Lesson Note on Agricultural Science JSS 1 Third Term

Agricultural Science Notes for JSS1 Third Term – Edudelight.com

 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE SCHEME OF WORK JSS1 THIRD TERM

  1. Revision (Weed And Pest Control)
  2. Factors of Production (Land)
  3. Factors of Production (Labour)
  4. Factors of Production (Capital)
  5. Factors of Production (Management)
  6. Field Trip
  7. Farm Manager (Definition and Function)
  8. Problems of Farm Managers
  9. Revision
  10. Examination

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  1. JUNIOR SECONDARY AGRICULTURAL FOR NIGERIAN SCHOOLS, Book 1, by Anthony Youdeowei et al.
  2. ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL by O. A. IWENA.

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: REVISION (WEEDS AND PEST CONTROL)

CONTENT

  • Definition of Weed of Pest
  • Types and Classification of pests
  • Physical control, Chemical control and Biological control

REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. What is a pest?
  2. Mention two classes of pests.
  3. What are weeds?
  4. List five examples of weeds
  5. State three features of weeds.
  6. Describe four methods of controlling weeds
  7. What is a pest?
  8. State two types of insect-pests with two examples of each.
  9. Mention five possible damage done by pest to crop

READING ASSIGNMENT

Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools Bk 1 by A. Youdeowei, B.K .Kaigama, J.N. Ogbazi, S.O. Adesiyan. Chapter 14 pages 76-81.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Herbicides are applied to the soil or to weed plants with machines known as ___ A. Spreader B. Sprayers C. Tractors  D. weeders.
  2. Chemicals which are can help to kill weeds are best known as A. larvicides B. Insecticide C. Herbicide D. Rodenticides.
  3. Which of these is very difficult to use if the number of pest is high? A. chemical control B. physical control C. biological control D. cultural control.
  4. The following are effects of weed except A. They make land cultivation difficult B. Weeds compete with cultivated crops for the nutrients in the soil C. Transmission of insects, fungi and other organism harmful to crops D. They results in the increase in value and quality of farm produce.
  5. ___ involve the use of natural enemies of insect pests and weeds against them A.  physical control B. chemical control  C. cultural control D. biological control.

THEORY

  1. Define pest.
  2. List four methods of controlling weeds.

WEEK TWO

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION (LAND)

CONTENT               

  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION
  • CHARACTERISTICS

Production is the process of combining and converting input to give rise to output. This process is aided by Land, Labour, Capital and Management (Entrepreneurship) all otherwise referred to as factors of production. So therefore factors of production are the resources that ensure the production of goods in agriculture.

Land refers to where productive activities such as growing of crops, rearing of animals and establishment of farmstead, e.t.c are carried out.it is the most important asset of the farmer. Land for agricultural production can be acquired in the following ways

  1. Purchase: out rightly buying the land and assuming full ownership.
  2. Lease/Rent: paying the land owner (individual/government) a stipulated amount to gain access to using the land for a stipulated time.
  3. Gift
  4. Inheritance

Land is limited in supply (its amount cannot be increased in a geographical area) and thus its availability for agricultural practise is largely dependent on

  1. Population growth (the more the people, the less the available land for agricultural

practices)

  • Land tenure system: this refers to the way in which land is acquired.
  • Topography
  • Ecological and fertility status of the soil.
  • Economic factors such as cost of land, availability of capital to start up, cost of cultivating on the land, ease of transporting produce to the market, laws of the land etc.
  • Socio-cultural factors such as religious and traditional beliefs.
  • Climatic factors of the geographical area.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND

  1. Land is the gift of nature or a natural resource.
  2. It is immobile (fixed factor).
  3. It is subject to law of diminishing returns.
  4. The reward of land is rent collected from tenants.
  5. Availability is subject to the Land Use Act in Nigeria.
  6. It is limited in supply especially in highly populated areas.
  7. Its suitability influences output
  8. Its quality can be improved by various methods.
  9. Its value is determined by its location
  10. Land can appreciate or depreciate.

USES OF LAND

Land us is broadly divided into two:

AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND

The following are uses of land to the farmer/in agriculture:

  1. for forestry
  2. for establishing game reserve/wildlife conservation.
  3. for livestock production such as fish farming, apiculture, rearing pigs etc.
  4. for crop farming.
  5. as collateral for loans.

