Government Lesson Note SS1 Second Term

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

TERM: 2ND TERM

SUBJECT: GOVERNMENT

CLASS: SS 1

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK             TOPIC

                        Colonial Administration

1 & 2               Historical background

                        Reasons for the advent of the Europeans into Africa

                        British colonial policy:

                        Indirect rule:

                        Meaning and reasons for its Adoption

                        Indirect rule system in Nigeria: North, West and South (Success and

                        Failure)

                        Impacts of colonial Administration in Nigeria and West Africa

3                      Advantages and Disadvantages of colonial rule

Comparison between British and French colonial policies of Administration (Indirect Rule and Assimilation /Association)

4                      Nationalism in Nigeria:  Meaning factors that led to the rise and Growth of Nationalism in Nigeria.

                        Effects of Nationalism in Nigeria key Nationalist leaders in Nigeria and their contribution to nationalism in Nigeria

5                      Constitutional Development in Nigeria.

                        Pre-Independence constitutions

  1. Clifford constitution of 1992
  2. Richard constitution of 1946
  3. Macpherson constitution of 1951

Features, objectives, merits and Demerits of each.

6                      Lyttleton constitution of 1954

                        Lagos conference of 1958

7                      Post Independence Constitutions

8                      1989/1999 constitutions

9                      Federalism in Nigeria

                        Features

10                    Problems of Nigerian federalism

11                    Development of political parties

12 – 13             Revision and Examination

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION (HISTORICAL BACKGROUND)

CONTENT:

Following the Berlin Conference of 1884 – 85 under the chairmanship of Ottovon Bismarck of Germany.  Where the scramble for and the partitioning of West Africa by the European nations acted as the catalyst of the establishment of colonial administration in West Africa.  With the exception of Liberia, the whole of West African countries came under the colonial rule of Britain, France, Germany and Portugal- Nations that shared out West Africa as a result of the partitioning in Berlin.  It would be recalled that, the period 1885 – 1950s served as period of colonial rule in West Africa. Where the resources generated in the system are not retained in the system for meaningful development where they were carted away to develop metropolitan Europe.

See Walter Rodney, How Europe underdeveloped Africa for further reading.

REASONS FOR COLONIALISM

1.         Trade and commerce was the driving force of colonialism.  Following the industrial revolution in the 17th century in Europe led to the search for raw materials included rubber, gold, ivory, cocoa, palm oil and groundnuts.

2.         They also sought markets in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa for their manufactured products.

3.         They introduced slavery in order to maintain some colonies.

4.         They brought their culture and religion to the colonies, so as to bring civilization to them.

5.         Some acquired colonies to protect their missionaries.

INDIRECT RULE

Indirect rule is a system adopted by the British to rule her colonies with use of local chiefs or other appointed intermediaries and traditional laws and customs with British officials merely supervising the administration.  Sir Lord Lugard introduced indirect rule to Nigeria following its success in India and Uganda.

FEATURES OF INDIRECT RULE

  1. Indirect rule used the existing traditional system of administration
  2. Traditional laws and customs were used in the administration
  3. The system was meant to assist in the development of the traditional political institutions for effective administration.
  4. It was not an expensive system of administration
  5. Taxes were collected
  6. Warrant officers/chiefs were appointed where there were no traditional chiefs or rulers

REASONS FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF THE INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM

  1. Lack of adequate personnel was one of the major reasons for the adoption of indirect rule in Nigeria.  This was because few Europeans were prepared to come to West Africa owing to adverse climatic condition which decimated them with mosquitoes and tsetse fly.
  2. Inadequate fund is another factor responsible for the adoption of indirect rule.  This was because Britain was reluctant to involve huge financial outlay on her colonies.
  3. The success of indirect rule in India and Uganda made it to be adopted in Nigeria
  4. It was introduced merely to preserve the existing customs and traditions of the people
  5. Language barrier was another probable factor responsible for the adoption of indirect rule

THE ROLES OF TRADITIONAL RULERS IN THE INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM

