
The two basic pattern of intonation is the falling tune and the rising tune, using up and down for indication. Example
– The ‘student are’ working’ hard’ ( )
– Bola will be ‘here’ ‘anytime’ ( )
– ‘Rose is a ‘beautiful girl ( )
The people in the ‘office ‘stole the car ( )
‘when she ‘comes to school……( )
‘if I were ‘you……..( )
Just as the man arrived ( )
Command or Order;
‘Get out of here! ( )
‘Open the ‘door at ‘once! ( )
‘Don’t touch the food! ( )
‘Be careful! ( )
Is this your bag? ( )
Did you see them? ( )
Is the story true? ( )
WEEK THREE (3)
TOPIC: REVIEW OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
An Argumentative Essay is the one that demands that the student should carefully consider an issue which has two sides to it and prove that one side has more merit than the other. It is like a debate in which you have two-sided topic and you have to decide that the other. Argumentative topic demand ones
( i) to prove a point
(ii) Express an opinion
(iii) Strike a balance between two side of an issue.
Types of Argumentative Essay.
There are three broad types of Argumentative Essay. What is common to all of them is that they all have two sides to them, which may not be too glaring at first
(a) Those that require one proving point- this require a lot of think and require a lot of think and generally proved on what one’s belief.
(b) Those that require you & Express your Opinion on an issue. This is the type of issue in which you should discuss both sides and end by indicating which one and you consider to be the best. Here are examples:
(i) Has Science helped man to lead a better, happier life?
(ii) Ane we happier than our fore father?
C. Those that require you to consider both side and judge.
These are topic that require one to examine the two side and like a judge, say which side has won. The topic specifically say you should consider both side criticallty
WEEK FOUR (4)
TOPIC: STRUCTURE: MORE ON NOMINIZATION
Sub-Topic: Adjective AS NOMINALS
Adjective can function in the same way that noun do but they must be preceded by the article ‘the’ and must take plural verb. For instance
(i) The rich sometimes help the poor
(ii) The poor are always with us
(iii) The strong often defend the weak
(iv) The blind are usually provided with accommodation.
(v) They treated the wounded at the clinic.
Verb as Nominals.
There are two verb form that can occupy the nominal position the infinitive form such as ‘to’ err’ ‘to, moke’ and the ground such as smok, dancing, and reading. E.g.
(i) It is prohibited to smoke in the class
(ii) Smoking is prohibited in the church
(iii) Dancing is an activity I always enjoy
(iv) To err is human, to forgive is divine
(v) Children must learn that reading gives Joy.
(vi) Her hobby is singing.
Noun Phrases as Nominals.
These are extended noun form. Examples are:
(i) My Father came here yesterday.
(ii) Bello beat the man with the blue coat.
(iii) The student in the blue car will attending like symposium.
(v) The woman in the green dress is the mother of the girl I the red suit.
Noun Clauses as Nominals
These are clauses used in nominal positions as subject, object or complement. For example;
- What I hate most is to be late to class
- Why he did it is still a mystery
- The good new is that she is here
TOPIC: MORE ON MONOTHONGES AND DIPHTHONGS.
Monopthongs is also calls pure vowel which are divided into two (2) segment, i.e seven short vowels and five long ones. E.g I:, I,e, e, ae, a: ,d , c: u, u: , u, , c:, a,
Diphtongs – This is a double sound, The diphthongs are vowels but they differs from the pure vowels because their articulation involves glides from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore, a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation. If you far instance the word “toy” the articulation of the diphthong in the word star with / / and end with /I /.
There are eight diphthongs in English and their phonetic symbols indicate the initial and final vowels represented in the articulation. E.g /ei/, / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, / /.
/ei/ as in pay , again
/ / as in home, go, so
/ / as in rice , kite,
/ / as in cow, house.
/ / as in toy, rice
/ / as in ear , here
/ / as in air, hair
/ / as in poor, tour.
WEEK FIVE (5)
TOPIC:- MORE ON FORMAL AND INFORMATION LETTERS.
FORMAK LETTERS:- Formal letters are those written to official figures or people in official positions.
This is why it is correct to say that a formal letter is one written to an office rather than to a person. A formal letter is largely in personal. There is usually no room for personal greetings, exchange of ideas etc. You go straight to the matter you want to discuss. In effect, formal short, as the following letter illustrates.
