Government Lesson Note SS3 First Term

First Term SS3 Government Notes –

Scheme of Work for SS 3


1&2                Revision

                        Africa as Centre-piece of Nigeria Foreign Policy

2&4                Non-Alignment

5&6                OAU and African Union.

7&8                Common wealth of Nations

9&10             UNO

11-13             Revision and Examination

Week:                       1st

Class:                         SS III

Lesson title:   Africa as centre-piece of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Publishers Lagos 2006, Pp. 249-252.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to.

  1. Africa as centre piece of  Nigeria Foreign policy
  2. Origin, reasons, for Adoption of Africa as centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign Policy.
  3. Ways by which Nigeria maintain friendly relation with African state.


  1. Nigeria’s call for decolonization: Since independence, Nigeria has not relented in her call for eradication of all forms of colonialism.
  2. Nigeria’s Leadership position in Africa: Nigeria want to unite and bring the countries of Africa together to speak with one voice in international organizations such as the Non-aligned movement, common wealth and the U.N.O.
  3. Resistance to neo-colonialism in Africa
  4. Protection of Nigeria’s domestic interest
  5. Nigeria played a vital role in the establishment of former OAU and ECOWAS in 1975 under General Yakubu Gowon.

Implementation of the concept of Africa as the Centre piece of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy

  1. Leadership position in Africa
  2. Support for intra-African sports Nigeria has demonstrated that Africa is the centre-piece of her foreign policy, through her support for and hosting of the all African Games and African Nations Cup.
  3. Intra Africa Economic co-operation: Nigeria supports Intra-Arica Economic Co-operation, such as the establishment of ECOWAS in 1975, and NEPAD in 2002.
  4. Settlement of intra-state disputes: Nigeria has participated in the peaceful settlement of political crises in countries like Sierra-leone, Liberia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
  5. Establishment of diplomatic relations with all African countries.

Ways by which Nigeria maintain Friendly Relation with African State.

  1.  Respect for international treaties such as the world Bank, IMF and OPEC.
  2. Establishment of durable democratic government since May 24th 1999 till date.
  3. Qualitative leadership and consistency of Nigeria’s Foreign policy during Murtala Obasanjo regime earned the country united Nations chairmanship seat of the Antiapartheid committee for over a decade by Major Gen. joe Garba.
  4. Promotion of world Peace through peace-keeping force contributions is chad, Liberia, Somalia and Sudan Crises as well as combating Boko-Haram insurgency.
  5. Strong economy: Nigeria builds a strong economy with high level modern technology.

Week:  2nd

Class: SS III

Lesson title:  Non Alignment

Ref. Books:Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman Publishers Lagos 2006, Pp. 245-250.

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to.

  1. Define Non-Alignment
  2. State the importance of Non-Alignment
  3. Define Nigeria posture and Non-Alignment


Non alignment refers to the refusal of some countries to be directly involved in the ideological rivalries that existed between the socialist bloc led by the former Soviet Union and the Capitalist United States of America and her European allies.

The Non-aligned movement was formed by countries, with such persuasion.  The movement was founded in September, 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia by 25 countries. The founding fathers included Jawaharal Nehru of India, Josip Tito of Yugoslavia,  Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Gamel Abdel Nasser of Egypt.

The importance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

  1. It created a forum for countries who do not belong to either, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) or the WACSAW Pact Group to come together, to discuss world affairs and take common decisions for their individual and mutual benefits.
  2. It championed the cause of decolonization, leading to the independence of many countries such as Angola, South Africa and Namibia.
  3. It calls for an equitable world economic order.
  4. It allows members to benefit from both the East and the West without being bound ideologically to either
  5. It gives the organization a big voice in the united Nations because of its control of the General Assembly

Nigeria and Non-alignment

Even though Nigeria shared the idea of neutrality from the competing super powers, she was more of a friend to the capitalist west than the socialist countries of eastern Europe.

Following the attainment of independence in 1960, the leadership of the country openly rejected non alignment and opted for membership of the common wealth under the leadership of Great Britain.  Nigeria then was therefore neither neutral nor non-aligned in the early years of her independence.  She voted along with Great Britain in most of the UN deliberations.