NON- AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND

The following are non- agricultural uses of land

  1. Land is used for construction purposes, e.g roads, airports etc.
  2. Land is used for social or recreational purposes e.g. stadia, schools, markets, etc
  3. Land is used for residential buildings.
  4. Land can also be used for industrial buildings
  5. Land can also be used for mining purposes e.g extraction of petroleum, gold, etc

EVALUATION

  1. What is a land?
  2. Mention five characteristics of land.

APPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can appreciate (increase) in its value through the following ways:

  1. Fallowing- allowing farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients.
  2. Addition or use of fertilizers or manure to increase its fertility.
  3. Use of clean uninfected inputs, e.g. planting materials like seeds.
  4. Weeding/clearing to remove weeds that compete with crops for nutrients and space
  5. Good and appropriate soil tillage that can prevent soil erosion.
  6. Irrigation- the artificial application of water to soil to supplement insufficient rain.
  7. Good access roads – to ensure proper usage of land
  8. Good drainage- the artificial removal of excess water from soil to promote crop growth.
  9. Increase in population density- which makes land expensive to acquire.

DEPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can depreciate or decrease in its use or value through the following ways:

  1. Erosion menace- this removes the top soil
  2. Infestation by weeds- these remove weeds from soil
  3. Infestation by pests- these pests reduce the yield of crops if present in the soil.
  4. Infestation by disease- this also reduces the yield of crops.
  5. Continuous cultivation without the use of fertilizers or manure.
  6. Abuse on land, e.g overgrazing, indiscriminate bush burning.
  7. Dumping of toxic materials as it tends to reduce soil fertility.
  8. Water-logging – this also reduces soil fertility and land for farming.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define a land.
  2. Mention eight characteristics of land
  3. State five Non- agricultural Uses of Land.
  4. List five ways through which land can appreciate and depreciate.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwenapg348 – 349..

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ___ allow farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients. A. irrigation  B. Drainage C. Crop rotation D. Fallowing
  2. Land can appreciate in its value through the following except A. Use of fertilizers B. Irrigation C. Water-logging D. Good drainage
  3. Dumping of toxic materials on land can reduce ___ A. soil structure B. soil texture C. soil fertility D. soil porosity
  4. The reward of land is ____ A. rent B wages C. interest D. loan
  5. Land can be used as collateral for? A. Profit B. loans C. Debt D. Wages

THEORY

  1. What is a land?
    1. List five characteristics of land.


WEEK THREE

LABOUR NOTE

  • DEFINITION
  • FEATURES
  • TYPES

Labour includes all forms of productive human efforts put into or utilized in production. It also

refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated to aid the process of production.

FEATURES OF LABOUR are:

  1. it is mobile
  2. itfeelings and cannot be used anyhow.
  3. the unit of labour is man-hours or man-days.
  4. the reward of labour is wages and salaries.
  5. it is a variable asset.
  6. its size and quantity influence production or output.
  7. its output can be improved by training.

EVALUATION

  1. What is labour?
    1. State five features of Labour.

TYPE OF LABOUR

The type of labour an individual provides is dependent on the training or education he or she received. The following are types of labour:

  1. Skilled labour:highly educated and technical to provide the expertise for farm operations.
  2. Semi-skilled labour: averagely educated to perform simple farm operations.
  3. Unskilled labour: basic education to communicate and provide manual effort for farm operations.

FORMS OF LABOUR

Forms of Labour available to farmers are:

  1. Personal labour: this is the labour provided by the owner of the farm.
  2. Family Labour: these refer to the labour provided by the man, his wife and children i.e. the farmer’s family.
  3. Communal Labour: This is the kind of labour provided by neighbours and the community.
  4. Hired or Paid Labour: this is the kind of labour that is paid either daily or they receive salary at the end of the month.

USES/IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR IN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

  1. It uses other factors for production.
  2. Skilled labour provides the expertise required for major farm operation.
  3. Labour ensures the success of any agricultural enterprise.
  4. It helps to achieve the various stages of agricultural production.
  5. It converts natural resources into usable products.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define Labour
  2. Mention five characteristics of labour.
  3. List and explain types of labour.
  4. State five importance of labour in agriculture.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwenapg. 349 – 350.

\WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ___ is the type of labour provided by the owner of the farm A.  Family labour B. Personal labour C Hired labour D. Communal labour
  2. The man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production is refers to as ____ A. Land B. Capital C. Labour D. Salary
  3. ____ labour provides the expertise required for major farm operation. A. Communal

B. Paid C. Skim D. Skilled

  • ____ and ____is the reward of labour A. Profit and loss B.  Wages and interest

C. Loans and salaries D.wages and salaries.

  • The unit of labour is ____ A.man-hours/days. B. Man-minutes/week C. Man-month

D. Man-hour/year

THEORY

  1. What is labour?
  2. Explain any four forms of labour you know.

WEEK FOUR          

CAPITAL NOTE

CONTENT

  • DEFINITION
  • TYPES
  • SOURCES
  • CHARACTERISTICS
  • USES

Capital includes all man-made productive assets which are used in production. It in most cases is referred to as money used to start up and keep running a farming venture.It is broadly divided into fixed ad working (variable) capital.