  1. Collection of Taxes
  2. They acted as a link between the local people and the colonial government
  3. They maintained law and order by establishing police force
  4. They were members of the legislative councils there by helping in making Colonial laws
  5. They controlled the native authorities

INDIRECT RULE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

  1. The use of traditional administration Lord Lugard recorded a huge success mainly because he used the highly developed traditional system of administration that was already existing in northern Nigeria
  2. The autocratic Nature of Emirs: The Emirs were respected and obeyed. These rare qualities helped the system of indirect rule to fully succeed when it was introduced
  3. Islamic religion was the dominant religion the people of Northern Nigeria practiced. It preached submissiveness to the people in authority. This made room for the success of indirect rule
  4. Low level of education of the people contributed greatly to the success of the system by virtue of the fact that they were relatively illiterate
  5. Well-organized system of taxation was in place which generated much money for the running of the administration.

EVALUATION

  1. Read J.D. Fage, A short history of Africa penguin books
  2. See your workbook for further practice
  3. See past WASSCE Question papers

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: THE SYSTEM OF INDIRECT RULE IN WESTERN NIGERIA

CONTENT: Following the establishment of the Nigerian state by 1900 and subsequent Amalgamation by 1914, it would be recalled that classical Lugardian indirect rule is nothing other than economic exploitation

  1. The limited powers of obas. One of the reasons why the system of indirect rule in the western region was a partial success was that the kings are not to be despotic. They have to act according to the dictate of the unwritten constitution of the kingdom.

The case in study is the pan Oyo Alaafin

  • Education played a significant impact on the lives of the people hence, the educated elites question the rationale behind the introduction of indirect rule
  • Religion: Majority of the Yorubas were Christians and Christianity is not as conservative as its counterpart in the North Islam. Hence they question the reasons for the introduction of indirect rule
  • Absence of highly centralized administration.

The Yoruba’s unlike the Hausa/Fulani’s did not have a highly centralized system of indirect rule met a brick wall in the region

  • Absence of well-organized system of taxation: This made it difficult to raise money for the administration to thrive well the system of taxation imposed on the people led to Iseyin, Okeho and Abeokuta riots
  • Neglect of the educated elites: They were not allowed to participate in the administration hence, they revolted openly and shake off imperial imposition of British hegemonic interest

INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM IN EASTERN NIGERIA

Following the piecemeal conquest of the territories of Nigeria nation state by Lord Lugard and his colleagues the indirect rule system was a success in Northern Nigeria, and it was a partial success in the west, while the system met a brick wall and failed completely in the Eastern Nigeria. No thanks to the famous Aba women riot of 1929

REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF THE SYSTEM OF INDIRECT RULE IN EASTERN NIGERIA

  1. Absence of traditional rules the absence of chiefs, made the system impracticable since the system made use of chiefs or other intermediaries
  2. Appointment of warrant chiefs the British officials were forced to appoint pseudo-chiefs called warrant chiefs to administer the region and as well collect taxes for the British over lords which led to Aba women riot of 1929
  3. The type of political Administration practiced. The Ibo political system was highly decentralized i.e. an egalitarian and gerontocracy system which led to the failure of indirect rile in the region
  4. Absence of well-organized system of Taxation: This made the generation of fund for the execution of the system impossible hence its total collapse
  5. Religion: The Ibos were predominantly Christians and Christianity is not a conservative religion. Hence the failure of the system there
  6. Alienation of educated elites: The British preferred half-baked people or those without education for appointment as warrant chiefs. Hence the criticism

MERITS OF THE INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM

  1. One of the merits of the system was that the system was less expensive and they make use of traditional rules and they paid peanuts
  2. The system did not disturb existing traditions and cultures of the people beside eastern region
  3. The system contributed in training traditional rulers in the art of modern local government administration
  4. The establishment of indirect rule system put an end to obnoxious sacrifice and killing of twins by Mary Slessor as being practiced in the region
  5. The system recognized and modernized recognized and modernized local institutions like traditional courts, laws and customs

DEMERITS OF INDIRECT RULE SYSTEM

  1. The system of indirect rule alienated the educated elites in preference to the illiterate ones
  2. Traditional rulers were made to be autocratic as a result of power vested in them by the indirect rule system
  3. The system brought about division between the traditional rules that were seen as “British puppets” and the alienated educated elites there by, strong thinning the policy of divide and rule
  4. The appointment of traditional rules (warrant chiefs) in eastern Nigeria led to social political and economic up heaval
  5. The British indirect rule did not spell out how the system can metamorphose into a central government in Nigeria.