The Signing of the Anglo-Nigeria Defence pact once again demonstrated the countries alignment with Britain and her Europe allies.

The country’s attitude towards the movement however changed with the signing of OAU charter in 1963 which declared the policy of non-alignment and appealed to OAU member states to attend the second meeting of the Non-aligned movement taking place in Cairo, Egypt in 1964.

The peak of Nigeria’s Foreign policy neutrality emerged in 1975 when General Murtala Muhammed recognized the popular movement for the peoples’ Liberation of Angola (MPLA). This invariably sparked off diplomatic disputes between Nigeria and the United states on ideological grounds.


Explain five benefits Nigeria derive in her non-alignment policy in international relation

  1. .

First Term SS3 Government Notes –

Week:                       3rd

Class:                         SS III

Lesson title:                        O. A. U

Sub-lesson:             Organs of O. A. U

Ref. Books:              J. U Anyaele, comprehensive Government for senior Secondary Schools, Johnson Publishers, Lagos 2003 pp 231-234

Resource Material:          Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define

  1. Identify the reasons for the formation of O. A. U
  2. State the historical background of O. A. U
  3. List the aims and objectives of O. A. U


Aims and objectives of O. A.U

  1. To promote the Unity and solidarity of African States.
  2. To co-ordinate and intensify their cooperation and efforts to achieve a better life for the people of Africa.
  3. To defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.
  4. To eradicate all forms of colonialism from Africa
  5. To preserve the African personality, culture and traditions.

Basic Principles upon which O. A. U was founded

  1. The sovereign equality of all member states
  2. Non-interference in the internal affairs of member states
  3. Peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiation, mediation and conciliation or arbitration.
  4. Absolute dedication to the total emancipation of the African territories which are still dependent.
  5. Non-revision of International boundaries as fixed during Berlin conference of 1884

The Organization of Africa Unity (O. A. U) is a free association of all the independent African nations formed for the promotion of the unity of African States and solidarity.


The organization of African Unity (O. A. U) was formed on May 25, 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  The Organization came into existence as a result of the quest for a single African Organization through which Africa’s single voice may be heard, the desire for peace in Africa and peaceful resolutions of Africa problems.

Casablanca Group which comprised Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, Libya, Egypt, the Brazzaville Bloc with twelve former French colonies of West and Equatorial Africa except Guinea, Mali and Togo as members and the Monrovia Group and the Brazzaville bloc were conservative in nature and stressed the need for cantion.

32, independent African states in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from May 22nd – 26th 1963 it was at their historic meeting that the organization was formed when Casablanca and Monrovia groups were dissolved while the Brazzaville and Malagasy States continued in existence and OAU charter was signed


1.list the organs of O.A.U

2.Explain five functions of each organ

  1. . Week:                     5th

Class:                         SS III

Lesson Title:                       African Union

Sub-lesson:Organs of AU

Ref. Books: Ibiyemi Oyeneye Round up Government for Senior Secondary Certificate, Longman 2006 pp. 256-8

Resource Material:Textbook, Chart, Internet e.t.c

Lesson Objectives:  By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to

  1. Define African Union
  2. List its aims and objectives
  3. State its organs
  4. Account for the achievement and failures of the African Union

Building materials: The students are already exposed to OAU


The African Union was established to succeed the OAU

  1. Economic well-being of African countries
  2. Political integration of Africa

This took series of conferences held in sirte, Libya in 1999 to establish an African union. The Lome summit 2000 and the Lusaka declaration 2001 and the Durban, South Africa 2002 under the chairmanship of Thabo Mbeki launched the AU and convened the First Assembly of the Heads of States of the African Union.

Aims and Objectives of the African Union

  1. Its focus is on peace, security and stability in Africa
  2. To achieve African Unity and Solidarity
  3. To defend the sovereignty of member states.
  4. To promote international co-operation
  5. To promote good health through co-operation with International bodies.