TYPES OF CAPITAL

  1. Fixed Capital: these are capital or assets purchased for continuous use in production. In other words, these are items or materials which are not used up during production. E.g Farm buildings, motor vehicles, farm tools and implements, tractors, incubators, irrigation equipment, etc.
  2. Working or Variable Capital: these are capital or assets which are used up during the process of production. Examples include: Water, feeds, drugs, cash in hand, vaccines, litters, fertilizers, seeds, chemicals, etc. 


SOURCES OF CAPITAL

Avenue from which a farmer can get money to start or ensre smooth running of a farmin venture includes:

  1. Personal savings
  2. Gifts from friends
  3. Grants or aid from government and other organisations
  4. Loan from friends
  5. Loan from family members
  6. Loan from banks and other financial institutions
  7. Loan from government.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITAL

  1. It can depreciate or appreciate.
  2. The reward for capital is interest.

EVALUATION

  1. What is capital?
  2. Mention two characteristics of capital.

IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL IN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

  1. It is used to establish farm enterprise
  2. Working capital is used in the day-to-day running of the farm enterprise.
  3. Working capital is used for paying wages.
  4. Working capital is used for the purchase of farm inputs, maintenance services on the farm, and feeding of livestock,
  5. Fixed capital in form of immovable houses and farmsteads provide shelter for farm operations
  6. Fixed capital in form of machinery provides farm power for farm operations.
  7. Fixed capital is used to generate more funds
  8. Fixed capital is used to facilitate farm expansion or increase farm size.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define capital.
  2. List the types of capital you know.
  3. Mention two characteristics of capital.
  4. State five importance of capital in an agricultural enterprise.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwenapg:350 – 351.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Working capital is used for the following except A. purchase of farm inputs

B. maintenance services on the farm C. To achieve the various stages of agricultural production D. feeding of livestock.

  • The following are variable capital except A. vaccines B. fertilizers C. Incubators

D. chemicals.

  • Materials that are not used up during production are known as ____ A. Working capital B. Fixed capital C. Land capital D. Farm capital.
  • ____ is the reward of capital. A. Wages B. Rent C. Interest D. Salary.
  • Fixed capital is ____A. Moveable B. Irreplaceable C. Immovable D. Replaceable.

THEORY

  1. What is Capital?
  2. State five importance of Capital in Agricultural Enterprise.

WEEK FIVE

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION (MANAGEMENT)

CONTENT

  • DEFINITION
  • CHARACTERISTICS
  • IMPORTANCE

Management refers to the organization, coordination and control of all factors of production to ensure that the goals of the farm enterprise are met. The goals of any farm enterprise includes

  1. Making profit
  2. Reducing production cost
  3. Providing quality produce (finished or raw)
  4. Increase consumer base

FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT

The following are the features or characteristics of management in an agricultural enterprise:

  1. Its quality influences output.
  2. Its cost is determined by its quality and experience.
  3. It is provided by man.
  4. Its reward is profit.

IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT are:

  1. ensures smooth running of the enterprise.
  2. ensures the enterprise is making profit.
  3. ensure the effective utilization of other factors of production.
  4. ensures that the goal of the farm enterprise are achieved.
  5. ensure that all records and accounts are adequately kept.

EVALUATION

  1. Who is a farm manager?
  2. List three characteristics of a farm manager.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ____ refers to the to the organization, coordination and control of all factors of production to ensure that the goals of the farm enterprise are met A. Management

B. Manager C. Enterprise D. Capital

  • The reward of management is ____ A. labour B. profit C. loss D. interest
  • The cost of management is determined by ____ A. qualification B. quality and inexperience C. quality and experience D. quantity
  • The goal of farm enterprise includes all but A. to make money B. to waste money C. to produce at the right time D. to increase consumer base
  • Management as a job does not involves A. keeping records B. making uninformed

decisions C. determining what to produce D. purchasing farm inputs

THEORY

  1. What are the goals of a farm enterprise?
  2. Define management.

WEEK SIX

FIELD TRIP

WEEK SEVEN

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION (MANAGEMENT) NOTE

CONTENT

  • DEFINITION
  • FUNCTION

Farm manager is one who co-ordinates, organizes and controls the use of other factors of production to produce goods and services. In other words, the work of management is carried out by a farm manager. Decision and duties such as when to produce, what to produce, type of production, supervision of work, recruitment of workers, and determination of what and when to sell in order to make profit depends on (farm manager) management.