7, Adelani Street
Nigerian Journal Of Curriculum,
Institute Of Education,
University Of Lagos,
Informal Letters: These are letter written between close acquaintances, e.g. from a brother to his sister, from a man to his wife, from one student to another, from a colleague to another. As a result of the familiarity or love which exists between the two sides, there is usually enough room for almost anything that can be discussed by two people. So, the letter often opens with greetings to the recipients, his family, his friends etc. in addition, the language is very close to the colloquial , often with slang and other types of words which are normally used b the two sides. Example
- The subscription
An adverb modifies a verb. That is, it tells us how a verb does it work.
- The woman walk slowly across the field.
- Gbolahan rain quickly.
- She listened attentively
Functions Of Adverbs and Adverbials.
The basic function of adverb and adverbials is that of modification. They modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. In the following examples illustrates adverbials.
- As modifiers the verb.
- He ate hurriedly.(modifies “ate”)
- Victoria will be visiting us today (modifies will be visiting).
- They were playing in the garden (modifies were playing “)
- As modifies of adjectives.
- We watched a very funny film ( modifies funny )
- That girl has a really beautiful face (modifies beautiful).
(C)As modifiers of prepositional phrases.
(i) The motorist stopped right in the middle of the road ( in the middle of the road).
(ii) Jide was left well behind in the race ( modifies in the race )
D. As modifiers of noun phrase.
(i) He told such a funny story that everybody laughed hilariously ( modifies a funny story )
(ii) I’ve never experienced such kindness in my life ( modifies kindness )
- The meeting yesterday was a big success (modifies “the meeting”)
FORMATION OF ADVERBS
- Many adverbs are formed from adjectives and these end in suffix – ly as in quick – quickly, honest – honesty; glad – gladly; happy – happily; gentle – gently etc.
- A few adverbs end in – ‘wards’ such adverb indicate direction e.g backward; forwards, northwards, earthwards.
- Some adverbs of manner end in ‘-wise, e.g clock wise; school – wise, money wise; cross wise etc.
- Some adverbs do not have any special ending e.g always, often, here , these, fast, late early, quite, if, when, how, very, soon etc.
- Some phrases function in the same way as single word adverbs, e.g in the morning , at the market, in here, in there, to the library, at midnight, during lunch, before supper, at breakfast.
TOPIC:- Summarizing Paragraph Unit.
The summary paragraph from the recommended tex for Senior Secondary School Book 3.
WEEK SIX (6)
TOPIC: – CLUSTERS OF TWO CONSONANTS OCCUR INITALLY & FINALLY
In many Nigeria languages, there is no consonant cluster but in English, there may be an initial cluster of two or three consonants. In some English vowels, it is not easy to identify consonant cluster by merely looking at the written form of the word. Such words manifest the cluster only when they are pronounced. The following are example: bitten, coffin, garden, raffle, peddle, little, bangle,
Word Correct pronunciations
New / nju: /
Few / fju: /
Tune / tju:n /
View / vju: /
Stew / stju: /
Stupid / stju:pld /
Cluster of two consonants
Cluster of three consonant
In an English word, there may be a consonant at the end of a word. While two or three consonant can occur at the beginning of a word in English the language permits at most four consonants in a cluster at the end of a word. This can be expressed as: ( C 0 – 3 ) v ( C 0 – 4 ) or ( CCC) V (CCCC).
Cluster of four consonant
TOPIC: MORE ON SQUENCE OF TENSES
There are twelve (12) tenses and each one has its own special use. ’Tense and ‘Time ‘mean different things – Tense is the change which takes place in the structure (i.e. farm) of the verb to donate time.
- THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE: This is used for something known to be true. Example. Dogs are animals.
*The sun shines during the day.
*Sugar is sweet.
b. THE PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE:- This can be used when we want to tell people that something is happening now, at the very moment of writing or speaking. E.g
* I am going to lagos
* Daniel is writing a letter
*Nneka is insulting her friend.
* Yakubu is dancing.
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.
It shows that a past activity is closely or almost joined to the present. Example
*She has written a letter.
* We have waited for four hours
*They have gone to the market
D. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE
It shows that activities which began in the past have been going on until the present. Example
- They have been dancing since seven 0’o clock
- Paul has been crying since two 0’clock.
- Iyabo has been writing letters since nine 0’clock.
E. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE
It indicates past activities which are not joined to the present. Example
*Mercy wrote a letter to her friend yesterday.
*Onyinyechi did her home work last week.
*Last year, Philip spent his holiday in Abuja.