Organs of the African Union

  1. The Assembly: it is the supreme organ of the union. Members are AU heads of states or their representatives.
  2. The Executive Council: It is responsible to the African Union Assembly and composed of Ministers.  They prepare the budget and publish reports.
  3. The commission is composed of the chairperson, the Deputy, eight commissioners and staff members
  4. Peace and Security Council: This council adjudicates on disputes and takes measures to resolve disputes.
  5. Pan African Parliament: It is to express ECOSOC: This is the Economic Social and Cultural Council set up to promote economic integration, social cohesion and cultural activities.

Achievements of the AU

  1. Peer interference in the internal affairs of members states.
  2. Proposed common passport and currency for the continent come 2056 A.D
  3. They see to the successful independence of southern Sudan from her northern counterpart.
  4. Existence of the court of Justice
  5. Existence of Peace and Security council coupled with existence of permanent representatives which was absent in OAU

Failures of the AU

  1. Tenacity of Office of Sit-tight leaders like Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe since 1980 in office and late Libyan leader Moumar Gaddafi that was killed in 2011 insurrection in the region.
  2. The continent is still plagued with insurgency by the Islamic militats in Somalia, Mogadishu, Central African Republic, Mali, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad and Niger as well.
  3. The continent is still under huge debt burden by the IMF and the World Bank as agents of under-development.
  4. No standing Army to fight her course or implement major decisions. They still rely on United Nations peace keepers and the USA for assistance.  Thanks to China that volunteered 800 soldiers as African Permanent peace makers last month.
  5. The continent is still plague with political instability as witnessed in Burkina Faso last month and in Mali 2013 coupled with African Refugees crises that followed this aftermath as witnessed in Burundi over failed third term Agenda bid by the Incumbent President Uhuru Ceasar. And Xenophobic attack in South Africa of other African Nationals in recent months. Judging by the evidence before me, the AU is a toothless bulldog

First Term SS3 Government Notes –


SUBJECT:                  Government

CLASS:                       SS 3

TOPIC:                       Commonwealth Of Nations

SUB-TOPIC:              Aims and Objective of the common wealth of Nations


The common wealth is a voluntary association of the independent countries of the former British Empire i.e It is made up of Britain and countries that were at one point in time or the other British colonies or its depenents

The commonwealth of Nations is made of former colonies of Britain itself at the centre of the Union.

The original members of the Union are Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and Ireland.

The Queen of England is the Symbolic Head of the Free Association of the independent member states.

The statute of Westminster of 1931 gave legal recognition to the independent status of the member states.


  1. The prospective country must have at one point in time or the other been British colony or its dependent.
  2. The prospective member country must have attained full political independence.
  3. Intending member country must be prepared to accept or recognize the British Crown as the permanent Head of the Commonwealth.
  4. The intending member country must be prepared to accept other member nations as equals and refrain from racial discrimination.


  1. To co-operate and find solutions to problems confronting her member-nations in the areas of education, trade, finance, medicine, agriculture, science, sports and international affairs.
  2. To foster friendly relations among member-nations.
  3. To respect and protect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of member nations
  4. Promotion of sports among member states so that it will enhance the spirit of friendship and co-operation.
  5. To contribute to the economic development of member-states through the offering of financial, material, manpower and technical aids.


  1. Account for the historical background of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  2. State the qualifications for the membership of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  3. List the aims and objectives of  the Commonwealth of Nations.

First Term SS3 Government Notes –

WEEK:            7TH

SUBJECT:      Government

CLASS:           SS3

TOPIC:           Achievement and problems of the Commonwealth


  1. Trade: Member-nations sign trade agreements and they have common tarrifs which offer favourable trade terms and facilitate trade among member state.
  2. Military Aid: Member-nations help in training military personnel from other member-nations.
  3. Common Language: English Language served as the Lingua Franca among Member-states which united them.
  4. There is uniform legal system.
  5. Commonwealth Games brings spirit of Sportsmanship and co-operation among members.


  1. Member-nations belong to many different other organization which make them to have divided interest and loyalty.
  2. The commonwealth has no charter like UNO, AU and there are no formal rules governing it.
  3. There is no Common currency unlike the past tied to British pound sterling.
  4. Member nations no longer grant free movement to immigrants from Commonwealth countries.  No thanks to Britain introducing Visa applications to citizens of some member nations and Nigeria.
  5. South Africa’s apartheid policy has polarized member nations along ideological lines.