FUNCTIONS OF FARM MANAGER

The functions of a farm manager can be grouped into five major headings:

  1. Organization
  2. Administration
  3. Production
  4. Marketing
  5. Evaluation

EVALUATION

  1. What is management?
  2. List five functions of a farm Manager.
  1. Organization function: this involves putting together all factors of production during productive activities. These functions includes securing suitable land for farming,  determining what to produce, determining the scale of production, procuring loan or capital for farming, recruiting or employing workers for the farm etc.
  • Administration function: this involves ensuring good and effective working of all factors of production. These duties includes supervision of the work on the farm, arrangement work roasters, directing workers on day-to-day activities,ensuring staff welfare, organizing training of man-power in the farm, etc.
  • Production function: involves the right combination of the factors of production to ensure optimal yield. Part of the function includes purchasing and using of farm inputs, ensuring the health of animals and crops on the farm, making arrangement for general security of the farm, ensuring the adequate supply of feeds, adheres to modern farming techniques, etc.
  • Marketing function: this involves meeting sales target. To ensure this, the farmer determines the quantity of produce to sell and price at which to sell, determines the best marketing channel to use to make maximum profits, determines when to sell to make maximum profit, monitors marketing trends, arranges for storage and warehousing of unsold produce, etc.
  • Evaluation function: involves ensuring that other functions have been done appropriately. To effectively do this, he keeps the general records of activities on the farm,  supervises accounts and bookkeeping of all operations on the farm, analyses farm operations with respect to targets and objectives, assesses the staffing conditions, develops new strategies for further improvement of farm operations, etc.

EVALUATION

  1. What is management?
  2. List five functions of a farm Manager.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Define management
  2. Briefly highlights the function of a Farm Manager based on
  3. Organization
  4. Administration
  5. Production
  6. Marketing
  7. Evaluation

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwenapg. 364 – 365.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Management in a farm determines the following except A. when to produce A. what to produce B. type of production, C. supervises work D. granting of loans
  2. Procurement of loan or capital for farming activity is one of ____ functions of a farm manager A. Administration B. Production C. Organisation D. Marketing
  3. The supervision of accounts and bookkeeping of all operations on the farm is carried out by ____ A. Farm treasurer B. bookkeeper C. Farm managers D. Farm supervisor
  4. Which of the function of a farm manager entails caring for the health of animals/crops on the farm? A. Organisation B. Marketing C. Administration D. Production
  5. Management determines the ____ of the farm. A. Production B. Enlargement

C. Profitability D. Progress

THEORY

  1. What is management?
  2. Mention and briefly explain five major functions of a farm Manager.

WEEK EIGHT

PROBLEMS OF FARM MANAGER

Problems which a farm manager may face during the course of discharging his duties include:

  1. Inadequate Information: He may lack information on where to buy farm inputs, or acquire information on new innovations, current prices of farm produce, etc.
  2. Problems of Marketing: He may not know how and where to sell his produce, at what time to sell and at which price to sell to make maximum profit.
  3. Inadequate Farm Input: Farm input like seeds, feed, fertilizers, chemicals, etc, may be inadequate, scarce and expensive to get.
  4. Financial Problems: He may not have enough capital. Banks may not provide loans and produce may not sell at the right price to make more money to reinvest in the business.
  5. Inadequate Personnel: He may not get the right management team to work on the farm. They may be too expensive to work on the farm.
  6. Government Policies: Bad government policies like importation of food which is also produced by the farm manager my lead to losses, discouragement and may even result in the folding up of the business.
  7. Transport Problems: He may not have a vehicle to do the running around, to deliver farm input and to take farm produce to the market.
  8. Administrative Problem: He may lack the technical know-how, good human relationship with staff, and the condition of his health may affect the performance of his duties.

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What is management?
  2. List five major functions of a farm Manager.
  3. Briefly explain five major functions of a farm Manager.
  4. State eight functions of a farm manager.
  5. Mention five importance of capital in an agricultural enterprise.

READING ASSIGNMENT

Essential agricultural science for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwena

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The following are problems of faced by a farm manger except A. Problems of marketing B. Inadequate personnel: C. Adequate information D. Government policies:
  2. Materials that are not used up during production are known as ____ A. Working capital B. Fixed capital C. Land capital D. Farm capital
  3. Management in a farm determines the following except A. when to produce A. what to produce B. type of production, C. supervises work D. granting of loans
  4. The man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production is refers to as ____ A. Land B. Capital C. Labour D. Salary
  5. The supervision of accounts and bookkeeping of all operations on the farm is carried out by ____ A. Farm treasurer B. bookkeeper C. Farm managers D. Farm supervisor

THEORY

  1. Briefly explain two major problems of a farm manager.
  2. State three functions of a farm manager.

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