POSITIVE IMPACTS OF COLONIAL RULE IN WEST AFRICA

  1. Introduction of modern ideas of government: The introduction of elections through the ballot and the changes from monarchy to republicanism is a result of colonialism
  2. Development of the civil service the civil services of the colonies were developed and made uniform with these of the colonial masters
  3. Development of political parties many political parties were established as a result of the introduction of the Elective principle in 1922 these political parties played a pivotal role in the struggle for independence
  4. Introduction of money currency and establishment of Banks in 1912, the first silver coins were introduced by the British and the west African currency board set up to supply currency to British west African countries the colonial Bank was also established in 1917
  5. Exposure to western education and ideas made most Africans to acquire western education and as well able to communicate in English and French to the outside world.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF COLONIAL RULE IN WEST AFRICA

  1. Economic dependence and exploitation. Colonialism was utterly exploitative as an agent of siphoning resources in the region to metro Politian Europe. The colonies were linked to the demands of the metropolitan industries, making them economically dependent on the colonizers
  2. Colonialism creates problem of unity. Colonialism has polarized the West Africa sub-region into two major groups antagonistic i.e. the English speaking and French speaking countries. This is one of the problems facing ECOWAS
  3. Cultural imperialism colonialism imposed foreign culture on the people of West Africa and forced then to imbibe alien cultures. And African culture, dressing and language ethics were relegated to the background
  4. Introduction of the slave trade, deportation and humiliation of African leaders Africa continent were depleted of their able-bodied men and women during slave trade era oba overawe of Benin was deported to Calabar in 1896 after Benin Massacre and Jaja of Opobo to West Indies where he died
  5. Industries were not built to make the regions a producer nation. This retarded the rate of economic, social technological and political development of west Africa

EVALUATION

See your workbook for further practice

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: ADVANTAGES OF COLONIAL RULE

  1. While it is true that Africans had their own ways of educating their children, the fact that people could read and write made a significant difference in their understanding of the world
  2. The establishment of educational institutions from the primary to the university level (The university college, Ibadan, was established in 1948 was a significant turning point in the Euro- African relationship
  3. Exposure of Africans to the ideas of other people: Although for Africans this was from a positions of disadvantage, many elderly people still remember, many good things about the days of colonial rule.

DISADVANTAGES OF COLONIAL RULE

  1. Total condemnation of the African way of life which left in Africans the feeling that they were inherently inferior to the Europeans
  2. Neglect of the rural areas on account of the concentration on the urban centers for the purpose of trade. Rural-urban migration remains a major problem for west African countries today
  3. Distortion of the socio-economic life of the people so as to preserve the interests of the colonialists
  4. Colonial administration introduced West African economies to the world at a time the Africans were not ready for it.

COMPARISON OF THE FEATURES OF THE BRITISH SYSTEM OF INDIRECT RULE WITH THOSE OF THE FRENCH POLICY OF ASSIMILATION

 INDIRECT RULEPOLICY OF ASSIMILATION
 Indirect rule of colonial administrationDirect rule of colonial administration
 Made use of African traditional chiefsDid not make use of African traditional chiefs
 Traditional rulers served as the pivot of indirect ruleTraditional rulers did not serve as the pivot of assimilation
 Traditional laws and customs were used in the administrationTraditional laws and customs were not used in the administration
 It was not an expensive system of administrationIt was an expensive system of administration

FUNCTIONS OF THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNOR IN WEST AFRICA