F. THE PAST CONTINOUS TENSE: It is used when we want to show that two actions simultaneous.
*Kemi was singing while her friend was dancing.
*Mrs Oseni was cooking while her daughter was washing was washing plates and cups.
G. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE: Shows that an event took place before another event in the past. Example
* The basket ball match had begun when Samuel and James arrived.
* The train had left before he had read most of the History text books
H. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE: This is used when we want to show that an incident took place before another incident in the past and that particular incident was continuous. Example:
* Hammed had been working for the national bank for six years when he was promoted.
* At four O’clock Emeka and Chibuzor had been playing football for three hours.
I. THE FUTURE TENSE: It is used to show an event that will take place in the future. Example:
I shall write a letter to my brother
They will attend the party.
We will meet the principal in the office
J. THE FUTURE CONTIOUS TENSE: We use this tens, when we want to show the activities will be continuing in the future. Example:
* Next July, we shall be taking our universities matriculation examination.
* My Uncle will be studying at the college of education next month
K. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTIOUS TENSE: It shows that activities considered in the future as past will be going “on and on”. Example
* She will have been studying mathematics.
L THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE: It deals with time in the future. It shows that at a certain time in the future, event will be in the past. Example:
* You will have finished that English textbook next week
* By two O’clock she will have been here four hours.
Any suitable passage on Science and Technology.
WEEK SEVEN (7)
An Article is written specifically for publication in news paper or a magazine. This implies that you must write with the reader in mind. The purpose of writing article are as follows:
(i) To educate or inform
(ii) To prove a case or argue a point.
(iii) To entertain or Amuse
(iv) To provide guidelines for doing something.
(v) To give instruction on how to find a route.
FORMAT OF AN ARTICULE WRITING
(a) An article is not a letter. Therefore do not write it as a letter when the question says ‘write an article for publication in a newspaper’
(b) Use the first paragraph to establish the setting or situation under which you are writing as well as to define your purpose.
(c) Use the succeeding paragraph to discuss your point of view.
(d) Use the closing paragraph to summarize, round off and conclude.
(e) Always remember to write your name in full on the right hand corner of the line following the article.
In addition, use a polite language, be precise, use your word purposefully, punctuate accurately, do not use slang, Above all do not make your write up to bore your reader.
TOPIC: MORE ON FIGURES OF SPEECH
“’’’Figure of speech” refers to the speech or expression which carry the picture of something to the people. There are many figures of speech in English Language but I would like to treat only the commonest ones.
1. SIMILE: This is a direct comparison between two essentially unlike things. Simile are introduced by ‘like’ and ‘as’. Example: as gentle as a dove.
He fought like a lion.
She ate like a wolf because she was hungry.
An cunning as a fax. Etc.
2. METEPHOR: It is a simile reduced or compressed into a shorter form. Example:
* He is the pillar of strength for his family.
* She is a Gorilla.
3. PERSONFICATION: It refers to a figure of speech I which abstraction or in animal object are endowed with human qualities. Example
* Night spread her night wing on me.
* Hunger is shivering on the road.
4. Hyperbole: It is gross or deliberate exaggeration. Example
* I saw a man who is taller than an Iroko tree
* I drank five bucket of water yesterday.
5. ONOMATOPEA: It is used when the situation or expression can be understood from the sound heard or produced. The noise which many animals make is called onomatopoeia. Examples
The charter of a monkey
The bark of a dog.
The perr of a cat.
The roar of a lion
The sound made by object are called onomatopoeia. E.g.
The clapping of water
The booming of gun
The banging of door
The jingle of coins etc.
6. EUPHEMISM: This is the opposite of hyperbole. When the truth is disagreeable (unpleasant) euphemism Endeavour to make it pleasing. E.g.
(i) She has kicked the bucket (meaning dead)
(ii) He is at eat (meaning he is dead)
(iii) She has put to bed (she has just born a new baby)
TOPIC: SUITABLE PASSAGE ON: Building And Plumbing
The use of recommended text as suppose
TOPIC: MORE ON LEXICAL AND AUXILASRY VERBS.
Auxiliary verb are helping verbs. They help other both affirmative and negative sentence, meaning they are not use alone in sentences. They are also to ask question.
- Primary Auxiliaries: They are used with other verbs to show tense and number in sentence. They include: be, am, is, was, were, being, been, has, have, having, had, do, does, doing, did, and done.