The Secretariat is the main organ of this Imperial body.  Headed by a Secretary General. The first Secretary-General of the commonwealth is Arnold Smith followed by Shridath Ramphal, and our own Chief Chukwuemeka Anyaoku from Nigeria


1.Explain five benefits member states derived from COMMON WEALTH

2.State and explain five organs of common wealth

Week:           8

Subject:        Government

Class:             SS 3

Topic:            United Nations Organisation

Subtopic:      Organs of the UNO


This is the only global body in the world today that embraces all independent states regardless of race, geographical location, culture or ideology. It was established on the 24th of October, 1945 following the collapse of the league of Nations in 1919.

The organization is a common forum where states in the international system assemble to discuss matters concerning world peace and security.

Aims of the United Nations

  1. To save succeeding generations from wars
  2. Commitment to fundamental human right, dignity and worth of human beings.
  3. Equal rights of men and women of all states irrespective of size.
  4. Justice and respect for international law.
  5. Employment of the necessary international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social progress of all peoples.
  6. Encouragement of international co-operation among states.

Organs of the United Nations

  1. The General Assembly made up of the representatives of all member states of the United Nations whose responsibility as a body is to discuss all issues pertaining to world peace and stability and pass resolutions accordingly.  In this Assembly all states, big and small, have one seat each and equal status.
  2. The security council consisting of Five permanent members and ten temporary members bringing the total number to fifteen. The permanent members include the USA, the former Soviet Union, Britain, China and France and they all have veto powers in the council.  The other ten non-permanent members are elected to the security council by the General Assembly on only a two-year term.
  3. The economic and Social council made up of twenty seven members from different U.N member states.  They are elected for a 3-year term with the primary function of guaranteeing the economic, social, cultural, educational and health welfare of the international community through the specialized Agencies.


  1. What are the aims and objectives of the U.N?
  2. Account for Nigeria’s contribution to the United Nations Organisation
  3. Explain five achievements of U.NO

First Term SS3 Government Notes –


SUBJECT:                  Government

CLASS:                       SS 3

TOPIC:                       Achievements of the UNO

SUB-TOPIC:              Failures of the United Nations


  1. Existence since the year 1945.  The mere fact that the organization has been in existence for the past seventy years is an achievement in itself.  In contrast to the League of Nations.
  2. It has passed several resolutions condemning colonialism and racism and this has boosted the morale of the freedom fighters, especially in Africa.
  3. Through its commission for refugees, the U.N has succeeded in resettling millions of refugees in Africa and Asia where there are wars or natural disasters.

The following countries, among others, have benefited from the U. N resettlement and food programmes:

Lebanon, Chad, Uganda, Somalia, Pakistan, Niger, Haiti, Campuchea, Ethiopia, the Sudan, Afghanistan, Syria and Nigeria during the civil war.

  • No major war in the world since 1945 i.e the first and second world wars.
  • It has brought all nations of the world together as member of one community regardless of race, colour, ideology, religion or culture.  This is a big achievement.

Problems and Failures of the United Nations

  1. Preferential treatment to the five permanent members – the USA, Russia, Britain, China and France.  This has made them treat other UN members with contempt and the United Nations has been helpless about it.
  2. There is no permanent military force to enforce the U.N’s decisions and resolutions.
  3. The multiplicity of official languages at the U.N. The use of English, French, Spanish, Chinese, etc as official and working Languages in the U.N and its organs tends to divide the member states into linguistic factions and this does not augur well for the organization.
  4. The vastness of its operational zone:

The United Nations covers the entire world with large and small states, powerful and weak nations, radical and moderate countries, peace-loving and war like states, Moslem and Christian as well as other religious groups.

  • The U.N has not been able to settle disputes between member states: e.g Israel and Palestine over sovereignty.  India and Pakistan over Kashmir.  Northern and Southern Sudan, Boko-Haram in Nigeria etc.


  1. Identify five specialized agencies of UNO and write about two of them
  2. What are the problems facing the U.NO.?

First Term SS3 Government Notes –

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