  1. He performed ceremonial functions e.g. conferment of honors and receiving of dignitaries
  2. He reported to the crown through the secretary of state to the colonies
  3. He formulated social and economic policies for the colony
  4. He assented to all bills passed by the legislative council
  5. He exercised all the powers of head of government on behalf of the British e.g. declaration of a state of Emergency, the exercising of the prerogative of mercy

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. See past WASSCE question papers

WEEK FOUR

TOPIC: NATIONALISM

Contents: K.B.C. Onwubiko has not failed to define nationalism as “the patriotic sentiment or activity on the part of groups of Africans held’s together by the bonds of common language and common historic experience to assert their right to live under a government of their own making for the preservation of their political, economic and social interest”

It would be recalled that Jaja of Opobo, Nana of Itsekiri Awujale of Ijebu land and Overamwen Nogbaisi of Benin Edo resisted British imperial rule various factors aided the rise and growth of Nigerian Nationalism during the period under review. These are:

  1. Western education and ideas provided a common language with which west African nationalism used to fight colonialism e.g. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Jimi Solanke, W.E.B. Dubois, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, Sir Herbert Macaulay, Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria among others
  2. World depression: The first world war caused world economic depression which resulted in economic hardship and increased agitation for nationalistic feelings
  3. Economic exploitation: The monopoly of trade in west Africa by European firms and its exploitative tendencies gave rise to the growth of nationalism
  4. Rising cost of living: Rise in prices of commodities which made life unbearable to the people gave rise to nationalism
  5. The role of the press e.g. West African pilot, Lagos weekly record, Lagos daily news, Sierra-leone weekly news etc. exposed the evils of colonialism
  6. Emergence of political parties the growth and emergence of political parties like NNDP, CPP, NCNC, Ag, etc. led by Herbert-Macaulay, Kwame Nkrumah, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo etc. awakened the spirit of nationalism in West Africa.

EFFECTS OF NATIONALISM IN NIGERIA WEST AFRICA SUB-REGION

  1. The nationalism movement led to the formation of political parties in West Africa and Nigeria
  2. The various nationalist movements contributed in giving the masses political education
  3. It led to rapid economic growth in west Africa
  4. It sold west Africa to the outside world by being popular
  5. Pa Michael Imoudu made the unions to go on nationwide strike for their rights. Finally the activities of nationalist movements paved way for independence of West African countries; this led to an end of colonialism in this part of the globe.

KEY NATIONALIST LEADERS IN NIGERIA AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS TO NATIONALISM

  1. Herbert Macaulay was born in Lagos on November 14th, 1864. He tried to resist a British law that put all lands in southern Nigeria under British control. He formed the Nigerian National Democratic party in 1923 to provide a platform on which he spripad his anti-colonialist ideas He co-founded the daily news with Dr caulcrick. He died in 1946.

Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe was born in November 16, 1904 in Zungeru Niger State.

He was co-founder and the editor of the West Africa pilot from 1937 1940. This was a vibrant medium with which he advanced his ant colonial views He also co-founded the National council of Nigeria and Cameroons in 194 and was appointed its secretary- general.

The NCNC was a leading voice of Nigeria’s independence from Britain.

Azikiwe became the premier of the Eastern region after the election of 1954. He was sworn in as the Governor-General of Nigeria in 1960 and president in 1963.     Sir Ahmadu Bello was born on June 12, 1909 in Sokoto.   He co-founded the Northern people’s congress in 1951, which was a prominent independence movement.   He established several schools to increase the awareness of his people.

Chief Obafemi Awolowo was born on March 6, 1909 in Ikenne, Ogun state.   He was a co-founder of the Trades Union Congress in 1943, a very active nationalist trader union.

As the premier of the western region from 1954-1959, he introduced important reforms, one of which was the policy of free education in 1955. His Party Action Group (AG) actively contributed to the call for Nigerian’s independence.