- Modal Auxiliaries: They are used with other verbs to change their meaning. They express ideas such as possibility, intention, or permission e.g can, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, ought to, dare, need, used to and had better.
In ordinary sentence, shall gives with I, and we to indicate the future tense e.g I shall eat the food
We shall travel tomorrow.
Will: goes with: he, she, you, they, it, Example
– We will come here today
– She will write the letter
– You will buy the book
– They will go to Abuja
– It will fly away.
Lexical (or main) verb can stand alone as the verb elements in sentence. For example:
The young women danced till dawn
Bola did his homework yesterday.
I would have done away if I know how
TOPIC: MORE ON CONSONANT.
The English consonant are (24) twenty four. A consonant is a speech sound which is produced with obstruction of airstream. The obstruction could be “partial” or “table”. For instance, when consonant like /p/ is produced, the flow of air is obstructed by the lips. The obstruction here is called a total obstruction because the flow of air is completely obstructed for a while. But when consonant like /f/ is produced, the flow of air is partially obstructed by the lower lip and the upper teeth.
The important thing about the production of a consonant, therefore, is that is always a degree of obstruction of the air is one of the three important factor used in classifying the English consonants.
Classification of Consonant. These are:
(i) Place of Articulation
(ii) State of Glottis
(iii) Manner of Articulation
The following are the twenty four consonant sound.
P, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, , , s, z, s, , , , ,r, w, j, m, n, J.
Most consonant can occur at the beginning, middle and end of words but a few of these consonant are restricted to certain positions.
/p/ as in pan, Happy, Nap
/b/ as in Bud, Rubber, Rub
/t/ as in Tea, Heater, Seat.
/d/ as in dip, ridder, hide
/k/ as in come, marking, pack
/g/ as in get, target, rag
/f/ as in fork, suffer, cough
/v/ as in van, river, live
/ / as in think, anthem, both
/ / as in this, father, breathe
/ /as in sip, racing, place
/ z/ as in Zink, razor, has
/ / as in shop, lashes, fish
/ / as in genre, vision,garage
/h/ as in hat, behave
/tj/ as in cheap, ricer, teach
/dz/ as in joy, rejoice, page
/l/ as in lock, follow, sell
/r/ as in rag, borrow
/w/ as in win, rewind
/j/ as in yes
/m/ as in man, remain, him,
/n/ as in net, runner, rain
/ / as in singer, hang
COMPREHEND AND VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
TOPIC: Reading for influence
A recommended text is used accordingly.
WEEK NINE (9)
TOPIC: MORE ON MODALS.
These verbs cannot be used as lexical (or principal) verbs. Modal Auxiliary verbs are as follows: Ought to, might, need, used to, shall, should, world, may, can, could, will, must.
(a) OUGHT TO: We can use it to denote logical necessity. E.g. you ought to respect your Parent
(b) MAY: It is used to demonstrate or express possibility. Example: I may go to Jos after the conference,
You can use ‘May’ when asking for permission to do something.
E.g. May I meet you today?
May I take your ruler?
May I eat the fruit?
(c) USED TO- It tells about the existence of something in the past. E.g.
* There also used to be some flowers in the school.
– It also shows past habit. E.g.
* She used to smoke
* He use to steal his father’s money.
– It means ‘accustomed to’. Eg. Mr Okoro is used to hard work
(d) SHALL: This is used as part of the future tense (in other words shall is used to express the future) An Example:
I shall attend the meeting
(e) WOULD: This is the past tense of ‘will’
Mr. Adeoye told me he would visit me the next day.
(f) NEED: It is used to show the absence of obligation. An example
* She needs to go away at this material time.
TOPIC: MORE ON REPORT WRITING
A report is a farm of writing that tells or narrate story. There are two basic types or reports. These are: Official Report and Private Report.
An example of official report
An accident which happened near you, which you watched very closely
The report of preceding of a meeting in which some formal resolution were made and which will be presented to higher officer for serious consideration.
GUIDELINES TO A GOOD REPORT WRITING
(i) Pay attention to details and be accurate
(ii) Report precisely which event led to another and the result.
(iii) Consider the purpose for which you are writing the report. E.g. A report for Police investigation have a different one from another.
(iv) If your report is direct, make sure you use the quotation mark correctly.
A private report is an imaginary story. Sometimes it is a direct personal experience of the reporter as given to a friend, a group of classmate, one’s parent etc.