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. Practice past WASSCE question

WEEK FIVE

TOPIC: CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION OF 1922

CONTENTS: The 1922 constitution was named after the then governor of Nigeria sir Hugh Clifford

FEATURE MAIN

  1. There was an executive council for the whole country.
  2. It was established a Legislative council presided over by the governor with 26 white officials, 15 nominated unofficial members and 4 elected members, three of the elected members represented Calabar
  3. The governor exercised enormous power and was autocratic
  4. The constitution introduced elected principle (the first in Africa)
  5. Only male adults who earned up to E100 per annum and had resided in the area for at  least a year could vote during elections.

MERITS OF CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution abolished the Nigerian Council which was non-elective and ineffective
  2. It established a new executive council for the whole country.
  3. The constitution introduced elective principle for the first time in Africa.
  4. The constitution marked the emergence of Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) the first political party led by Herbert Macaulay the Nigeria Youth Movement (NYM) and National Council Of Nigeria and Cameroun (NCNC).
  5. It encouraged the establishment of newspapers such as the Lagos Daily News and West African Pilot.

DEMERITS OF CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution vested too much power in the governor, including the power to single-handedly legislate for the north.
  2. It allowed the legislative council to be dominated by Europeans
  3. The constitution disenfranchised majority of Nigerians by limiting voting rights only to male adults earning at least 100 perannum.
  4. It limited Nigerians to being only non-officials, as a result of which they could not be in the executive council.
  5. The constitution isolated northern Nigeria, and thus formalized a north-south dichotomy which is still present.

RICHARDS CONSTITUTION FEATURES

  1.  The constitution became operational on 1st January, 1947.
  2. It created a central legislative council for the whole of Nigeria
  3. The governor could now make and apply laws for the whole country in consultation with the legislative council
  4. The constitution provide for regional assemblies in the North, East and west which could only discuss legislative matters
  5. Two Nigerian, instead of only one appointed in 1943, became members of the executive council.

MERITS OF RICHARDS CONSTITUTION

  1. It encouraged national unity due to the integration of the North and South administratively
  2. It paved way for a federal constitution in the Nigerian political system
  3. The constitution provided for bicameral legislature in the North and also recognized traditional rulership in Nigeria
  4. The constitution increased the representative of Nigerian in the legislative council
  5. The constitution introduced Regionalism i.e. North, West and East each with its own house of Assembly.

DEMERITS OF RICHARDS CONSTITUTION

  1. Europeans dominated the legislative council at the Execution level
  2. The constitution was imposed on Nigerian without proper consultation of their opinions
  3. Voting right was still dependent upon level of income
  4. Residents of Calabar and Lagos are the only one that could vote, while other Nigerian were disenfranchised.
  5. Regionalism and ethnicity preached by this constitution resulted into disunity, mutual and ethnic suspicion in Nigerian politics till today.

FEATURES OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION 1951

  1. The Northern region retained its bicameralism while same was introduced in the west
  2. The central and Eastern legislative councils remained unicameral
  3. A council of ministers was set up.  This comprised 12 members drawn equally form the three regions
  4. The constitution made provision for an executive council for each of the regions presided over by lieutenant – Governor
  5. Suffrage:  In the North only male taxpayers voted while in the West and East, both sexes voted.

MERITS OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION

  1. It was a home – made constitution i.e. several Nigerians were consulted in its making
  2. Nigerians were made ministers for the first time
  3. The constitution granted Regional Autonomy to the regional assemblies
  4. The constitution provided for central and regional executives
  5. It led to the formation of Action Group 1951.

DEMERITS OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUITION

  1. The constitution was effete i.e. it was a quazi-federal which made it to loose its grip
  2. The ministers appointed to represent the regions lacked cohesion and were regionally minded
  3. The self – government in 1956 motion tabled on 1st April, 1953 by Chief Authony Enahoro of Action Group and the subsequent Kano riots led to total breakdown of the constitution
  4. The absence of a party with majority seats at the House of Representatives did not encourage consensus in the house
  5. The constitution pin powered the Governor to veto the decision of the legislative and the Executive councils

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. Work on your past WASSCE question papers.

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK SIX

LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION OF 1954

CONTENTS:    Features

  1. Nigeria became truly a Federal state with the constitutional division of powers between the central and regional governments
  2. The speaker of the house of assembly was appointed by the governor from members or non-members of the house
  3. The governor became known as governor-general while lieutenant – governors were designated governors
  4. The judiciary was regionalized
  5. The public service was also regionalized, with different federal and regional public service commission
  6. Premiership:  A provision was made for the office of the leader of government Business (premier) at the regional level.

MERITS OF LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution formally established federalism
  2. It introduced direct elections into the federal and regional legislatures in Nigeria
  3. There were premiers in the three regions that were Nigerians
  4. It established the offices of speaker and deputy speaker, occupied by Nigerians, in the Legislature
  5. The constitution made ministers heads of departments, having full responsibilities for their ministers.

DEMERITS OF LYTTLETON CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution still vested some autocratic powers on the governor-general and regional governors
  2. The constitution made the British governor-general continue to be the Executive council by failing to provide for the position of a prime minister who should be a Nigerian.
  3. It did not institute a common electoral system for the whole country.
  4. It instituted a revenue formula which worked on derivation instead of need and national interest
  5. The regional structure encouraged regionalism, ethnicity and national disunity.

THE 1958 CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE

This conference which became the last constitutional conference held before the attainment of Nigerian national independence in 1960, also took place in London from September 29 to October 27, 1958.

The conference considered some main one of which was the issue of creation of more regions or states to allay the fears of majority ethnic domination of the minority groups.  The issue of granting independence to Nigeria was also discussed.

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. See past WASSCE question papers

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK SEVEN

THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960

FEATURES

  1. The constitution retained the federalism previously adopted by the lyttleton constitution of 1954
  2. The governor-general was made the constitutional ceremonial head of state and a representative of the Queen of England
  3. The constitution adopted a parliamentary democratic system of government in Nigeria
  4. Bicameral legislatures were adopted in both the federal and regional or state governments
  5. Provision was made for the appointment of the Supreme Court and high court judges on the advice of the judicial service commission made up of judges.
  6. The governor was empowered to remove the premier if the premier had lost the confidence of the house.

MERITS OF THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION

  1. One of the greatest advantages of independence constitution is that it marked a turning point in the struggle for self determination and emancipation of Nigeria from the shackles of colonialism
  2. It marked the beginning of new diplomatic era in which Nigeria joined international organization like, UNO, Common wealth etc.
  3. The attainment of independence created a lot of employment opportunities for Nigerian in the civil service, the post, that were hitherto held by British nationals.
  4. The constitution entrenched accountability as it requires the federal minister of finance to submit the report of the director of Audit before parliament
  5. The independence constitution established a bicameral federal legislature consisting the senate and house of representatives; and regional legislature consisting the house of chiefs and house of assembly.

WEAKNESS OF INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION

  1. It retained the British Queen as the constitutional ceremonial head of state of Nigeria
  2. The supreme court was not the court of last resort, the judicial committee of the privy council in Britain continued to act as the highest court of Appeal for Nigeria
  3. The constitution was weak because member of the house of senate were appointed by the regional governments not elected
  4. The constitution did not give adequate treatment and definition to the issue of creation of more regions in Nigeria
  5. 1960 independence constitution was also disadvantages because it was not entirely home made one.

THE REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION OF 1963

Features

  1. The republican constitution of 1963 established a republican government in Nigeria
  2. The Queen of England ceased to be the Head of state of Nigeria
  3. The president was not made executive one but ceremonial one
  4. Some emergency powers were conferred on the federal government
  5. The seats in the senate and the House of Representatives were increased from 44 to 56 and 305 to 312 respectively.

MERITS OF THE FIRST REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION

  1. An elected president became the head of state to replace the British monarch who was Nigeria’s head of state under independence constitution
  2. The constitution was a fully home-made constitution
  3. The supreme court became the final court of Appeal instead of the British privy council
  4. The rights of citizens were fully guaranteed and entrenched
  5. The decision making process of the country now fully involved Nigerians.