Example: write an account of your experience in of your experience in your school, magazine, during your last excursion to “ondo”. Also, write a vivid account of an accident in which your vehicle was involved. Write your report as you would tell it to your friend who had come to congratulate you on your narrow escape.
Topic: Stress in Word of seven syllable and in compound words.
Stress in an important feature of speech which create special problem to many Nigerian speak of English. As the air stream flow during speech, we exert some effort for the production of the sounds. Some syllable are uttered with greater breath effort and muscular energy than the others. Such syllable which are uttered with greater muscular energy are louder and longer and are therefore, said to be stressed. A stress syllable in the increase in pitch of the voice.
The following are seven syllable word
More Example on Compound Words
– I left the book ON the table (not under the table)
– Peter AND Paul worked (insisting that both worked)
– We MUST honour the invitation (whether we like it or not)
– I BOUGHT the book (I didn’t steal it).
– Okay brought a NEW car (not an old one)
So stress can changed from one syllable to another to achieve a desire intention.
LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (IST TERM)
WEEK SE EVEN (7 &8)
TOPIC:INTRODUCTION TO THE UNSEEN PROSE.
1a. Features of unseen Prose
. The following are some of features of unseen prose.
(i) Suspense: This technique involves the creating of expectation through deliberate delay of information. It is commonly used to provoke reader participation.
(ii) Flash back: This is a narrative techniques use to bring into focus earlier occurrence in the course of a chronological sequence of events. It involves injecting past happenings in the life of a character into the present.
(iii) Foreshadowing: By this device a writer provides hints in the story about a further happenings. It gives the reader an intimacy on an event which is to follow on later in the action.
(iv) Interior Monologue: This involves a cheater talking alone. It is mostly used in drama where it is called a dramatic monologue. It is also known as “stream of consciousness” and it perfect form.
(v) Dialogue: Mostly used in drama dialogue involves a verbal exchange between two or more people in a work of art.
(vi) Digression: This is a narrative technique that involves deliberate presentation that of ideas or situation which do not involve the main plot.
(vii) Point of view: This refers to the angle or perceptive from which the story is told. It underscores the use of narrator or stay teller who could be the author or is characterizes are told through any of the following:
* Participant point of view (Ist person narrative techniques)
* Non-Participant point of view
– The third person, narrative method e.g. using (He She, and they)
– Ominiscent point of view: Method of storytelling that give narrator the all knowing power of God and could see the inner recesses of the character
(viii) Parable: This is a short fictitious story tell moral or religious principles.
(ix) Myth: Traditionally, it means stories about gods or contrived scope of reasoning.
(a) COMPREHENSION PASSAGE WITH OR WITHOUT A TITLE
Read the following passage carefully, and then answer the question’s which follow:
The raven came flying around the hills in raiding parties; sometimes, I think with the express purpose of annoying the falcons which nest there. The falcons quick to anger at any time, were obviously in a heat of fury when the ravens came scouting along the cliff. Hunting down time after, the wing almost closed. The falcon would attempt to drive away the raven. The latter, however, flew unconcernedly to and fro; only at the last split second of each falcon’s ready for the death blow, did the raven turn over sideway to present that remarkable wedge of break which could transfix the falcon were it to continue its wild descend. But the falcon, knowing its match, does not strike an adult raven, though it may kill a young one which has not yet acquired the agility characteristic of its race Question:
1. Describe brief it in your own words.
(a) The falcon’s method of attack
(b) The raven’s method of defense
(c) Two qualifies which, in the opinion of the write, are possessed by falcons.
2. Discuss the author’s style of writing stating whether his story has been a success or a failure
WEEK NINE & TEN (9 &10)
TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO THE UNSEEN POEM
(I) Features of unseen poem
(ii) The unseen poem must be short
(iii) Use simple language. For example
I hear a sudden cry of Pain!
There is a rabbit in a snare
Now I hear the cry again
But I cannot kill from where
But I cannot tell from where
He is calling out for aid
Crying on the frightened air,
Making everything afraid
Making everything afraid
Wrinkling up his little face,
And the cry again for aid
And I cannot find the place!
And I cannot find the place
Where his paw is in the same
Little one! Oh little one!
I am searching everywhere.
i. Give a Suitable but short title to this poem
ii. what is the Rhyme Scheme?
iii. The poet repeats the last line at every in the stanza in the first line of the next stanza. Why do you the poet does this? What effect has this on his style of writing?
iv. What is the mood of the mood of the poet in writing this piece?
v. Comment on the use of wrinkling in line 2 of the third stanza.