DEMERITS OF THE FIRST REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION

  1. The president was elected by the National assembly who constituted the minority instead of the majority of the electorates
  2. The legislative and executive arms of government were fused
  3. There was parliamentary supremacy against the supremacy of the constitution
  4. The prime minister was accountable to the parliament and not to the people
  5. It permitted carpet-crossing in which elected politician shifted party allegiance for personal rewards.

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. See past WASSCE question papers

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: FEATURES OF 1989 CONSTITUTION

CONTENT:

  1. The constitution retained a presidential system of government as in the 1979 constitution
  2. A two-party system was entrenched in the constitution
  3. The people could withdraw any legislator who no longer enjoyed the confidence of the electorate
  4. The federal capital territory, Abuja would not be regarded as a state
  5. There were provisions for an independent judiciary and a range of fundamental human rights for Nigerian citizens.

MERITS OF THE 1989 CONSTITUTION

  1. The two-party system made the choice of the electorate more focused with reduce confusion as in the multi-party system
  2. Minimum qualifications of age and education for candidates eliminated immature and ignorant people from participating in governance
  3. The greater prominence of local government made room for more rapid development at the local and rural areas.

DEMERITS OF THE 1989 CONSTITUTION

  1. Part time status and allowances given to legislators made them concentrate more on their private business than on law-making
  2. The two-party system limited the choice of both politicians and the electorate, thus restricting democracy.

FEATURES OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution retains the 1979 and 1989 constitutions
  2. The constitution provides for a bicameral legislature, consisting of the house of representatives and senate and a unicameral legislature (house of Assembly) for each state
  3. The secondary school certificate is the minimum educational qualification for those wishing to contest elections into national and state positions such as legislators, president and governors
  4. The constitution provides for 774 local government councils
  5. The constitution provides for revenue allocation formula.

ADVANTAGES OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION

  1. The constitution ushered in both the fourth republic and the presidential system of government
  2. It makes provision for minimum educational and age qualifications, thereby reducing in experience and illiteracy in governance
  3. There is room for greater political development at the grassroots.
  4. It allows for smooth transfer of power form military to civilians

DEMERITS OF THE 1999 CONSTITUTION

  1. The military imposed the constitution on the citizens of the country
  2. It is too rigid and difficult to amend
  3. The constitution was made to suit Abacha’s purpose
  4. It also centralized the judiciary, contrary to the demands of the federalism
  5. The constitution vested too much power in the federal government

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. See past WASSCE question papers

Lesson Notes Government SS1 Second – Edudelight.com

WEEK NINE

TOPIC: FEATURES OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

CONTENTS:

  1. The constitution of Nigeria, form the lyttleton constitution of 1954 to the 1989 republican constitution, have been written and rigid constitutions
  2. There  has been a bicameral legislature of one form or another
  3. The supreme court gives judicial interpretation of the constitution
  4. Secession by any section of the federation is constitutionally outlawed
  5. There is equal representation of the states in the senate
  6. The policy of quota system or federal character in federal appointment is in place.

Read Chinna Achebe, The Trouble with Nigeria.

WEEK TEN

TOPIC: PROBLEMS OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM

CONTENTS:

  1. Revenue allocation is one of the most contentious issues in Nigerian federalism
  2. Minority questions:  the fear of domination by three major ethnic groups outright neglect in allocation of economic resources e.g. Urhobo, Ijo, Itsekiri and the Tivs
  3. Creation of states:  despite 36 states federal structure including the FCT, Abuja the demand for state still continues
  4. Inter ethnic rivalry:  No thanks to Aguleri/Uguleri wars that lasted 100 years and Fulani/Tivs and Ife/Modakeke riots in the 80s
  5. Boundary disputes is another problem facing Nigerian federalism e.g. border disputes between OSun and Oyo State. Secession of Bakassi peninsular to the Cameroon republic under president Umar Musa Ya’Adua in 2008 owing to ICJ, Hague Netherlands judgments over the island
  6. Power sharing formula
  7. Resource control.

EVALUATION

  1. See your workbook
  2. Read Elizabeth Isichei, The story of Nigeria.

WEEK ELEVEN

TOPIC: DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES

CONTENT:

NIGERIAN NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (NNDP)

OBJECTIVES OF THE NNDP

  1. The upgrading of Lagos to a municipality with its own absolute self-government
  2. Co-ordination of the nomination and election of the Lagos members of the Legislative council
  3. The improvement of higher education opportunities and the introduction and spread of compulsory education throughout Nigeria
  4. The spread of the party by establishing branches in all areas of Nigeria
  5. Working together with the national congress of British West Africa in support of its programmes for their mutual benefit.

Herbert Macaulay was the founder and leader of the NNDP, and the main force behind the party until his death in 1946.  Egerton Shyngle was the party’s first president; T. H. Jackson was its first honorary secretary while J. C Zizer was the first solicitor. 

It won the three Lagos seats in the legislative council in 1923, 1928 and 1933.

THE NIGERIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT (NYM)

The movement was led by Dr. J. C. Vaughan, H. O. Davies, Ernest Ikoli and Samuel Akinsanya was formerly called Lagos Youth Movement.  It became Nigerian Youth Movement in 1963 and later had other prominent members including Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, Akintola Maja, Dr. Kofo Abayomi, Jubril Martins, S. L. Akintola, Obafemi Awolowo, S. O. Sonibare and Mobolaji Bank Anthony.

OBJECTIVES OF THE NYM

  1. Complete independence within the British Empire
  2. Unification of ethnic groups in Nigeria by encouraging them towards better understanding and co-operation
  3. Promotion of public enlightenment and social and educational awareness
  4. Voting rights for all adult citizens
  5. The abrogation of indirect rule and grant of self-rule to Nigerian.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NYM

  1. In 1938, the NYM won the election into the Lagos Town Council and all the three elective seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council, thus displacing the NNDP as the number one party in Lagos.
  2. It gave birth to Nationalism
  3. Daily service newspaper was established
  4. The NYM promoted Nigerian unity and national consciousness by its nationwide organization and membership.

THE ACTION GROUP (AG)

The Action Group was formed in March 1951 by members of Egbe Omo Oduduwa, a cultural organization formed in 1945 in London by some Yoruba students.  Obafemi Awolowo was elected president and Bode Thomas as secretary.

OBJECTIVES OF THE ACTION GROUP

  1. To promote mass literacy and qualitative education
  2. To contest elections and win political power in the Western Region
  3. To co-operate with all ethnic organization and nationalist groups towards the attainment of quick self-rule for Nigeria.

ACHIEVEMENT OF THE ACTION GROUP

  1. The action group played a very important role in the struggle for independence. Infact Anthony Enahoro member of this party moved the motion for self-government by 1956
  2. It won many elections in Western region and greatly developed the region
  3. It was the AG that first introduced free primary education in Nigeria in 1955.
  4. The party won many seats to become the opposition party in the eastern region and at the federal legislature
  5. It was the best financial and best administered political party between 1951 and 1962 in Nigeria.

NORTHERN PEOPLES CONGRESS (NPC)

The NPC metamorphosed from a cultural organization called Jamiyaa Jama’ar Arewa i.e.  The congress of northern Nigeria in 1952, Sir Ahmadu Bello became the leader of the party and in 1954 the premier of Northern Nigeria.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NPC

  1. It controlled the federal government in the first republic and produced  the first prime minster of Nigeria
  2. The party also controlled the government of Northern region till January 1966
  3. The NPC represented Northern region in all the constitutional conferences that led Nigeria to independence
  4. It fostered understanding and co-operation among the northerners.

EVALUATION

  1. Read French policy of assimilation
  2. Read political parties in the second and third republic in Nigeria
  3. Practice past WASSCE question papers.

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